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For this reason, Freud is perhaps right to close his eyes to my objec- tions. But these specifically Jewish doctrines are thoroughly unsatisfying to the Germanic mentality; we still have a genuine barbarian in us who is not to be trifled with, and whose manifestation is no comfort for us and is not a pleasant way of passing time. Jung , pp. Thus, Freud is confined to the sexual self-abuse of Jewish adolescence. Jung again draws on this pre- existent and convenient social discourse to convey the Jewish taint in Freudi- anism: Freud and Adler have beheld very clearly the shadow that accompanies us all.
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The Jews have this peculiarity in common with women: being physically weaker, they have to aim at the chinks in the armour of their adversary, and thanks to this tech- nique which has been forced on them through the centuries, the Jews themselves are best protected where others are most vulnerable.
Jung b, p. However, whereas Freud saw intellectualism as a cultural advance making Judaism superior to other religions and promoting the longevity of the Jews, Jung saw it as a ducking- out from the demands of manly existence, a way of achieving superiority as women do, that is, by seductiveness and deceit. The image is one in which the pure knight is deceived by the wanton seductress; writ large, in the language of Nazi politics, this is also the image of the German state being poisoned by hidden and secret Jewish influence, which must, for the sake of survival, be wiped out.
The Jungian triumph over psychoanalysis can there- fore be seen as an aspect of the Aryan triumph over the Jews. Conclusion As has been noted already, Jung gradually distanced himself from the Nazis; by he was in any case more or less an irrelevance to them. He also defended some individual Jews and created organizational structures that might have had the effect of allowing Jewish psychotherapists to retain international links.
After the war, he was inclined to re-write his own pre-war position as one in which he had warned of the potential effects of Nazi power, and also to reinterpret Nazism not as a true expression of the Germanic unconscious, which is how he had seen it previously, but as a distortion produced, like so much else, by the depredations of contemporary industrial society, warping the mind and separating the people from their necessary origin in the soil. Jung gave succour to the Nazis; they did not need it much, but it remains a nasty tale.
In the wider scheme of things, the Jungian adventure reflects something more pervasive about tendencies within German psychotherapy in the s, tendencies that did not leave the psychoanalysts untouched. In relation to Jews, Judaism and anti-Semitism, none of this is accidental, because of the reson- ance between these critical attributes of psychoanalysis and the specific values of secular Jewish intellectuals of the time.
Diller , p. All, it can be added, were lost both by Jung and by many psychoanalysts in the Germany of the Third Reich. Jung is an easy target because his anti-Semitism, whilst at times contradictory, was so transparent; but there was plenty of this kind of thing around.
New York: Little, Brown. Brecht, K. Breuer, J. SE, vol. London: Hogarth Press, Chasseguet-Smirgel, J. Evard ed. Psychoanalysis under the Third Reich. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association — Cocks, G. Second edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Diller, J. London: Associated University Press, Freud, S. In SE, vol. Gilman, S. Goggin, J. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press. Grossman, S. Jung and National Socialism. Journal of European Studies 9: — Hayman, R. London: Bloomsbury. Jung, C. Over time each of the groups had mixed with black blood.
Hate and the ‘Jewish Science’: Anti-Semitism, Nazism and Psychoanalysis (Book Review)
The Aryans had stayed pure longer and it was not until more recent times that they had mixed. It was this mixing of races that would lead to man's downfall. Gobineau had an essentialist model of race based on the three distinct racial groups, though he had no clear account of how this division arose. When these races mixed this caused " degeneration ".
Since the point at which these three supposed races met was in the Middle East, Gobineau argued that the process of mixing and diluting races occurred there, and that Semitic peoples embodied this "confused" racial identity. This concept suited the interests of antisemites , since it provided a theoretical model to rationalise racialised antisemitism. Variations of this theory were espoused in the writings of many antisemites in the late 19th century. The Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg developed a variant of this theory in his writings, arguing that Jewish people were not a "real" race.
According to Rosenberg, their evolution resulted from the mixing of pre-existing races rather than natural selection. The theory of semiticization was typically associated with other longstanding racist fears about the dilution of racial differences through miscegenation , which were manifested in negative images of mulattos and other mixed groups.
Modern European antisemitism has its origins in 19th century theories—now mostly considered as pseudo-scientific , but then accepted as credible—that said that the Semitic peoples, including the Jews, are entirely different from the Aryan , or Indo-European , populations, and that they would not be able to assimilate.
In this view, Jews are not opposed on account of their religion , but on account of their supposed hereditary or genetic racial characteristics : greed, a special aptitude for money-making, aversion to hard work, clannishness and obtrusiveness, lack of social tact, low cunning, and especially lack of patriotism.
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Later, Nazi propaganda also dwelt on supposed physical differences, such as the shape of the " Jewish nose ". In Nazi Germany , the Nuremberg Race Laws of prohibited sexual relations and marriage between any Aryan and Jew such relations under Nazi ideology was a crime punishable under the race laws as Rassenschande or "racial pollution" , and made it that all Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews, were no longer citizens of their own country their official title became "subject of the state".
This meant that they had no basic citizens' rights, e. In , Jews were banned from all professional jobs, effectively preventing them having any influence in politics, higher education and industry. On 15 November , Jewish children were banned from going to normal schools. By April , nearly all Jewish companies had either collapsed under financial pressure and declining profits, or had been persuaded to sell out to the Nazi government. This further reduced their rights as human beings; they were in many ways officially separated from the German populace.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of Jewish history Part of Discrimination.
Three Ds Working Definition of Antisemitism. Antisemitic canards. Antisemitic publications. Antisemitism on the Web. This Jewish way of behaving is a direct precursor of the modern psychoanalytic approach, which considers 'the material' that is brought into analysis as, in the first place, a text. Freud's own history is characterized by the secular Jew's combination of commitment to intellectual goals and ethical achievement, alongside resentment at the demeaning effects of anti-Semitism.
This gave both personal and political impetus in determining Freud's deeply felt tendency to remain as far as possible removed from all that he perceived as undesirable in Jewishness; which as he saw it was mainly localized in the poor and poorly educated East European Jews and in their religion. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.
Read preview. Flannery Macmillan Company, Read preview Overview. Pauley University of North Carolina Press, Holocaust The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.