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Philosophy & Modern Languages (French, German, Portuguese or Spanish) with a year abroad BA

In these instances, English or an alternative language other than native will be acceptable. You must demonstrate a level of English language competency at a level that will enable you to succeed in your studies, regardless of your nationality or country of residence. English language requirements.

This information is part of a government initiative to enhance the material that higher education institutions provide about their degree programmes. It is one of many sources of information which will enable you to make an informed decision on what and where to study.

Research in France EN

Tuition fees for MA French and Philosophy. For your compulsory residence abroad in Year 3, we give you a wide range of options. Your costs will depend on where you decide to go, and how you spend your time. A placement with an Erasmus work grant, for example, could make this the cheapest year of your programme. Universities outside the EU may charge you a fee for courses but we will reimburse you for this provided the course has been approved.

You will be informed about the cost implications as you plan your year abroad, during Year 2. For more information on how much it will cost to study with us and the financial support available see our fees and funding information. School: Literatures, Languages and Cultures. Skip to main content. Toggle section links. Search: Search. Undergraduate study - entry Undergraduate study - entry.


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Contact us. Study abroad. Introducing MA French and Philosophy This programme is designed to develop your interest in, and complex knowledge and understanding of, France and the Francophone world, including the language, history, culture and social issues. Expand all Contract all.

What you will study. Year 1 If you have a limited knowledge of French, you will take French 1A, an intensive language course that also introduces you to French culture. Year 2 Your French 2 courses will build on your knowledge of French and Francophone cultures. In addition, you can choose option courses in a range of subjects. Year 3 You will spend Year 3 studying or working in a French-speaking country and you will submit prescribed work in both Philosophy and French. Year 4 You will develop advanced language skills in spoken and written French and choose from a range of specialist courses in both French and Philosophy.

Programme structure Find out more about the compulsory and optional courses in this degree programme. How a sign obtains its meaning is by what it is not within the langue, not what it is. It can already be seen clearly that language is highly dualistic for Saussure. Indeed, he maintained that man thought essentially in dichotomies. For Saussure, the way language can be studied is dualistic too. It can be studied synchronically, i. It can be said that structuralists focussed on the synchronic aspects of culture, while poststructuralists , as a reaction toward the highly dualistic and deterministic characteristics, focussed on the diachronic aspects of culture in an attempt to invoke a grey area.

While Ferdinand de Saussure was a relatively obscure thinker in his time, it may be said that Henri Bergson — was somewhat of a celebrity. However, these images are insufficient and can only show the idea indirectly. The first is too homogeneous, the second is juxtaposed and complete whereas time is in a constant state of becoming, and the third forgets the heterogeneous nature of the idea.

In fact, Bergson maintains that the case is the same for any other image of the idea one can produce.

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Bergson calls this idea Duration and defines it as being qualitative, not quantitative, unextended, not extended, a multiplicity yet a unity, mobile and continuously interpenetrating itself. However, it should be warned that Bergson believes Duration cannot be represented by concepts either.

Bergson calls the creation of concepts analysis and believes it can never represent the absolute. He likens it to constructing a model of a city out of a collection of photographs taken from every angle and a poem being translated and having commentary piled upon commentary: the model of the city can never replicate the feeling of being in the city itself and the translation and commentaries can never give the simple dimensional value of walking in the city itself.

The Duration can only be grasped through intuition , the sympathy by which one is transported into an object to grasp what is unique and ineffable within it. Intuition is a complete philosophical method that involves placing oneself within the Duration, and expanding it into a continuous heterogeneity, differentiating the extremities within it to create a dualism, before showing them to in fact be one.

But depending on which point of view one recreates it from, one will either reconstruct it as a unity or a multiplicity.

Philosophy of science - Wikipedia

Hence substance pluralism and substance monism are in fact two representations of the same phenomenon. Henri Bergson was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented" [11]. French philosophy in the 20th century saw the rise of many schools of thought.


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The phenomenology, presented in a Cartesian format and influenced by German thought, particularly the phenomenology of Husserl and Heidegger. Phenomenology was consistently noticeable throughout the 20th century, whereas existentialism spread throughout the west and gained fame, only to die out somewhat with the advent of structuralism , which came to be seen as merely a necessary means of access to post-structuralism , while postmodern thought came to dominate the late 20th century.

Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, [12] and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science , the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. Pierre Duhem — introduced the Duhem thesis , an early form of confirmation holism.

Jules Vuillemin — introduced the concept of the philosophy of algebra and was specialized in philosophy of knowledge. Phenomenology can be defined as a way of philosophizing which involves descriptive explanations of phenomena as it is given to consciousness and how it is given to consciousness, which attempts to avoid imposed explanations. In France, phenomenology was seen as a radical Cartesianism which rejected substance dualism to better understand transcendental consciousness.

It played a major role in existentialism and many postmodern philosophers' thought, such as Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida , who actually began his career with a deep, critical study of Edmund Husserl. Phenomenology is still an important area of research in France today. He developed a moral philosophy based around notions of the other and the face which introduced ethics into phenomenology, which had been missing since the demise of Max Scheler. Maurice Merleau-Ponty — was concerned with the foundations of perception.

In contrast to the clear distinction between the mind and the external world, where the latter is but an extension of the former, the subject-body is an existential account of the pre-reflective subject, the subject's perception and the world as intricately intertwined. He was best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutics. He was awarded the Kyoto prize in arts and philosophy for having "revolutionized the methods of hermeneutic phenomenology, expanding the study of textual interpretation to include the broad yet concrete domains of mythology, biblical exegesis, psychoanalysis, theory of metaphor, and narrative theory.

Existentialism was a prominent school of thought in the first half of the 20th century. Traditionally, existentialism is concerned with the human condition, exploring such topics as purpose, freedom and the experience of the other. Jean-Paul Sartre — defined his existentialism as drawing all the conclusions from a consistent line of atheism.

His major thesis is that existence precedes essence.


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With an immaterial object, such as a knife, an artisan devises an essence, such as that of slicing bread, and then produces an object whose purpose it is to fulfil its essence. However, without God, there is no artisan who developed the essence of man in a teleological sense. So first man is born free, thrown into the world where sole responsibility for his actions rests on his shoulders, then through his actions he defines the essence of not only himself, but of what he believes man ought to be.

The denial of this responsibility through excuses is what Sartre termed bad faith. Jean-Paul Sartre was a spokesman for a generation, but his influence waned with the advent of structuralism. Albert Camus — rejected being labelled an existentialist, preferring to be called an absurdist. It requires revolt. One must imagine Sisyphus happy. Simone de Beauvoir — was an existential feminist.

Beauvoir believed that through surrounding women in a false aura of mystery, man had turned her into "the other". Furthermore, she proclaimed women were stereotyped by this aura and that it was used by man as an excuse for not understanding them and dominating them. As previously mentioned, French Structuralism is primarily concerned with the underlying structures which form, limit and affect society, language and the human mind.

It finds its roots in the thought of Ferdinand de Saussure , who was concerned with linguistics. But soon structuralism began to be applied to anthropology , social sciences and psychology. However, by the end of the century it became perceived as important not for itself, but for the schools of thought it produced, such as poststructuralism and deconstruction. In Mythologies , Barthes explored articles, advertisements, movies, etc. He described these myths as second-order signs. A certain form of green bottles signify red wine. The bourgeois then assign a second signifier to this signifier, that of relaxing, healthy, strong wine, be it to sell products or uphold the status quo.

Lacan was also influenced by German philosophers G. Althusser offered an influential new reading of Marx's work, describing an "epistemological break" between the young, Hegelian Marx and the late Marx of Das Kapital. With his focus on the economic level and theory, Althusser came into conflict with social historians, such as E. The second half of the 20th century saw the rise of so-called postmodern thought. This rise was especially noticeable in France. However, the term is fairly hard to define.

Bourdeau , P. Pharmacology as a Physical Object. Aviezer Tucker - - Perspectives on Science 15 2 Sellier - - Diogenes 57 1 Du Plessis - - Cape Town, A.

French Studies In The Philosophy Of Science Contemporary Research In F ...

Philosophy in France Today. Alan Montefiore ed. Steve Fuller - - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 1 Transvaluations: Nietzsche in France, Douglas Smith - - Oxford University Press. Giovanni Maio - - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 5 — Terror and Consensus: Vicissitudes of French Thought.

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