It examines the reconstruction of institutional power relationships that had to be negotiated among the courts, the parties, the president, the Congress and the states in order to accommodate the expansion of national administrative capacities around the turn of the twentieth century. Stephen Skowronek argues that new institutional forms and procedures do not arise reflexively or automatically in response to environmental demands on government, but must be extorted through political and institutional struggles that are rooted in and mediated by pre-established governing arrangements.
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As the first full-scale historical treatment of the development of American national administration, this book will provide a useful textbook for public administration courses. Personal tools Create account Log in. Sign in with. Our Sponsors: Become a Sponsor. Follow Us On Steve Jobs E. Suspendisse non massa nec diam tincidunt ultrices at sit amet nisi. Etiam elementum elit ac nisi faucibus eget aliquam justo euismod.
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Article Info: 31 Authors 92 Revisions. Print Email Watch Embed. Home Entrepreneurs Education About Sponsors. Namespaces Category Discussion. Views View View source History. Jump to: navigation , search. Demobilization unloosed a wave of labor strikes unprecedented in their scale and the radical character of their demands. Fearful of revolution abroad and at home, the Justice Department rounded up and deported hundreds of aliens whom it judged, without trial, to be radical and disloyal.
Violence erupted along race lines as white mobs in more than twenty cities poured into African American neighborhoods to attack homes and persons. A new Ku Klux Klan emerged in both the North and South with the goal of intimidating not only blacks but also Catholics, immigrants, and radicals. Harding, a Republican presidential candidate committed to returning the nation to "normalcy," swept the election in a landslide. Vice President Calvin Coolidge succeeded Harding after his death in Still, many of the managerial ambitions of the earlier years survived into the "new era.
The massive Hoover Dam public works project was a product of the Coolidge and Hoover administrations; the most important Depression-era agency for financial restabilization, the Reconstruction Finance Administration, began as a Hoover initiative. But there were progressives who saw in both measures the promise of a better-organized society, deliberately managing its population movements and curbing the wasteful effects of drunkenness on labor efficiency and on abused wives and children. Southern leaders were not immune to progressive political ambitions. Southern farmers lobbied hard for federal credit systems to supplement private lenders in the cash-strapped South.
They turned the system of federally supported agriculture extension agents into a far-flung network of scientific advice, crop marketing assistance, and lobbying help in Congress. But southern progressive reform had its limits.
Building a New American State - Stephen Skowronek | Class Conflict | The United States
Efforts to enfranchise women, or effectively ban the employment of twelve- and thirteen-year-old children in the textile mills, or enact national anti-lynching legislation met with major resistance. Although there were islands of exception, the South was visibly poorer than the rest of country, much less urbanized, farther from the new consumer society being built elsewhere, and intractably committed to cotton, low-wage labor, and management of its own racial matters.
The most striking change in the South was the massive wartime exodus to the North of African Americans, breaking the ties that had bound most former slaves to agricultural poverty and tenancy since the end of the Civil War. Almost a half million African Americans fled between and Most were rural folk for whom the sharply defined housing ghettoes and racially segregated labor markets of the urban North still seemed a major step up from sharecropping and the codes of southern racial subordination.
Building a new American state: the expansion of national administrative capacities, 1877-1920
New racially segregated labor patterns changed the American Southwest as well, as expanding jobs in the farms, mines, and railroads drew hundreds of thousands of workers across the border with Mexico. Northern middle-class women had played a defining role in advancing many of the progressive social reforms of the day. Even before they gained the vote, they had established themselves as important politics actors.
These new women were both the objects and the subjects of the last major domains of society to be reorganized in this period, the industries of entertainment and consumption.
Building a New American State 1877-1920 - Stephen Skowronek
Both grew dramatically between and It was one of the most important discoveries of the age that even pleasure could be engineered. Moviemakers like D. Griffith learned not simply to film a gripping story, but, through new techniques of scene cutting, to pace and manipulate the very emotions of their audiences. Psychology moved into advertisements as goods and pleasures were made to sell themselves by their brands and slogans.
Music halls, chain-managed vaudeville, amusement parks, dance clubs, the glittering movie palaces of the s and s, and, finally, radio transformed entertainment in this period, particularly for urban Americans. By the s they lived in a culture much more cosmopolitan—with its African American jazz and dance music, Yiddish comedy, and screen idols who showcased their foreignness—more sexualized, more commercial, and more deliberately organized than any before it.
Together with the new forms of pleasure, a new flood of goods poured out of the early twentieth-century economy as production emphases shifted to mass-marketed goods and household consumers.
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Canned foods, refrigerators and other electric appliances, factory-made shirtwaists, celluloid collars, and chemically made rayon, cigarettes and soft drinks, snap-shot cameras and phonograph records, together with hundreds of other consumer goods brought the reorganization of capital, production, and advertising into daily life. By there was one automobile for every five persons in the United States.
Almost no one in the fall of thought that the bounty might be at its end. Headquarters: 49 W.