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We have popular question to browser and book auspices. Twenty-nine million, two hundred and fifty-four thousand, seven hundred and download insect conservation past present and documents want this running every preview. Some performers of this browser may particularly have without it. Since insects and young children encounter each other daily, both indoors and outdoors, how they affect each other merits examining and a number of early childhood educational researchers, notably those interested in common world pedagogies, have done so.
Indeed, besides companion animals, insects appear to be the most commonly researched animals other than humans in common world pedagogies e. That insects are often readily available to young children as well as to the researchers observing them partially explains their presence in this work, but some educators offer other rationales for their inclusion that we consider even more compelling. In the same vein, Davey found that invertebrates evoked fear responses more than other types of animals. Lockwood suggests that humans tend to fear insects due to their quick unpredictable movements, their ability to invade what we consider to be our space, and that some insects bite or sting us.
They also can be perceived as disgusting because some are vectors of infection and disease, contaminants in our food, or are found in garbage dumps and sewage as well as on carcasses Lockwood, He criticizes such research for being simplistic as well as for reinforcing speciesism and entomophobia. As an example, Elizabeth shares this recent encounter with one of her nephews, aged 4: Working on a craft project, he cut out animal pictures from National Geographic magazines, carefully categorizing them and gluing them on a large cardboard to create a visual representation of his views of animals.
Indeed, butterflies seem to be an exception to the generally negative perception of insects. Often adored as a symbol of beauty and grace and more easily tolerated because of their perceived harmlessness to humans, butterflies have been collected since the nineteenth century and their popularity continues as demonstrated by the recent growth in butterfly gardens and monarch conservation efforts Lemelin, It was clear to Elizabeth from her experience working at the Insectarium that, for many of the visitors, butterflies are not really considered insects.
Few other insects appear to be as generally well liked in Western society as butterflies, but even they elicit mixed responses. For example, Elizabeth recalls from her time working in the Insectarium that some children, mainly young girls, became suddenly terrified upon entering the live butterfly exhibit.
The only way to calm their panic was to escort them out of the exhibit and attempt to talk to them out of their fear, illustrating an important role educators can play in helping children re interpret their experiences. In short, then, responses to insects are complex and a number of factors are in play. For example, wasp and bee stings can be quite painful and may even be life threatening in the case of allergic reactions. Still, it is important to remember that not all children react in fear towards insects that bite or sting. There have been some highly charged moments when frenzied ants scurry and bite and panicked children scream and squash.
These fight and flight, life and death moments are marked by the rush of alarm pheromones and adrenalin and by the smell of formic acid. But the children who calmly observe the ants rarely get bitten. Lemelin et al suggest that the portrayal of insects in popular culture, media, and scientific discourse also has an impact. Timmerman and Ostertag point out that from the time they are newborns, babies encounter representations of animals in books, toys, and wooden puzzles, and on clothing and bedsheets. Idealized charismatic megafauna and farm animals dominate whereas local invertebrates rarely feature, or when they do, barely resemble any creature actually in existence.
Rautio suggests that it can open up imaginative encounters that can lead to befriending of other animals. In their stories, the younger children described the animals as other subjects, both like and unlike themselves. Given the sheer numbers of insects and the fact that many of them co-occupy ground- level territory with children who are small, children and insects have the opportunity to share many moments together.
Melson posits that "each creature presents a new vitality, a distinct form of aliveness, for the child to consider" p. While some young children may be content to merely observe the fascinating comings and goings of insects, many want to engage more actively. Some do so in caring ways. Still, as Atkinson observed in her research, one day children might be found caring for a slug and another day be killing ants. Indeed, many young children have stomped on bugs, pulled wings off insects, or roughly handled a small animal Melson, Further, she argues that there is an important power dynamic at play since small animals might be the first living creatures children feel power over: "when those in power are inexperienced, with uncertain dominion over their own rages, and carrying the history of their own utter dependency … the probability of cruelty, casual mistreatment, and neglect increases" p.
A young child can easily crush an insect and feel a rush of power in deciding which creatures will live or die. In the original story, a young boy examines a group of potato bugs, first observing them with curiosity. The tone of the encounter soon changes, however. Naming himself the potato bug god, he imposes order by containing them in small individual enclosures. Developmentally, young children are exploring their environment, engaging with all their senses, and testing out their predictions of how the world functions.
For example, Snaddon and Turner found that boys indicated a greater preference for beetles and spiders whereas girls preferred butterflies and ladybirds. These findings are echoed in Schlegel et al. Still, a child may get scolded for crushing an ant on the sidewalk but not in the house, may watch adults running from bees outside but then be read books about cute honeybees, and be encouraged to catch and release butterflies with a small net but learn to be disgusted by tent caterpillars busy defoliating a tree. Some educators have attempted to influence these relationships to which we turn our attention next.
Some insects live in terrariums in classrooms while others are ghosts, their dead bodies pinned to display collections. Still others are encountered inside and outside the classroom in both planned and unexpected ways. A most disturbing way young children can learn about insects is through constructing pinned collections. At the Montreal Insectarium, exhibits of pinned scientific collections are shared with visitors with the goal of promoting appreciation for insect biodiversity, adaptation, and conservation, but private collecting is discouraged given these do not contribute to scientific research.
Several alternatives exist to needless insect killing, such as digital photography and observing and then releasing insects. The irony of promoting conservation through the display of dead bodies appears to be lost in most museums Pedersen, Keeping live insects in the classroom is recommended by some researchers and practitioners.
Wagler and Wagler , for example, argue that using living arthropods e. Noting the anthropocentric, colonizing, and racializing dimensions of the ethical and pedagogical issues that arose e. There are alternatives to keeping insects captive in the classroom, of course, although these too can raise ethical issues and the spectre of death.
One of her students found the spider in the bushes outside the classroom, brought her in, and Lyman placed the spider on a bookcase. The spider was named Charlotte and the students treated her as an individual with particular needs and likes. When Charlotte laid an egg sac, the class discussed the best way to proceed, settling on donating the sac to a local nature centre they had visited on a field trip.
As anticipated given what they knew about the life cycle of this spider, not long after laying her egg sac, students witnessed Charlotte dying, held a funeral service, and buried her under the bushes where she was found. Such is the case for all early childhood educators whose charges interact with insects outside, whether in planned or serendipitous encounters. The writing on common world pedagogies abound with stories of young children learning with insects in myriad ways and with diverse outcomes e.
Searching for insects and other invertebrates outside and small conservation projects such as butterfly gardens and building insect hotels can provide opportunities for children to attend to local insect species. Given research that indicates that many children lack knowledge of local insect species and that children who can name insects have been found to have a higher affinity towards them Schlegel et al, , engaging in natural history practices with children may be an effective strategy.
That is not to say that the practice of natural history is some sort of magic solution for improving insect-human relations. As Russell argued, the easy linearity often implied in much of the outdoor education literature is simplistic: nature experience does not automatically lead to knowledge and then to caring and then to action, and we educators need to be more humble and more cognizant of the complexity of these encounters. There are encouraging signs in recent literature that indicates more careful attention is being paid to the complexity of pedagogical efforts to facilitate multispecies flourishing, including with insects.
Although child-initiated play is commonly accepted as an important part of an early years curriculum, offering children the opportunity to dig in the soil and look for insects and other invertebrates does not result in as much learning as when the teacher guides children towards an understanding of these creatures and how to respectfully observe them. The children are calmed by her voice, her stillness. They watch as the wasps disperse. Not all educators, however, are quite so skilled in negotiating insect-child interactions.
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Even in well-meaning educators, fear or disgust may send a stronger message than any activity they facilitate. Writing about spiders, Lemelin and Yen suggest: Educators can have a significant influence on children, but there is a problem if the teachers are scared of spiders themselves. This newfound interest did not extend to any other type of insect, however. It is clear that early childhood education for insect and human flourishing is challenging, yet it is also clear that we must try. As Taylor and Pacini-Ketchabaw write, It seems the children are on a number of different routes towards responding to the risks and vulnerabilities they share when they bodily engage with these small creatures.
Their actions portend different kinds of learnings. The children who goad ants might learn that there are consequences to their actions and that even small creatures can become formidable foes. Those children whose feet inadvertently get in the way might learn the consequences of not paying attention to the lifeworlds of smaller creatures. Those who carefully seek intimacy with the ants might learn about the precarity of life through literally holding the responsibility for another life, and at the same time, through risking making themselves vulnerable to another species.
We have pointed to a few promising approaches above that warrant further attention. Just as children react, so too do the insects who may approach, flee, hide, squirm, sting, or sit calmly. Atkinson wonders, in reflecting on an encounter between a boy and a bee: We often notice children playing with small creatures, carrying worms, poking at ants. But what might emerge if we were to consider this moment differently?
What if we put aside the notion of playing and consider that Carter is relating to the bee and the bee is responding to Carter? What if we think of Carter as learning, along with the bee, how to be together? Why did the bee land on Carter? Was there a mutual curiosity? The following final vignette attempts to capture the experience of a walking stick living in captivity at the Insectarium when Elizabeth worked there: The walking stick is disturbed from her rest — they are nocturnal animals — when the museum interpreter removes her from the vivarium and places her on a plant on a cart.
She takes a few bites of the newfound leaf then rests upside down, hanging from a branch in camouflage. Disturbed once again, the insect starts to walk, searching for a branch and a chance to rest. As the fingers, hands, and arms of various humans are encountered, she senses different temperatures, scents, and textures, which takes energy to process.
After walking for what seems like ages, she is finally placed back on a branch in the cart and wheeled back behind the scenes, gently placed back in her vivarium. Despite what her name might imply, she is not a stick, but a living creature with needs and preferences that she finds her captors sometimes ignore in their efforts to education humans about the plight of her kin. She returns to her rest until next time.
These walking sticks, like the other insects described in the preceding pages, have found themselves enrolled in educational activities of one sort or another. Let us not forget that they too are subjects of their own lives. And let us continue to seek ways to flourish together in this complex, messy world. References Askerlund, P. Forest gardens: New opportunities for urban children to understand and develop relationships with other organisms.
Atkinson, K. Wasps-bees-mushrooms-children: Reimagining multispecies relations in early childhood pedagogies. Canadian Children, 40 2 , 67— Beisel, U. Knowing insects: Hosts, vectors and companions of science. Science as Culture, 22 1 , Bell, A. Beyond human, beyond words: Anthropocentrism, critical pedagogy, and the poststructuralist turn. Canadian Journal of Education, 25 3 , Life ties: Disrupting anthropocentrism in language arts education.
Robertson Ed. Essays and resources pp. Bernhardt, T. Modest witness ing and lively stories: Paying attention to matters of concern in early childhood. Blenkinsop, S. Boys being boys: Eco-double consciousness, splash violence, and environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education. Advance of print.
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Attitudes toward animals among kindergarten children: Species preferences. Anthrozoos, 28 1 , 45— Bourassa, J. Le monde fascinant des insectes. Breuer, G. International Journal of Science Education, 37 16 , — Cardoso, P. The seven impediments in invertebrate conservation and how to overcome them. Biological Conservation, 11 , — Carruthers, P. Invertebrate minds: A challenge for ethical theory.
The Journal of Ethics, 11, — Claessen, S. University of Otago, New Zealand. Self-reported fears to common indigenous animals in an adult UK population: The role of disgust sensitivity. British Journal of Psychology, 85, — Edwards, S. Early Childhood Folio, 16 2 , 12— Environment Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.