However, longitudinal behavioral studies of this population of children have revealed only mild cognitive deficits, and preliminary data from functional brain imaging studies suggest that alternative patterns of functional organization emerge in the wake of early injury. Neural Plasticity and Cognitive Development posits that the capacity for adaptation is not the result of early insult. Rather, it reflects normal developmental processes which are both dynamic and adaptive operating against a backdrop of serious perturbation of the neural substrate. Edinburgh History of the Greeks, c. Author: Stiles Joan EN.
Future research can address the developmental aspect of neuroplasticity in the PS group by conducting longitudinal follow-up studies to fully assess the extent and limitations of plasticity in children with early neural brain injuries. The sample in our study is small and participants in our lesion groups are fairly heterogeneous, future studies may select a more homogenous lesion profile, which may better capture potential brain-behavior relations.
Children with perinatal stroke provide an opportunity to explore neural plasticity within and across different communicative systems. Previous research has recognized that the behavioral and cognitive consequences of a stroke are greatly reduced in children relative to adults with comparable lesions. In the current study, two communicative systems, language and emotion expression, were investigated to gauge the extent and limitations of neural plasticity in five- and six-year-old children with PS.
As anticipated, in this conversational context, the core aspects of language for the children with perinatal stroke group were comparable to their TD peers. However, hemispheric differences were found as the RHI group displayed a flatter profile both in the use and production of affective language and in the overall production of facial expressions when compared to the LHI and TD groups. The results are consistent with previous infant data as well as the adult stroke literature, suggesting that neural plasticity differs across communicative systems. Specifically, the two distinctive profiles for language and emotional expression in these children suggest graded plasticity in the developing brain.
Abstract Children with perinatal stroke PS provide a unique opportunity to understand developing brain-behavior relations. Introduction As early as the mid-eighteenth century it had been proposed that early brain injury would lead to more favorable outcomes than similar injury occurring later in life.
Emotional expression in children with perinatal stroke In contrast to language, emotional expression in the PS group has garnered little attention. The current study The infant findings raise two important questions regarding development and the potential for reorganization, as well as the nature and extent of the observed deficit. What is the nature of the deficit, if any, in emotional expression in children with right hemisphere injury? If so, does the deficit extend to language expression?
To what degree, if any, will the expressive deficit of the infants with right hemisphere injury change with age? Methods 2. Participants Perinatal stroke is defined as a cerebrovascular event that occurs in the last trimester of gestation, and up to the first month after birth. Table 1 Demographic information. Open in a separate window. Appendix A Lesion group site s of lesion and severity. Procedures A semi-structured naturalistic biographical interview was conducted as subjects sat at a table across from the interviewer.
Language coding conventions The coding of language structures was modeled after Reilly et al. Language productivity: overall length For language productivity, the total number of propositions produced by each subject was tallied. Morphological proficiency: errors All uncorrected morphosyntactic errors of commission or omission were tallied. Syntactic complexity The number of complex sentences was counted to determine the frequency of complex syntax. Affective propositions within narratives Two independent raters identified the narrative segments within each biographical interview; then, narrative segments were coded for affective valence positive, negative, or neutral.
Examples of a positive, negative and neutral narrative segment follows: Positive narrative segment: CHI: I like to go to Hometown Buffet. EXP: What kinds of things do you like to eat? CHI: I like to eat grilled cheese sandwich…and I like macaroni and cheese…and noodles with brown sauce…and hot dogs…and cheeseburgers… Negative narrative segment: EXP: Oh are you like the head cheerleader? EXP: Oh!
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Neutral narrative segment: EXP: Like what kind of art projects have you made? CHI: The class, not everybody makes like bunnies, but I made a bunny. Lesion characteristics: location and severity of lesions A clinical neuroradiologist provided documentation of lesion location and lesion severity see Appendix A. Results To gauge the extent of expressivity within our groups, we will examine multiple channels of communication when children engage in a dyadic interaction. Measures of linguistic structure The following set of analyses examines language performance during the biographical interview.
Table 2 Linguistic measures during narratives. Note: All parenthesized values represent standard error SE. Production of facial expressions during the entire biographical interview Our first question regarding facial expression concerns the production of all facial expressions during the biographical interview. Production of facial expressions during affective narratives This series of analyses focuses on how the children use facial expression as they relate an affective story, and the degree to which facial expression maps onto affective linguistic content.
Relationship between affective narratives and affective facial expressions Our next analyses examined the relation between affective language in narratives and affective facial expression within each group. Discussion This study investigated the nature and extent of neuroplasticity within the brain for emotional expression by examining the production of emotional narratives and the use of affective facial expression in children with perinatal stroke. Limitations and future directions Limitations with this study include the lack of video data from the experimenter, the single context of investigation, its cross-sectional nature, and small sample size.
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