Conflict resolution: The management of a conflict situation to arrive at a resolution satisfactory to all parties. Conformance: An affirmative indication or judgment that a product or service has met the requirements of a relevant specification, contract or regulation. These directives apply to any country that sells products within the EU. Consumer: The external customer to whom a product or service is ultimately delivered; also called end user.
Consumer's risk: Pertains to sampling and the potential risk that bad products will be accepted and shipped to the consumer. Continuous flow production: A method in which items are produced and moved from one processing step to the next, one piece at a time. Each process makes only the one piece that the next process needs, and the transfer batch size is one. Also referred to as one-piece flow and single-piece flow.
Continuous improvement CI : Sometimes called continual improvement. The ongoing improvement of products, services or processes through incremental and breakthrough improvements. Continuous quality improvement CQI : A philosophy and attitude for analyzing capabilities and processes and improving them repeatedly to achieve customer satisfaction. Note: For single level continuous sampling plans, a single d sampling rate for example, inspect one unit in five or one unit in 10 is used during sampling.
For multilevel continuous sampling plans, two or more sampling rates can be used. The rate at any time depends on the quality of submitted product. Control chart : A time sequenced chart with upper and lower control limits on which values of some statistical measure for a series of samples or subgroups are plotted. The chart frequently shows a central line to help detect a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
Control limits: The natural boundaries of a process within specified confidence levels, expressed as the upper control limit UCL and the lower control limit LCL. Control plan CP : Written descriptions of the systems for controlling part and process quality by addressing the key characteristics and engineering requirements. Coordinate measuring machine CMM : A device that dimensionally measures 3-D products, tools and components with an accuracy approaching 0.
Corporate governance: The system of rules, practices and processes that directs and controls an organization. Corrective action: A solution meant to reduce or eliminate an identified problem. Correlation statistical : A measure of the relationship between two data sets of variables. There are four categories: internal failure costs costs associated with defects found before the customer receives the product or service , external failure costs costs associated with defects found after the customer receives the product or service , appraisal costs costs incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements and prevention costs costs incurred to keep failure and appraisal costs to a minimum.
It is considered by some to be synonymous with COPQ but is considered by others to be unique. While the two concepts emphasize the same ideas, some disagree as to which concept came first and which categories are included in each. Cp: The ratio of tolerance to 6 sigma, or the upper specification limit USL minus the lower specification limit LSL divided by 6 sigma.
It is sometimes referred to as the engineering tolerance divided by the natural tolerance and is only a measure of dispersion. The greater the Cpk value, the better. Critical processes: Processes that present serious potential dangers to human life, health and the environment, or that risk the loss of significant sums of money or customers. Cross functional: A term used to describe a process or an activity that crosses the boundary between functions. A cross functional team consists of individuals from more than one organizational unit or function. Cultural resistance: A form of resistance based on opposition to the possible social and organizational consequences associated with change.
Culture change: A major shift in the attitudes, norms, sentiments, beliefs, values, operating principles and behavior of an organization. Culture, organizational: A common set of values, beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and accepted behaviors shared by individuals within an organization.
Cumulative sum control chart CUSUM : A control chart on which the plotted value is the cumulative sum of deviations of successive samples from a target value. The ordinate of each plotted point represents the algebraic sum of the previous ordinate and the most recent deviations from the target. Food and Drug Administration for food and chemical manufacturers and packagers. Customer delight: The result of delivering a product or service that exceeds customer expectations. Customer experiment: Using a given customer type to test whether a proposed new product will be accepted by customers.
Also referred to as a pilot study. It brings together information about customers, sales, marketing effectiveness, responsiveness and market trends. It helps businesses use technology and human resources to gain insight into the behavior of customers and the value of those customers. Customer satisfaction: The result of delivering a product or service that meets customer requirements.
Customer-supplier model CSM : A model depicting inputs flowing into a work process that, in turn, add value and produce outputs delivered to a customer. Also called customer-supplier methodology. Customer-supplier partnership: A long-term relationship between a buyer and supplier characterized by teamwork and mutual confidence. The partnership is based on several commitments. The buyer provides long-term contracts and uses fewer suppliers.
The supplier implements quality assurance processes so incoming inspection can be minimized. The supplier also helps the buyer reduce costs and improve product and process designs. Cycle: A sequence of operations repeated regularly. Cycle time: The time required to complete one cycle of an operation. If cycle time for every operation in a complete process can be reduced to equal takt time, products can be made in single-piece flow. Data: A set of collected facts. Data collection and analysis: The process to determine what data are to be collected, how the data are collected and how the data are to be analyzed.
Data collection and analysis tools: A set of tools that help with data collection and analysis. These tools include check sheets, spreadsheets, histograms, trend charts and control charts. Decision making: The thought process of selecting a choice from the available options. Decision matrix: A matrix teams use to evaluate problems or possible solutions. For example, a team might draw a matrix to evaluate possible solutions, listing them in the far-left vertical column. Next, the team selects criteria to rate the possible solutions, writing them across the top row.
Then, each possible solution is rated on a scale of 1 to 5 for each criterion, and the rating is recorded in the corresponding grid. Finally, the ratings of all the criteria for each possible solution are added to determine its total score. The total score is then used to help decide which solution deserves the most attention.
There are four classes of defects: class 1, very serious, leads directly to severe injury or catastrophic economic loss; class 2, serious, leads directly to significant injury or significant economic loss; class 3, major, is related to major problems with respect to intended normal or reasonably foreseeable use; and class 4, minor, is related to minor problems with respect to intended normal or reasonably foreseeable use. Defective: A defective unit; a unit of product that contains one or more defects with respect to the quality characteristic s under consideration.
Delighter: A feature of a product or service that a customer does not expect to receive but that gives pleasure to the customer when received. Demerit chart: A control chart for evaluating a process in terms of a demerit or quality score ; in other words, a weighted sum of counts of various classified nonconformities.
Deming cycle: Another term for the plan-do-study-act cycle. Walter Shewhart created it calling it the plan-do-check-act cycle , but W. Edwards Deming popularized it, calling it plan-do-study-act. Dependability: The degree to which a product is operable and capable of performing its required function at any randomly chosen time during its specified operating time, provided that the product is available at the start of that period. Nonoperation related influences are not included. Deployment: Dispersion, dissemination, broadcasting or spreading communication throughout an organization, downward and laterally.
Design of experiments DoE : A branch of applied statistics dealing with planning, conducting, analyzing and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a parameter or group of parameters. Deviation: In numerical data sets, the difference or distance of an individual observation or data value from the center point often the mean of the set distribution. Diagnosis: The activity of discovering the cause s of quality deficiencies; the process of investigating symptoms, collecting and analyzing data, and conducting experiments to test theories to determine the root cause s of deficiencies.
Diagnostic journey and remedial journey: A two-phase investigation used by teams to solve chronic quality problems. In the first phase, the diagnostic journey, the team journeys from the symptom of a chronic problem to its cause. In the second phase, the remedial journey, the team journeys from the cause to its remedy. It consists of five interconnected phases: define, measure, analyze, design and verify. DMAIC is an acronym for define, measure, analyze, improve and control. Dodge-Romig sampling plans: Plans for acceptance sampling developed by Harold F. Dodge and Harry G. Four sets of tables were published in single sampling lot tolerance tables, double sampling lot tolerance tables, single sampling average outgoing quality limit tables and double sampling average outgoing quality limit tables.
Driving forces: Forces that tend to change a situation in desirable ways. Effect: The result of an action being taken; the expected or predicted impact when an action is to be taken or is proposed. Effectiveness: 1 The state of having produced a decided upon or desired effect. Efficiency: The state of being efficient see entry. Also the ratio of the useful work performed in a process to the total resources required. Efficient: Achieving maximum productivity with the optimal resources.
Eight disciplines 8D model: A problem-solving approach to identify, correct and eliminate recurring problems. Eight wastes: Taiichi Ohno originally enumerated seven wastes muda and later added underutilized people as the eighth waste commonly found in physical production. Eighty-twenty : A term referring to the Pareto principle, which was first defined by Joseph M. Juran in Electric data interchange EDI : The electronic exchange of data from customers to suppliers and from suppliers to customers.
Employee empowerment EE : A condition whereby employees have the authority to make decisions and take action in their work areas, within stated bounds, without prior approval. Employee involvement EI : An organizational practice whereby employees regularly participate in making decisions on how their work areas operate, including suggestions for improvement, planning, goal setting and monitoring performance. EN A European quality management system standard for the medical device industry. Technically equivalent to ISO , an international medical device standard.
EN A European quality management standard for the aerospace industry. Considered the technical equivalent of AS Environmental management system: A set of processes and practices that enable an organization to reduce its environmental impacts and promote environmental sustainability. Equipment availability: The percentage of time during which a process or equipment is available to run. This can sometimes be called uptime.
Error detection: A hybrid form of error proofing. It means a bad part can be made but will be caught immediately, and corrective action will be taken to prevent another bad part from being produced. A device is used to detect and stop the process when a bad part is made. This is used when error proofing is too expensive or not easily implemented. Error proofing: Improving designs to prevent mistakes from being made. Contrasted with mistake proofing, which is improving processes to prevent mistakes from being made or passed downstream. Some consider the terms to be synonymous, however, and applicable to both products and processes.
Ethics: The practice of applying a code of conduct based on moral principles to day-to-day actions to balance what is fair to individuals or organizations with what is right for society. Exemplar Global: A U. Expectations: The act or state of expecting. To wait in expectation of, or looking forward or anticipating.
Experimental design: In quality management, a plan for conducting an experiment that includes considerations such as which conditions, factors, responses, tools and treatments are to be included or used. External customer: A person or organization that receives a product, service or information but is not part of the organization supplying it. External failure: A nonconformance identified by a source outside of the producing organization. Discovered after a product or service has been passed downstream, for example, to users or customers. External setup: Setup procedures that can be performed safely while machines or equipment are in motion.
Also known as outer exchange of die. Facilitator: A specifically trained person who functions as a teacher, coach and moderator for a group, team or organization. Failure: The inability of an item, product or service to perform required functions on demand due to one or more defects. Failure cost: The cost resulting from the occurrence of defects. One element of cost of quality or cost of poor quality.
These costs can be categorized as internal or external. Failure mode analysis FMA : A procedure to determine which malfunction symptoms appear immediately before or after a failure of a critical parameter in a system or product. After all possible causes are listed for each symptom, the product is designed to eliminate the problems. Failure mode effects analysis FMEA : A systematized group of activities to recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product or process and its effects, identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the occurrence of the potential failure and document the process.
Failure mode effects and criticality analysis FMECA : A procedure performed after a failure mode effects analysis to classify each potential failure effect according to its severity and probability of occurrence. Feedback: Communication of information from customers or users related to a process or performance. Feedback is used to make decisions directed toward improving or adjusting a process or performance as necessary. Feeder lines: A series of special assembly lines that allow assemblers to perform preassembly tasks off the main production line.
Performing certain processes off the main production line means fewer parts in the main assembly area, the availability of service ready components and assemblies in the main production area, improved quality and less lead time to build a product. First in, first out FIFO : An inventory management method in which the oldest materials put into storage are the next materials taken out of storage for use.
First pass yield FPY : Also referred to as the quality rate, the percentage of units that completes a process and meets quality guidelines without being scrapped, rerun, retested, returned or diverted into an offline repair area. FPY is calculated by dividing the units entering the process minus the defective units by the total number of units entering the process. First time quality FTQ : Calculation of the percentage of good parts at the beginning of a production run.
Five-phase lean approach: A systematic method for implementing lean manufacturing that helps improve the production process and sustains gains made in the production cycle in an area or plant. The five phases are: 1 stability provides an environment with controlled process variables, decreased waste and increased business impact ; 2 continuous flow characterized by reduced work in process inventory, time loss and defects, and increased process flexibility and repeatable processes between workstations ; 3 synchronous production characterized by disciplined process repeatability and synchronization between operations and customer requirements ; 4 pull system creates an environment in which material replenishment links operations with customer demand ; and 5 level production reduces response time or changes in demand and upstream schedule variability.
Seiri means to separate needed tools, parts and instructions from unneeded materials and to remove the unneeded ones. Seiton means to neatly arrange and identify parts and tools for ease of use. Seiso means to conduct a cleanup campaign. Seiketsu means to conduct seiri , seiton and seiso daily to maintain a workplace in perfect condition. Flow: The progressive achievement of tasks along the value stream so a product proceeds from design to launch, order to delivery and raw to finished materials in the hands of the customer with no stoppages, scrap or backflows.
Flowchart: A graphical representation of the steps in a process. Flowcharts are drawn to better understand processes. Focus group: A qualitative discussion group, usually of eight to 10 people, that is invited from a segment of the customer base to discuss an existing or planned product, service or process, led by a facilitator working from predetermined questions.
Force field analysis: A technique for analyzing what aids or hinders an organization in reaching an objective. An arrow pointing to an objective is drawn down the middle of a piece of paper. The factors that will hinder its achievement, called the restraining forces, are listed on the right side of the arrow. Frequency distribution statistical : A table that graphically presents a large volume of data so the central tendency such as the average or mean and distribution are clearly displayed. Function: A group of related actions contributing to a larger action.
Functional layout: The practice of grouping machines such as grinding machines or activities such as order entry by type of operation performed. Functional verification: Testing to ensure a part conforms to all engineering performance and material requirements. Funnel experiment: An experiment that demonstrates the effects of tampering. Marbles are dropped through a funnel in an attempt to hit a flat-surfaced target below. The experiment shows that adjusting a stable process to compensate for an undesirable result or an extraordinarily good result will produce output that is worse than if the process had been left alone.
Gain sharing: A reward system that shares the monetary results of productivity gains among owners and employees. It is called a milestone chart when interim checkpoints are added. Gap analysis: The comparison of a current condition to the desired state. George M. Low Trophy: An award presented by NASA to NASA aerospace industry contractors, subcontractors and suppliers that consistently maintain and improve the quality of their products and services. Low was the NASA administrator for nearly three decades.
Global quality: The systematic design and implementation of quality processes across the world, based on information-sharing and best practices. Goal: A broad statement describing a desired future condition or achievement without being specific about how much and when. Two parameters are possible: go conforms to specifications and no-go does not conform to specifications.
Good laboratory practices GLP : A quality system for example, 21 CFR, part 58 for labs and organizations to use to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality and integrity of testing performed. Good manufacturing practices GMP : A minimum set of practices recommended or required by some regulatory agencies for example, 21 CFR, parts , and for manufacturers to meet to ensure their products consistently meet requirements for their intended use.
Green Belt GB : An employee who has been trained in the Six Sigma improvement method and can lead a process improvement or quality improvement team as part of his or her full-time job. Group dynamic: The interaction behavior of individuals within a team meeting. Groupthink: A situation in which critical information is withheld from the team because individual members censor or restrain themselves, either because they believe their concerns are not worth discussing or because they are afraid of confrontation. Hawthorne effect: When people modify their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
This term is attributed to sociologist Henry Landsberger, who analyzed this behavior during experiments at the Hawthorne Works, a Western Electric factory outside Chicago. Hazard analysis and critical control point HACCP : A quality management system for effectively and efficiently ensuring farm-to-table food safety in the United States. Heijunka : A method of leveling production, usually at the final assembly line, that makes just-in-time production possible.
It involves averaging the volume and sequence of different model types on a mixed model production line. Using this method avoids excessive batching of different types of product and volume fluctuations in the same product. Highly accelerated life test HALT : A process for uncovering design defects and weaknesses in electronic and mechanical assemblies using a vibration system combined with rapid high and low temperature changes.
The purpose of HALT is to optimize product reliability by identifying the functional and destructive limits of a product at an early stage in product development. In monitoring the production process, the intent of HASA is to detect slight shifts in the attributes of the product so corrective actions can be taken and implemented before the performance of outgoing product approaches the specifications.
Highly accelerated stress screening HASS : A technique for production screening that rapidly exposes process or production flaws in products. Its purpose is to expose a product to optimized production screens without affecting product reliability. Histogram: A graphic summary of variation in a set of data.
The pictorial nature of a histogram lets people see patterns that are difficult to detect in a simple table of numbers. Hoshin kanri : The selection of goals, projects to achieve the goals, designation of people and resources for project completion and establishment of project metrics. Hoshin planning: Breakthrough planning. A Japanese strategic planning process in which an organization develops up to four vision statements that indicate where the organization should be in the next five years.
Organizational goals and work plans are developed based on the vision statements. Periodic submitted audits are then conducted to monitor progress. Hotelling's T2 model: A multivariate profile for detecting differential expressions in microarrays. House of quality: A product planning matrix, somewhat resembling a house, that is developed during quality function deployment and shows the relationship of customer requirements to the means of achieving these requirements. Idea creation tools: Tools that encourage thinking and organization of new ideas around issues or opportunities, either individually or with other people.
Improvement: The positive effect of a process change effort. In-control process: A process in which the statistical measure being evaluated is in a state of statistical control; in other words, the variations among the observed sampling results can be attributed to a constant system of chance causes. Incremental improvement: Improvement implemented on a continual basis. Information flow: The dissemination of information for taking a specific product from order entry through detailed scheduling to delivery.
Informative inspection: A form of inspection for determining nonconforming product. Innovation: New value created at an optimal cost—not at any cost—through the development of new products, services or processes.
Inputs: The products, services and material obtained from suppliers to produce the outputs delivered to customers. Inspection: A verification activity. For example, measuring, examining, testing and gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing the results with specified requirements to determine whether conformity is achieved for each characteristic.
Inspection, curtailed: Sampling inspection in which inspection of the sample is stopped as soon as a decision is certain. Thus, as soon as the rejection number for defectives is reached, the decision is certain and no further inspection is necessary. In single sampling, however, the whole sample is usually inspected in order to have an unbiased record of quality history. This same practice is usually followed for the first sample in double or multiple sampling.
Inspection lot: A collection of similar units or a specific quantity of similar material offered for inspection and acceptance at one time. Inspection, normal: Inspection used in accordance with a sampling plan under ordinary circumstances. Inspection, reduced: Inspection in accordance with a sampling plan requiring smaller sample sizes than those used in normal inspection. Reduced inspection is used in some inspection systems as an economy measure when the level of submitted quality is sufficiently good and other stated conditions apply.
Inspection, tightened: Inspection in accordance with a sampling plan that has stricter acceptance criteria than those used in normal inspection. Tightened inspection is used in some inspection systems as a protective measure when the level of submitted quality is sufficiently poor. The higher rate of rejections is expected to lead suppliers to improve the quality of submitted product. Instant pudding: A term used to illustrate an obstacle to achieving quality, or the supposition that quality and productivity improvement are achieved quickly through an affirmation of faith rather than through sufficient effort and education.
Intermediate customers: Organizations or individuals who operate as distributors, brokers or dealers between the supplier and the consumer or end user. Internal failure: A product failure that occurs before the product is passed downstream—for example, delivered to external customers. Internal setup: Setup procedures that must be performed while a machine or piece of equipment is stopped; also known as inner exchange of die.
International Accreditation Registry IAR : A not-for-profit organization that accredits training and certification program results to international standards and guidelines. International Organization for Standardization ISO : An independent, nongovernmental international organization with a membership of national standards bodies that unites experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market-relevant international standards, guidelines and other types of documents.
Intervention: The action of a team facilitator when interrupting a discussion to state observations about group dynamics or the team process. Inventory: A term for assets for example, materials, supplies, work in process and finished goods held by an organization. ISO : A series of international, voluntary environmental management standards, guides and technical reports developed by the International Organization for Standardization ISO. ISO An international standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization ISO to help organizations effectively assess and address those social responsibilities that are relevant and significant to their mission and vision; operations and processes; customers, employees, communities and other stakeholders; and environmental impact.
ISO series standards: A set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance developed to help organizations effectively document the quality system elements to be implemented to maintain an efficient quality system. The standards, initially published in , are not specific to any particular industry, product or service. First released in and one of several documents in the ISO family. Jidohka : Stopping a line automatically when a defective part is detected.
Any necessary improvements can then be made by directing attention to the stopped equipment and the worker who stopped the operation. The jidohka system puts faith in the worker as a thinker and allows all workers the right to stop the line on which they are working. JISQ An international quality management standard for the aerospace industry.
Also see AS Job instruction: Quality system documentation that describes work conducted in one function in an organization, such as setup, inspection, rework or operator. The Joint Commission: A U. Judgment inspection: A form of inspection to determine nonconforming product. Also see "informative inspection. Juran trilogy: Three managerial processes identified by Joseph M. Juran for use in managing for quality: quality planning, quality control and quality improvement.
Just-in-time JIT manufacturing: An optimal material requirement planning system for a manufacturing process in which there is little or no manufacturing material inventory on hand at the manufacturing site and little or no incoming inspection. Just-in-time JIT training: The provision of training only when it is needed to all but eliminate the loss of knowledge and skill caused by a lag between training and use. Kaizen : A Japanese term that means gradual, unending improvement by doing little things better and setting and achieving increasingly higher standards.
Key performance indicator KPI : A statistical measure of how well an organization is doing in a particular area. Key process: A major system level process that supports the mission and satisfies major consumer requirements. Key process characteristic: A process parameter that can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, performance or subsequent processing of product. Key product characteristic: A product characteristic that can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, performance or subsequent processing of product.
Kitting: A process in which assemblers are supplied with kits—a box of parts, fittings and tools—for each task they perform.
This eliminates time-consuming trips from one parts bin, tool crib or supply center to another to get necessary materials. Kruskal-Wallis test: A nonparametric test to compare three or more samples. It tests the null hypothesis that all populations have identical distribution functions against the alternative hypothesis that at least one of the samples differs only with respect to location median , if at all.
It is the analogue to the F-test used in analysis of variance. While analysis of variance tests depend on the assumption that all populations under comparison are normally distributed, the Kruskal-Wallis test places no such restriction on the comparison. It is a logical extension of the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney Test see listing. Laboratory scope: A record containing the specific tests, evaluations and calibrations a laboratory has the ability and competency to perform, the list of equipment it uses, and a list of the methods and standards to which it adheres to each of these.
Last off part comparison: A comparison of the last part off a production run with a part off the next production run to verify that the quality level is equivalent. Layout inspection: The complete measurement of all dimensions shown on a design record. Leadership: The action of leading a group of people or an organization, an essential part of a quality improvement effort. Lead time: The total time a customer must wait to receive a product after placing an order.
Lean: A systematic method for waste elimination or minimization muda within a manufacturing system without sacrificing productivity. Lean enterprise: An organization that has eliminated or minimized waste muda. Principles of lean manufacturing include zero waiting time, zero inventory, scheduling internal customer pull instead of push system , batch to flow cut batch sizes , line balancing and cutting actual process times. The production systems are characterized by optimum automation, just-in-time supplier delivery disciplines, quick changeover times, high levels of quality and continuous improvement.
Lean migration: The journey from traditional manufacturing methods to one in which all forms of waste are systematically eliminated. Level loading: A technique for balancing production throughput over time. Life cycle stages: Design, manufacturing, assembly, installation, operation and shutdown periods of product development. Listening post: An individual who, by virtue of his or her potential for having contact with customers, is designated to collect, document and transmit pertinent feedback to a central collection authority in the organization. Load-load: A method of conducting single-piece flow in which the operator proceeds from machine to machine, taking the part from one machine and loading it into the next.
The lines allow different parts of a production process to be completed by one operator, eliminating the need to move around large batches of work-in-progress inventory. Lost customer analysis: Analysis conducted to determine why a customer or a class of customers was lost.
Lot: 1 A defined quantity of product accumulated under conditions considered uniform for sampling purposes. Lot, batch: A definite quantity of some product manufactured under conditions of production that are considered uniform.
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Lot quality: The value of percentage defective or of defects per hundred units in a lot. Lot size also referred to as N : The number of units in a lot. Lot tolerance percentage defective LTPD : Expressed in percentage defective, the poorest quality in an individual lot that should be accepted. Note: LTPD is used as a basis for some inspection systems and is commonly associated with a small consumer risk.
Lower control limit LCL : Control limit for points below the central line in a control chart. Maintainability: The probability that a given maintenance action for an item under given usage conditions can be performed within a stated time interval when the maintenance is performed under stated conditions using stated procedures and resources. Maintainability has two categories: serviceability the ease of conducting scheduled inspections and servicing and repairability the ease of restoring service after a failure. Congress in to raise awareness of quality management and recognize U.
The award is managed by the U. Manager: An individual with responsibility and authority over managing a process. Manufacturing resource planning MRP II : When material requirements planning and capacity planning and finance interface to translate operational planning into financial terms and into a simulation tool to assess alternative production plans.
Mapping symbols or icons: An easy, effective way to visually communicate the flow of materials and information. Master Black Belt MBB : A problem-solving subject matter expert responsible for strategic implementations in an organization. This person is typically qualified to teach other facilitators the statistical and problem-solving methods, tools and applications to use in such implementations. Material handling: Methods, equipment and systems for conveying materials to various machines and processing areas, and for transferring finished parts to assembly, packaging and shipping areas.
Material requirements planning MRP : A computerized system typically used to determine the quantity and timing requirements for production and delivery of items to customers and suppliers. Using MRP to schedule production at various processes will result in push production because any predetermined schedule is an estimate only of what the next process will actually need. Matrix: A document for displaying the relationships among various data sets.
Mean: A measure of central tendency; the arithmetic average of all measurements in a data set. Mean time between failures MTBF : The average time interval between failures for a repairable machine, piece of equipment or product for a defined unit of measure; for example, operating hours, cycles and miles.
Measure: The criteria, metric or means to which a comparison is made with output. Measurement: The act or process of determining a value. An approximation or estimate of the value of the specific quantity subject to measurement, which is complete only when accompanied by a quantitative statement of its uncertainty. Measurement system: All operations, procedures, devices and other equipment, personnel and environment used to assign a value to the characteristic being measured.
Measurement uncertainty: In metrology, a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity. Median: The middle number or center value of a set of data in which all the data are arranged in sequence. Metrology: The science of weights and measures or of measurement; a system of weights and measures.
MIL-STDA: A military standard that describes the requirements for creating and maintaining a calibration system for measurement and test equipment. Mistake proofing: Improving processes to prevent mistakes from being made or passed downstream. This term can be contrasted with error proofing, which means improving designs to prevent mistakes from being made. Some, however, consider these two terms synonymous and applicable to products and processes.
Mode: The value occurring most frequently in a data set. Monument: Any design, scheduling or production technology with scale requirements that call for designs, orders and products to be brought to the machine to wait in line for processing. The opposite of a right sized see listing machine. Muda : Japanese for waste; any activity that consumes resources but creates no value for the customer.
Multivariate control chart: A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the levels of two or more variables or characteristics. Multivoting: A technique used to make a consensus decision when numerous alternatives exist or when those involved in making or approving the decision have differing opinions. Similar to nominal group technique see listing. N: The number of units in a population. Nagara system: Smooth production flow, ideally one piece at a time, characterized by synchronization balancing of production processes and maximum use of available time; includes overlapping of operations where practical.
A nagara production system is one in which seemingly unrelated tasks can be produced simultaneously by the same operator. Department of Commerce that develops and promotes measurements, standards and technology, and manages the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. Natural team: A team of individuals with common or similar responsibilities and authorities drawn from a single workgroup. Similar to a process improvement team except that it is not cross functional in composition and it is usually permanent.
New management planning tools: Method s for achieving expected outcomes that previously have not been used. Next operation as customer: The concept of internal customers in which every operation is both a receiver and a provider. Nine windows: A tool used to investigate a past or potential problem at the super-system and subsystem levels, in addition to considering the problem only in the present and at the system level.
Nominal group technique: A technique, similar to brainstorming, to generate ideas on a particular subject. Team members are asked to silently write down as many ideas as possible. Each member is asked to share one idea per round, which is recorded. After all ideas are recorded, they are discussed and prioritized by the group. Nonconforming record NCR : A permanent record for accounting and preserving the knowledge of a nonconforming condition.
Nonconformity: The nonfulfillment of a specified requirement. Nonlinear parameter estimation: A method whereby the arduous and labor-intensive task of multiparameter model calibration can be carried out automatically under the control of a computer. Nonparametric tests: All tests involving ranked data data that can be put in order. Nonparametric tests are often used in place of their parametric counterparts when certain assumptions about the underlying population are questionable.
Nonvalue added: A term that describes a process step or function that is not required for the direct achievement of process output. This step or function is identified and examined for potential elimination. In a contractual situation, it can be those features or process steps that a customer would be unwilling to pay for if given the option. Norm behavioral : Expectations of how a person or persons will behave in a given situation based on established protocols, rules of conduct or accepted social practices.
Normal distribution statistical : The charting of a data set in which most of the data points are concentrated around the average mean , thus forming a bell-shaped curve. Number of affected units chart: A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the total number of units in a sample in which an event of a given classification occurs. Objective: A target or goal to be achieved. One-piece flow: The opposite of batch and queue; instead of building many products and then holding them in line for the next step in the process, products go through each step in the process one at a time, without interruption.
One-touch exchange of dies: The reduction of die setup to a single step. There are three types: type A curves, which give the probability of acceptance for an individual lot coming from finite production will not continue in the future ; type B curves, which give the probability of acceptance for lots coming from a continuous process; and type C curves, which for a continuous sampling plan give the long-run percentage of product accepted during the sampling phase.
Operating expenses: The money required for a system to convert inventory into throughput. Operations: Work or steps to transform raw materials to finished product. Organizational excellence: Achievement by an organization of consistent superior performance—for example, outputs that exceed meeting objectives, needs or expectations.
Original equipment manufacturer OEM : An organization that uses product components from one or more other organizations to build a product that it sells under its own organization name and brand. Out-of-control process: A process in which the statistical measure being evaluated is not in a state of statistical control. In other words, the variations among the observed sampling results cannot be attributed to a constant system of chance causes.
Out of spec: A term that indicates a unit does not meet a given requirement or specification. Outputs: Products, materials, services or information provided to customers internal or external from a process. Overall equipment effectiveness OEE : A value of how well a manufacturing unit performs relative to its designed capacity during the periods when it is scheduled to run.
Painted floor: A lean manufacturing technique to provide visual control for example, to indicate a nonconforming material area or to determine stock levels. Parallel operation: A technique to create economy of scale by having two operators work together to perform tasks on either side of a machine.
Glossary of engineering - Wikipedia
Using this technique reduces the time it takes a single operator to move from one side to the other, making the overall process more efficient. Pareto chart: A graphical tool for ranking causes from most significant to least significant. Also known as the " rule" see listing. Parts per million PPM : A metric reporting the number of defects normalized to a population of one million for ease of comparison. Percent chart: A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the percentage of the total number of units in a sample in which an event of a given classification occurs.
Also referred to as a proportion chart. Performance standard: The metric against which a complete action is compared. Physical transformation task: A step taking a specific product from raw materials to a finished product delivered to the customer. Pitch: The pace and flow of a product. In the first step plan , a way to effect improvement is developed.
In the second step do , the plan is carried out. In the third step check , a study takes place between what was predicted and what was observed in the previous step. In the last step act , action should be taken to correct or improve the process. Point of use: The place where or the time when a product or service is used. Poisson distribution: A discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a number of events occurring in a fixed time period if these events occur with a known average rate, and are independent of the time since the last event.
Poka-yoke : Japanese term that means mistake proofing. A poka-yoke device is one that prevents incorrect parts from being made or assembled or easily identifies a flaw or error. Policy: A plan direction , statement of intent or commitment for achieving an objective.
Precision: The amount of variation that exists in the values of multiple measurements of the same characteristic or parameter. Greater precision means less variation between measurements. Prevention cost: The cost incurred by actions taken to prevent a nonconformance from occurring; one element of cost of quality. Prevention versus detection: A term used to contrast two types of quality activities.
Prevention refers to activities for preventing nonconformances in products and services. Detection refers to activities for detecting nonconformances already in products and services. Preventive action: Action taken to prevent occurrence of nonconformances. Probability statistical : The likelihood of occurrence of an event, action or item.
Probability of rejection: The probability that a product or lot will be rejected. Problem solving: The act of solving a problem. Procedure: A particular way of accomplishing an expected outcome. Process: A set of interrelated work activities that transform inputs into outputs. Process analysis: A study of the inputs, steps and outputs of a process.
Process average quality: Expected or average value of process quality. Process capability: A statistical measure of the inherent process variability of a given characteristic. Process capability index: The value of the tolerance specified for the characteristic divided by the process capability. The several types of process capability indexes include the widely used Cpk and Cp. Process control: The method for ensuring that a process meets specified requirements. Process decision program chart PDPC : A type of tree diagram used for the systematic analysis of a process to identify process risks and countermeasures to take to avoid or mitigate those risks.
Also see "tree diagram. Process flow diagram: A visual depiction, generally using symbols, of the flow of materials or information through a process. Also called a process flowchart. Process improvement: Actions taken to increase the effectiveness or efficiency of a process in meeting specified requirements. Process improvement team: A structured group often made up of cross functional members who work together to improve a process or processes.
Process kaizen : Improvements made at an individual process or in a specific area. Process management: Activities undertaken to manage processes; typically involves planning, communicating, monitoring, measuring or control methods. Process map: A type of flowchart visually depicting the steps in a process. Process owner: The person who has responsibility and authority for ensuring that a process meets specified requirements and achieves objectives.
Process performance management PPM : The overseeing of process instances to ensure their quality and timeliness; can also include proactive and reactive actions to ensure a good result. Process quality: The degree to which process results meet specified requirements. Product audit: A systematic and independent examination of a product to gather objective evidence to determine the degree of conformance to specified requirements. Production analysis board: A job site board on which production results are compared with targets or where other related production information is posted.
An example of visual management. Customer PPAP approval, or a deviation, is required before shipping the purchased parts or materials to the customer for use in their production process. Its purpose is to determine whether all customer engineering design record requirements are properly understood by the supplier and that the process has the potential to produce product consistently meeting these requirements. Production smoothing: Keeping total manufacturing volume as constant as possible. Productivity: A measurement of output for a given amount of input. Product or service liability: The obligation of an organization to make restitution for loss related to personal injury, property damage or other harm caused by its product or service.
Profound knowledge, system of: Defined by W. Edwards Deming, a system that consists of an appreciation for systems, knowledge of variation, theory of knowledge and understanding of psychology. Project management: The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities to meet the specified requirements of a particular project. Project planning tools: Methods for the systematic arranging, sequencing and scheduling of project's tasks. Project team: Manages the work of a project.
The work typically involves balancing competing demands for project scope, time, cost, risk and quality, satisfying stakeholders with differing needs and expectations, and meeting identified requirements. If English-language learners plan to work in an industry, it's crucial for them to learn essential production and manufacturing vocabulary.
Use these terms a starting point for general vocabulary study or students with specific learning needs. Teachers are often not equipped with the exact English terminology required in particular trade sectors. For this reason, core vocabulary sheets can help educators provide adequate materials for students who need to learn vocabulary related to production and manufacturing.
Help students familiarize themselves with the terms and then have them take the related quiz that follows. To ease grading, the answers to the quiz are provided at the end of the article. The production and manufacturing terms in the table are provided in alphabetical to make it easy for students and English-language learners to find just the term s they need.