Caffeine facilitates performance in tasks involving working memory to a limited extent, but hinders performance in tasks that heavily depend on this, and caffeine appears to improve memory performance under suboptimal alertness. Most studies, however, found improvements in reaction time. The ingestion of caffeine does not seem to affect long-term memory. Its indirect action on arousal, mood and concentration contributes in large part to its cognitive enhancing properties.
Progress in Brain Research. Ker K ed. Nutrition Reviews. Quote: Caffeine-induced increases in performance have been observed in aerobic as well as anaerobic sports for reviews, see [26,30,31] Sports Medicine. Primary Care. Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, allowing for an increased intensity and duration of training The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.
European Journal of Sport Science. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. Health Canada. March Retrieved 8 November The Addiction Casebook. American Psychiatric Pub. Retrieved 3 August Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Birth Defects Research. Part B, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology. BMC Medicine. Public Health Nutrition. Reproductive Health. Journal of Applied Physiology. The American Journal of Physiology. A review". Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Welsh EJ ed. Retrieved 2 January Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics.
Renal Physiol. The claim: caffeine causes dehydration". New York Times. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics.
Psychological Medicine. Psychiatry, 2 Volume Set. Volume 1. Table Substance Dependence". Psychiatry and Pedopsychiatry. Prague: Karolinum Press. At a high dose, caffeine shows a euphoric effect. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience. Therefore, caffeine and other adenosine antagonists, while weakly euphoria-like on their own, may potentiate the positive hedonic efficacy of acute drug intoxication and reduce the negative hedonic consequences of drug withdrawal. Pharmacology for health professionals 3rd ed. Chatswood, N. In contrast to the amphetamines, caffeine does not cause euphoria, stereotyped behaviors or psychoses.
Neuropsychopharmacology and Therapeutics. However, in contrast to other psychoactive stimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine, caffeine and the other methylxanthines do not produce euphoria, stereotyped behaviors or psychotic like symptoms in large doses. Elsevier Health Sciences. By comparison with amphetamines, methylxanthines produce less locomotor stimulation and do not induce euphoria, stereotyped behaviour patterns or a psychotic state, but their effects on fatigue and mental function are similar. Psychomotor stimulants Drugs that cause wakefulness and euphoria Amphetamines, cocaine, methylphenidate, caffeine.
Current Addiction Reports. McGraw-Hill Education. True compulsive use of caffeine has not been documented, and, consequently, these drugs are not considered addictive.
Caffeine for youth? Time to act! Journal of Caffeine Research. Psychiatry Fourth ed. Archived from the original PDF on 22 December Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience.
Principles of addiction comprehensive addictive behaviors and disorders 1st ed. Elsevier Academic Press. Retrieved 11 July Astrid Nehlig and colleagues present evidence that in animals caffeine does not trigger metabolic increases or dopamine release in brain areas involved in reinforcement and reward. A single photon emission computed tomography SPECT assessment of brain activation in humans showed that caffeine activates regions involved in the control of vigilance, anxiety, and cardiovascular regulation but did not affect areas involved in reinforcement and reward.
Caffeine is not considered addictive, and in animals it does not trigger metabolic increases or dopamine release in brain areas involved in reinforcement and reward. Therefore, caffeine appears to be different from drugs of dependence like cocaine, amphetamine, morphine, and nicotine, and does not fulfil the common criteria or the scientific definitions to be considered an addictive substance.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Through these interactions, caffeine is able to directly potentiate dopamine neurotransmission, thereby modulating the rewarding and addicting properties of nervous system stimuli. The dependence syndrome may be present for a specific psychoactive substance e. Washington [etc. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 25 May Pharmacological Reviews.
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Lawrence Cohen - Google Scholar Citations
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Optical electrophysiology for probing function and pharmacology of voltage-gated ion channels
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These presynaptic effects of caffeine are potentiated by the release of the postsynaptic brake imposed by antagonistic interactions in the striatal A2A-D2 and A1-D1 receptor heteromers. Bibcode : PNAS.. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R.
The striatal A2A-D2 receptor heteromer constitutes an unequivocal main pharmacological target of caffeine and provides the main mechanisms by which caffeine potentiates the acute and long-term effects of prototypical psychostimulants. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Journal of Immunology. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of natural methylxanthines in animal and man. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Ugeskrift for Laeger in Danish. ISRN Pharmacology.
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Chemistry Department, East Stroudsburg University. Archived from the original PDF on 2 January The Enzyme Database. Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 24 September MetaCyc database. SRI International. Retrieved 12 July Beverages in Nutrition and Health. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. September Bibcode : Sci Synthetic Communications. Bristol University. General Chemistry Online. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. Lay summary — University of Florida News. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man 11th ed. Life Sciences. Retrieved 6 November Fredholm BB ed. Richard W. Hemingway, Peter E. Laks, Susan J.
Plant and Cell Physiology. Kuntze tea leaves" PDF. In Spiller GA ed. Caffeine Consumption. Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. Center for Science in the Public Interest. This "Cited by" count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. Add co-authors Co-authors. Upload PDF. Follow this author. New articles by this author. New citations to this author. New articles related to this author's research. Email address for updates. My profile My library Metrics Alerts.
Sign in. We further showed that activity loss in those SH sensitive enzymes could be attributed to S-thiolation, but reactivation via dethiolation could be attributed to TTase. We conclude that TTase can regulate and repair the thiols in lens proteins and enzymes through its dethiolase activity, thus contributing to the maintenance of the function of the lens. Login to your account Username. Forgot password? Keep me logged in. New User. Change Password. Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Create a new account Email.
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