Shepard is Professor of Psychology, Stanford University. Lynn A. Cooper is Professor of Psychology, University of Arizona. A Bradford Book. Mayer, R. Abstract : In three experiments, students read expository passages concerning how scientific devices work, which contained either no illustrations control , static illustrations of the device with labels for each part parts , static illustrations of the device with labels for each major action steps , or dynamic illustrations showing the "off" and "on" states of the device along with labels for each part and each major action parts-and-steps.
Results indicated that the parts-and-steps but not the other illustrations consistently improved performance on recall of conceptual but not nonconceptiual information and creative problem solving but not verbatim retention , and these results were obtained mainly for the low prior-knowledge rather than the high prior-knowledge students.
The cognitive conditions for effective illustrations in scientific text include appropriate text, tests, illustrations, and learners. Of particular interest is how students use variable speed playback VSP abilities now available in their players. The research study aimed to understand what relationship if any did students perceive existed among their particular viewing habits, playback speed of video lectures, and their learning? Streaming media-based instruction continues to grow in volume and accessibility.
Many inexpensive products on the market today help create and distribute educational and training presentations. Individual learners and instructional technologists should proceed knowledgeably when using VSP functionality. Anthea Groessler Ph: E: itali. Search Entry. Home Pedagogical benefits. Pedagogical benefits. Facilitating thinking and problem solving Shepard and Cooper and Mayer and Gallini made the connection between visual clues, the memory process, and the recall of new knowledge.
Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training
Assisting with mastery learning In some cases, video can be as good as an instructor in communicating facts or demonstrating procedures to assist in mastery learning where a student can view complex clinical or mechanical procedures as many times as they need to. Inspiring and engaging students More recently, Willmot et al show that there is strong evidence that digital video reporting can inspire and engage students when incorporated into student-centred learning activities through: increased student motivation enhanced learning experience higher marks development potential for deeper learning of the subject development potential for deeper learning of the subject development potential for deeper learning of the subject development of learner autonomy enhanced team working and communication skills a source of evidence relating to skills for interviews learning resources for future cohorts to use opportunities for staff development CPD.
Networked learning Asensio and Young assert that the seamless integration of digital video with other tools offers an opportunity to experiment with video as a focus for networked learning. Published YouTube Fridays: Student led development of engineering estimate problems. Two Mintues of Reflection Improves Teaching. Online in Reverse. Highlighted The PLC enables people to do this, allowing them to learn in a workplace setting and helping ensure that they actually apply the knowledge and skills they pick up.
The rise of the PLC does not imply the demise of credentialing or an end to the signaling value of degrees, diplomas, and certificates. Quite the contrary: It drives a new era of skills- and capabilities-based certification that stands to completely unbundle the professional degree. And seamless, always-on authentication is quickly becoming reality with the emergence of blockchains and distributed ledgers—such as those of Block. Microcredentials are thus proliferating, because the PLC enables secure, trackable, and auditable verification of enrollment and achievement.
The PLC makes it possible for CLOs and CHROs to be precise both about the skills they wish to cultivate and about the education programs, instructors, and learning experiences they want to use. At one end lie functional skills such as financial-statement analysis and big-data analytics that involve cognitive thinking reasoning, calculating and algorithmic practices do this first, this next. The PLC is already adept at helping individuals learn such skills at their own pace, and in ways that match the problems they face on the job.
At the other end of the spectrum lie skills that are difficult to teach, measure, or even articulate; they have significant affective components and are largely nonalgorithmic. These skills include leading, communicating, relating, and energizing groups. Mastery depends on practice and feedback, and the PLC is getting steadily better at matching talented coaches and development experts with the individuals and teams that need such training. But this is just the beginning. The PLC is proving to be an effective answer to the skills transfer gap that makes it so difficult to acquire communicative and relational proficiencies in traditional executive education settings.
Meaningful, lasting behavioral change is a complex process, requiring timely personalized guidance. The ubiquity of online training material allows CLOs to make choices among components of executive education at levels of granularity that have simply not been possible until now. They can purchase only the experiences that are most valuable to them—usually at a lower cost than they would pay for bundled alternatives—from a plethora of providers, including coaches, consultants, and the anywhere, anytime offerings of the PLC.
And executives are able to acquire experiences that fulfill focused objectives—such as developing new networks—from institutions such as Singularity University and the Kauffman Founders School, which are specifically designed for the purpose. For learners, the PLC is not just an interactive learning cloud but also a distributed microcertification cloud. Blockchain-trackable microdegrees that are awarded for skill-specific rather than topic-specific coursework allow individuals to signal credibly that is, unfakeably to both their organizations and the market that they are competent in a skill.
Finally, the PLC is dramatically reducing the costs of executive development. Traditional programs are expensive. These figures do not include the costs of selecting participants or measuring how well they apply their newly acquired skills and how well those skills coalesce into organizational capabilities.
Nor do the figures account for the losses incurred should participants choose to parlay their fresh credentials and social capital into employment elsewhere. By contrast, the PLC can provide skills training to any individual at any time for a few hundred dollars a year. Furthermore, these cloud services allow organizations to match cost to value; offer client-relation management tools that can include preassessment and tracking of managerial performance; and deliver specific functional skills from high-profile providers on demand via dedicated, high-visibility, high-reliability platforms.
Thus a 10,person organization could give half its employees an intensive, year-round program of skills development via an internally created and maintained cloud-based learning fabric for a fraction of what it currently pays to incumbent providers for equivalent programs. For companies that tap into the PLC, the fixed costs of talent development will become variable costs with measurable benefits. Massively distributed knowledge bases of content and learning techniques will ensure low marginal costs per learner, as learning becomes adaptive.
Educating the Next Generation of Leaders
Individual learners will benefit from a larger array of more-targeted offerings than the current ecosystem of degrees and diplomas affords, with the ability to credibly signal skills acquisition and skills transfer in a secure distributed-computing environment. People will be able to map out personalized learning journeys that heed both the needs of their organizations and their own developmental and career-related needs and interests.
And as the PLC reduces the marginal and opportunity costs of learning a key skill and simultaneously makes it easier to demonstrate proficiency, far more people will find it affordable and worthwhile to invest in professional development. Recently a prominent global financial-services firm considered training proposals from no fewer than 10 top-tier schools in the final round of evaluation—reflecting competition in the market that would not have happened even five years ago.
Increased competition will force incumbents to focus on their comparative advantage, and they must be mindful of how this advantage evolves as the PLC gains sophistication. These advances are made possible by the capacity of online learning environments to offer synchronous multiperson sessions and to monitor participants via eye-tracking and gaze-following technologies.
For example, IE Business School, in Madrid, uses technology that tracks facial expressions to measure the engagement of learners and facilitators in its online executive education programs. Business schools will need to significantly rethink and redesign their current offerings to match their particular capabilities for creating teachable and learnable content and for tracking user-specific learning outcomes. They need to establish themselves as competent curators and designers of reusable content and learning experiences in a market in which organizations will need guidance on the best ways of developing and testing for new skills.
Given the high marginal and opportunity costs of on-campus education, business schools should reconfigure their offerings toward blended and customized programs that leverage the classroom only when necessary. Meanwhile, newcomers in leadership development are benefiting significantly from the distributed nature of the PLC—cherry-picking content, modules, and instructors from across the industry to put together the most compelling offerings for their client organizations.
For individual learners, acquiring new knowledge and putting it into practice in the workplace entails significant behavioral change—something the skills transfer gap tells us is very hard and costly to accomplish through such purely didactic methods as lectures, quizzes, and exams. However, PLC applications that measure, track, and shape user behavior are a powerful way to make prescriptions and proscriptions actionable every day.
In the past, it was hard for the traditional players in leadership development to provide an ROI on the various individual components of their bundled programs. But the PLC is making it possible to measure skills acquisition and skills transfer at the participant, team, and organizational levels—on a per-program, per-session, per-interaction basis. That will create a new micro-optimization paradigm in leadership education—one that makes learning and doing less distinct. The payoff will be significant, for if a new concept, model, or method is to make a difference to an organization, it must be used by its executives, not just understood intellectually.
And as platforms change the nature of talent development, leaders will emerge with the skills—and enough real-world practice applying them—to do the right thing, at the right time, for the right reason, in the right way. The leaders and disrupters we meet in Silicon Valley and around the world are distinguished by the speed at which they zip up the learning curve. Regardless of age or industry, infinite learners are different from those who become terrified when suddenly required to learn something new—they find the challenge exhilarating.
Among the executives we meet, however, very little of this learning takes place in formal classes or programs, including online ones. The most successful leaders we know learn in a different way: by tapping into what we call network intelligence. Consider how Reid solved a major business issue at PayPal by drawing on the knowledge of his network.
Each week its attorneys would find new regulatory issues that prolonged the process. Reid called eight friends with good connections in Japan and asked whom they knew who might be able to help.
Three mentioned the same name: Joi Ito, a venture capitalist and entrepreneur. One introduction later, Reid was talking with him about the situation. In that setting people often offer observations they might not share in a large group, online, or in writing.
And because learning via conversation is driven by your questions, the lessons are delivered at your level. When Brian Chesky, a true infinite learner, was scaling up Airbnb, he sought advice from people such as Warren Buffett. Still, the world is full of experts who lack boldface names. You [will] learn very different and important things. How you gather, manage, and use information will determine whether you win or lose. Our formal education system treats knowledge as a fixed asset acquired during a certain phase of life. In reality, knowledge is constantly changing, and good leaders never stop acquiring and assimilating it.
In the Networked Age, every day is exam day—full of new, unpredictable challenges. Often the best way to learn how to meet them is to talk to people who have faced similar situations. All you need to do is ask. Chris Yeh is an entrepreneur, a writer, and a speaker. Ben Casnocha is a founder and partner at Village Global, a venture capital fund. He is also an award-winning entrepreneur and bestselling coauthor, with Reid Hoffman, of The Start-up of You Currency, He is a frequent speaker on talent management, and is a coauthor of The Alliance: Managing Talent in the Networked Age.
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