Guide Cities and Climate Change (Routledge Studies in Physical Geography and Environment)

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The questions related to risks and adaptation were selected to present the results and discussion of the survey. Overall, the results indicate that the sense of risk is based on the causal interpretations of events. There was ambivalence in the responses of adaptation to climate changes. For example, it was observed that On the other hand, responses such as: '[ Part of the interviewees somehow denied the risk they are exposed to and the reasons for such behavior are multifactorial: religious, economic, cultural and even the uncertainty about the weather phenomena and the mapping of risky areas.

They question the technical mapping or climate prediction models - as first considered by Beck in the context of nuclear accidents and diffuse risks, and subsequently related to climate change in his work BECK, Figure 5 a shows that out of the interviewees would have some degree of proactivity to look for solutions to reduce risks other than 'leaving it in God's hands'. It was observed in the risk perception survey that their answers about taking the responsibility to reduce or avoid the problems suggest that there is some involvement of the population to act on the risks it is exposed to.

However, some reports suggested that the respondents would not know what to do to avoid or reduce these risks. Therefore, the conceptual model considered an analysis at several levels: given a social group or an individual safeguarded from the problems already experienced in the everyday life lack of basic infrastructure, limited access to public facilities, housing at risk and with high degree of protagonism, they will probably be better prepared or adapted to reduce the risks they are exposed to, even if the likelihood of physical risk increases - Figure 5 b - called reduced vulnerability or situation A S a.

This sense or perspective must also be understood in a context of intermediate vulnerability or situation B S b. This situation, at least in the light of the results of the current study, indicates that approximately people would have some degree of protagonism. The third context - the increased vulnerability or situation C S c - points out to approximately people who responded that if they were at risk, they would leave it in God's hands. According to the results of the risk perception survey applied to the contextual vulnerability approach, Thus, they 'accept' living in the place and are willing to face the danger when someone warns them about it.

The risk is denied or simply not perceived by those subjected to it. However, they perceive the risk for their neighbors. In the light of examples also observed in countries other than Brazil [mostly in developing countries], the results suggest that there is still an incipient preparation to act in emergency situations, because these countries have not yet consolidated a 'culture of risk prevention'. Somehow, the protagonism or lack of it reflects the actions or attitudes of people towards the adaptation to problems they experience every year, especially in rainy summers.

Thus, it is worth reflecting about whether it is more appropriate to wait for another disaster with magnitude equal to or greater than that of Caraguatatuba - due to climate change or not - or to take precautionary measures to better socially and spatially distribute the population in the territory, by taking into consideration the social specificities as well as the environmental and geological conditions, besides the articulation of different land use planning instruments.

By considering the development model used in the study area and in other Brazilian cities as a possible background cause to the current problems, it is necessary to think about the issues that may not be internalized in people's perceptions, since they influence their protagonism to face the problems that already exist and those that may come to exist due to the effects of climate change. Rather than discussing the causes of these changes, we address the problem that is already experienced in the region in order to face the following situations: the recurring problems that have historical consequences as it was previously mentioned, see also Figure 4 b , and the future problems, which, although uncertain, may worsen the existing ones.

Thus, we go back to the discussion in Figure 2 with respect to actions focused on promoting an attentive and active political mobilization in order to perform effective social actions to solve the old problems and, thus, to reduce the risks. Obviously, these actions political and social must happen together and collectively. The paper intended to summarize the main concepts about risk, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change by following an interdisciplinary approach.

In addition, the study reflected on the analysis of vulnerability according to three interconnected axes physical risk, social vulnerability and protagonism for a population often facing physical environment risk situations. The protagonism axis may offer an opportunity to identify actions and encourage attitudes that promote a better understanding about how to respond to the problems. Guiding integrated and participatory work efforts may promote the involvement of the population in coping with and reducing risks arising from historically recurrent issues - poverty, socio-spatial segregation, and limited access of some social groups to basic urban infrastructure - or with those that are to come, such as climate change.

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