Guide The chronology of the late Roman and early migration periods in Central Europe

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His research interests mainly focus on issues related to the armament of Central and North European peoples in the Roman period, the relationships between these areas and the Roman state, the cultural relations in the Roman period, pre-Roman and Roman settlements. He has taken part in a number of excavations in Poland, Germany, Scandinavia, and the Balkans. He is the author of about one hundred publications and five books. Her research interests also concentrate on Greek colonies in the Black Sea region and classical ancient relics in Polish collections.

For many years, she has taken part in the excavations in Nea Paphos on Cyprus, working on Hellenistic ceramics. She has written two books and several dozen articles. Dr hab. Renata Madyda-Legutko, prof. UJ is primarily interested in the issues related to pre-Roman and Roman East European Barbaricum, and especially the chronology and cultural diversity of selected groups of relics, including pieces of clothing used by the peoples of Barbaricum in the Roman period, the contacts between the above mentioned regions and the Roman state, and the settlements in South-East Poland and the whole West Carpathian region, from the pre-Roman period to the Migration Period.

She has conducted research at several Polish excavation sites, has written more than hundred articles and three books, and co-authored two other books. Wojciech Blajer, prof. UJ has focused his academic activities on the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age, and especially on the issues related to the origins and the beginnings of Urnfield cultures and the role of Lusatian and Trzciniec cultures in South Poland. The second major area of his research is about the differentiation of various categories of metal products and the chronology and interpretation of Polish bronze relics, in the broad European context.

He is the author of about 50 publications, including two books. Jacek Poleski, prof. UJ is primarily concerned with early medieval archaeology. The second field of his scientific interest is related to the methods of archaeological research at multilayer excavation sites and the use of computer methods in reconstructing archaeological objects and interpreting aerial photographs of archaeological sites.

He has conducted research at several Polish early medieval fortified settlements and is the author of a few dozen publications and one book. Krzysztof Sobczyk Prof. UJ specializes in the upper Paleolithic Period, primarily focusing on Magdalenian and Gravettian techno-complexes in Central Europe, in their technological and socioeconomic aspect, the production techniques and typology of Paleolithic stone items, the anthropogenesis, Paleolithic art, typology of Paleolithic stone products, and hunting strategies in the Paleolithic Era.

He has carried out excavation research in Poland, Greece, and Slovakia and has written more than a dozen articles as well as three books. He is also interested in paleoenvironmental, paleoeconomic, and settlement issues related to the late Stone Age, and the possible use of statistical methods in the relevant research. He has participated in a number of excavation projects in Poland and abroad and has written about 50 publications, including three books. Other fields of his interest are: Greek sculpture and architecture of the Classical and Hellenistic period and sculpture and architecture of the Republican Rome.

His latest research has been focused on the symbols of naval victories in the Hellenistic Era. He is the author of more than a dozen papers. Her research interests are primarily focused on ceramics production, economic and human settlement changes in Barbaricum region, and, most recently, on the differences within Przeworsk culture burial traditions. She takes part in numerous field research projects, is the author of two books and a co-author of one book. He is primarily interested in the armament of the peoples of European Barbaricum and the Roman Empire, with special focus on swords.

Ancient Western Civilizations Timeline 3500BC-476AD

Dr Mariusz Jucha specializes in the history, art, and architecture of ancient Egypt. His research interests focus on the possible applications of scientific methods in archaeological research.


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He is also active in the field of New World settlement, the early stages of New World cultures and the prehistory of South America. He is the author and co-author of more than a dozen articles in the areas between geology and archaeology as well as two books. His research interests are primarily focused on the role of castles in the cultural landscape of medieval Central Europe.

He is also interested in archaeology and culture of medieval Transcaucasia, especially Georgia. More than a hundred denarii and subaerati were discovered at a number of power-and-craft centres on the mainland, i.

Circulation of Roman Coinage in Northern Europe in Late Antiquity

There were no standard values or, even more so, standardised prices; this notion is particular for communities with developed statehood and as such did not exist within Barbarian societies of Northern Europe of the period. Neither could Roman coins have been used in the form of a value guarantee within Barbarian societies, because the central authority minting them the Roman emperor or senate was external and had no real power in the North. At the same time, the Barbarians themselves developed no domestic coinage of their own before the Middle Ages.

Barbarian counterfeits of denarii, aurei, siliquae and solidi were minted — in a very limited number at that — mostly on territory close to the limes Almost all the denarii from the bog booty-sacrifice at Illerup on Jutland, dated to the early 3rd century, were discovered close to belt fittings strap-ends, belt buckles , usually together with combs and tooth-picks There is little doubt that originally these coins were contained in pouches worn at the belt of Germanic warriors. Roman gaming pieces and gaming boards are also known from other bog deposits such as Vimose, which site produced just one denarius I suggest that Scandinavian warriors imaginably wishing to imitate their principes, socially superior, in their manner of living and pastimes, used Roman denarii instead of the more difficult to find gaming pieces.

From my childhood I remember a game of this sort, which is quite old in its origin. In this game a player needs to have at least one comb and between one and seven coins. Perhaps Barbarians used Roman coins in the similar manner. In Germanic and West Balt societies denarii and sesterii were pierced and affixed in necklaces next to glass and amber beads They apparently were used by Barbarian elite in similar way as Belgian medals worn on his chest with European and native pendants by Tata Beaka, the chief of the Wagena people on the river Congo, photographed in by a known Polish photographer Krzysztof Miller.

Images seen on obverses of Roman coins must have been mysterious and fascinating to non-Romans, especially within Germanic societies, where portraiture was avoided. Gold plates cast from coin obverses were used as fittings of Barbarian war gear 31 or as ornaments on wooden caskets Ownership and display of the imperial image, undoubtedly was a matter of prestige for the high-ranking Barbarians. Silver and gold ornaments, valuables and armour fittings often are identical in chemical content to denarii or solidi , some even corresponding to the coins in weight Apparently, Roman coinage was in Barbaricum a very useful source of metal.

They participated in the weight-based economy of the Migration Period on a very limited scale, differently as silver coins in the Middle Ages Hundreds of denarii included in rich dynastic hoards, often together with Roman gold medallions, gold and silver plate as well as jewellery playing the role of high-status valuables, symbolised rank, prestige and power. In keeping with the old custom these objects would have been destroyed — bent out of shape, broken or cut up. Tradition recorded in sagas of the later pe-riod suggests that the 5th and 6th century inhabitants of the Baltic zone buried their property for later use in the Valhalla Consequently such deposits represent a unique form of cenotaph; their burial had a sacral and symbolic dimension.

Coin deposits have been discovered under dwellings or inside stone walls, placed there presumably as foundation-offerings Coins cast into springs, wells, lakes and moors presumably played a similar role of chthonic offerings In some cases they played the role of typical grave goods, appearing as pendants, elements of necklaces, attire in pouches attached at the belt or war gear. Therefore their presence cannot be interpreted as intentional and ritual.

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Nevertheless it was observed in a number of cremation burials that unlike other grave goods coins showed no trace of having been in the funerary pyre This suggests they were deposited after cremation, i. Also quite frequently the position of a coin in an inhumation grave suggests its intentional deposition as the so-called obolus Nevertheless it should be underlined that this rite had nothing to do with the one known to us from classical tradition, rather, it had its common anthropological roots in rites of passages Single or several up to 20 coins were noted in burials in various positions, usually close to the head, sometimes inside a birch bark vessel In the absence of a birch bark container coins were placed inside an accessory vessel or underneath it, sometimes also wrapped in a piece of cloth.

It is interesting that in Balts areas especially Lithuania the custom of placing coins in graves continued until 19th century. Aurei of Gallic emperors, probably part of payment made to German chieftains for leading their troops against Gallienus ingentia auxilia Germanorum , are usually found inside the mouth of the buried individuals. In some cases the aureus is substituted by a golden finger-ring or a round-shaped plaque This purpose varied considerably depending on the chronological period or territory, ranging from specific social, political and religious roles in a system of gift-exchange, through symbols of rank and status to tokens of loyalty and friendship in political and personal contacts.

Images seen on 4th century imitation medallions and 5th century Germanic bracteates are accompanied by imperial insignia shown next to local power symbols and Roman titles written in sacred runes Its role was that of symbol or sign in social communication of a heterogeneous meaning. The Barbarian societies of Late Antiquity lacked clear dividing lines separating the economic from the social, political or symbolic function of coins, between profanum et sacrum , and indeed this continued to be the distinctive feature in Northern Europe until the medieval period.

R ingtved eds. Staubach, eds , Iconologia Sacra. F ischer-Hansen , ed. Mann, W igg , eds. Mann, , pp. B radley , Richard, The Passage of Arms. F riesinger, J. Stuppner , eds , Markomannenkrige.

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Mann, a. Symbolika presti z u i w l adzy spo l ecze n stw barbarzy n skich u schy l ku staro z ytno q ci , S wiatowit, Supplement Series A, Antiquity ii , Warszawa, Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, M agnus , ed. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, , pp.

K aczanowicz , ed. Kunisz-Festschrift Katowice, Uniwersytet q l j ski, b, forthcoming.


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B ochnak , eds , Svperiores Barbari. A ndrzejowski , ed. Studia z archeologii okresu przedrzymskiego i rzymskiego w Europie q rodkowej dedykowane Teresie D j browskiej w H elm , ed. D esmonde , William, Magic, Myth and Money. H auck , ed. E rdrich , Michael, Rom und die Barbaren. F agerlie , Joan M. An analysis of precious-metal hoards c. J ankuhn , H. Kazansky, ed. H odges , Richard, Dark Age Economics. The Origins of Towns and Trade A. H umpreys , S. P aner , ed. S torgaard , eds , Digging into the Past. N ilsson , ed. Studia in Honorem U.

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