The report made several recommendations, the most controversial of which was that PhD programs should be frozen to prevent further growth. Although the report has been widely discussed, there is little sign that its recommendations are being heeded. The ANDP survey which will be published early next year found a threefold increase in the annual number of PhD degrees awarded specifically in neuroscience over the last ten years; moreover, the total number of students in neuroscience PhD programs has almost doubled between and This continuing expansion, however, may be short sighted.
See a Problem?
The fundamental problem is that principal investigators are training young scientists to follow in their footsteps at a much higher rate than such positions are becoming available. In a memorable analogy, Shirley Tilghman of Princeton University, who chaired the committee that prepared the NRC report, compared the current situation to that of planes in a 'holding pattern' above an airport, burning up fuel as they wait for an opportunity to land.
The stack is growing larger; more scientists are spending longer in graduate and postdoctoral training, working long hours for low pay in the hope of building a publication record that will eventually land them a job. When they reach the bottleneck of finding a tenure-track position, many will be in their late thirties, having spent more than a decade in training that is often too specialized to be useful outside their chosen field. This rapid increase in young trainees is certainly beneficial to established investigators. It fosters intense competition, increases the pool of cheap labor and gives faculty members leverage over their junior colleagues.
One might even argue that it benefits society as a whole, by providing taxpayers with more research for their money. However, as the NRC report noted, it is likely to have negative effects in the longer term, promoting disillusionment and discouraging future students from embarking on research careers. Such problems are already becoming apparent in the UK, says Martin Raff of University College London, who feels that poor job prospects are leading to a decline in the quality of students.
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