By this I mean the importance of ensuring that political party by-laws and other internal party regulatory systems reflect gender equality values. Once we have women in the party decision making structures, there is more probability that we will have more women placed on the electoral candidate lists; and most importantly, in the winning positions; and issues that have been considered secondary for years, will be featured in the party platforms.
The National Democratic Institute NDI has noted through our research and discussions with women activists and political leaders in countries where we work the significant use of violence as a method to dissuade women from participating in elections. However, violence against women in elections has been largely absent from broader discussions on this issue, because it has not been distinguished from general electoral violence. Anything that prevents the full participation of women in elections has implications for the integrity of the electoral process, and ultimately undermines democracy.
A major gap when it comes to electoral violence against women is the lack of data. NDI is piloting a new data collection tactic that builds on our previous work with local domestic observation groups. I recently co-facilitated a session with our domestic observation partner in Guatemala on monitoring for early warning signs of gender based and other forms of electoral violence in the lead up to the September elections. My work with our partner organization, as well as meetings with local civil society organizations working on gender based violence more broadly reinforced my convictions that violence against women in elections is a serious issue in need of solutions.
What do you think? How can we do a better job of collecting data and mitigating gender based electoral violence? Research and documentation are two major steps that will bring focus to it by all stakeholders required to take action. This is where training which you mentioned earlier on comes in.
Observers need to be trained on how to recognise VAW. There is also need to raise awareness through advocacy for women on the importanc eof reporting occurence and having the courage to stand through the proscution of such cases. Charmaine, I agree that mandating party quotas for internal decision-making bodies is helpful - particularly in countries where parties receive state funding, the state should be able to legislate quotas.
Parties were also required to establish "parity" committees - although the role and impact of these committees was left ambiguous. Women in Moroccan parties are now working to leverage this representation and how to translate it to real power to effect change. We have seen some opportunities for challenging cultural expectations, traditional values, patriarchal structures and societal norms in cities. In many cities in the developing world, more women than men are moving to towns and cities, especially in Latin America, as well as in some countries in Southeast Asia, like Thailand and Viet Nam.
Growing numbers of women benefit from greater independence and access to increased opportunities in urban settings. Urban women, on the whole, have greater access to services and infrastructure, more chances to engage in paid employment, and greater opportunities as a result of relaxed cultural restrictions, when compared with their rural counterparts. The urban context provides for new and changing social norms, which happens more rapidly in urban settings, as compared to rural areas.
Governments need both the substantive representation of women in urban decision making, and an enhanced awareness and understanding of gender-specific needs within the governance structure. Social norms are the most difficult barriers for us as NGOs to overcome especially in women related issues. Lebanon is considered a liberal country in the ME but still expectations from women are to push the males in their families for political participation rather than running themselves. When women are candidates and they have their pictures just like any other candidate, they are criticized for even personal issues rather than professional performance.
Women are still reluctant to have a serious step into the world of politics for different reasons:. Women from all religions in Lebanon are usually "adviced" to take care of their family future and if they dont have one to think of having a family instead and look after her personal life especially because she can't change how things are. This in return makes it even impossible to run without being in a list. As a amatter of fact, economic barriers limit women's voice also in voting as they become more vulnerable to vote for people they dont believe in just because they get some social services food, health, education, etc from a certain family member or a political party.
On the other hand, violence and intimidation against women are not the direct cause for women not to be in political life.
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They are actually not even in the social life and they are usually staying at home and leading a very traditional life. The violence and intimidation that we worry about is the violence or threatening of political parties against women who decide to run. This was the case in in the city of Baalbeck when a lady decided to run for municipality and all her family which is the biggest Shiaa family in the city came to her place and at the beginning "adviced" her not to run and then they angrily said that there are still men in that family and at the end when she refused to withdraw they threatened her and her immediates.
So this is our worry and we would like to fight this kind of violence. Our work includes educational programs whether in lskills or social trainings including leadership, democracy, media, advocacy and campaigning among others. We also trained potential women candidates for the first time in the region. It is not an easy task to break all the social norms and trational behaviors but at least we and others can make a change in the future.
Ending violence against women
Another important obstacle for women getting into politics is the resourcing. I remember meeting an aspiring parliamentary candidate in Ghana, she had to use a lot of her own money to fund her campaign and explained how she felt fortunate because her husband supported her in that, but that she was competing against men who had financial backing from political parties or stakeholders in the district. For obvious reasons, donors are not willing to give financial resources to back political campaigns.
Such as paying for air time for their campaigning, producing general election material as well as facilitating community events as a platform for female candidates to present their pledges. Feedback was that this type of support was beneficial but it really does not address the constraint women are facing when financing for their campaign and the unequal playing field they find themselves in. Catherine, as other comments in the conversation confirm, resources are a big issue for women's participation. Examples, such as the one you provide from Ghana, are great - and should be duplicated.
Advertising and air time are expensive and "every little bit helps". The funding of politics is often seen as corrupt and "dirty", which is why it is difficult to address and often turns people off. We need to admit that participating in politics requires money. Women need to be better at asking for money and I believe women in business need to do more to step up and help.
Also - in kind resources should not be neglected. Second, in order to level the playing field, more robust campaign financing restrictions need to be implemented. The high price of poltiics not only hurts women, but in some countries means that only the wealthy and elite men can compete. Some very salient points made Frances around financing for campaigning.
Addressing corruption and promoting good governance is key. In Ghana we found even at universities male students were bribing others to elect them onto different student committees. Addressing governance needs to cut across all sectors. ICTs both provide opportunities for and present obstacles to women's political participation. The same anonymity in access that provides women with the ability to engage online is also a shield for hate speech and harassment, which perpetuates subjugation.
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A great example of this is HarassMap in Egypt; women report sexual harassment and assault through SMS and social media and these incidents are mapped on their website. HarassMap then partners with local businesses and people, who pledge to adopt zero-tolerance policies against sexual harassment and provide assistance to those who have been sexually harassed to create safe zones in their communities.
It's great to see that you shared the example from HarassMap in Egypt. Women in Egypt have been pioneering efforts to combat harassment using social media tools and formats. New Tactics features three tactic examples from organizations in Egypt, including how HarassMap partners with local businesses.
Here are links to these tactics that could also be adapted for situations specific to political participation barriers. Facebook Twitter RSS. Log in. Quick reply. Last post. Obstacles to Political Participation.
Below are a few questions to begin this conversation thread: How do the cultural expectations, traditional values, patriarchal structures and societal norms prevent women from greater political involvement? Charmaine Rodrigues. Advocay for WPP - tactics for valuing women's participation. I dont thikn its particulary helpful for advocacy purposes to take on thqat argument - and in my experience, i thikn it is a hard one to win. While my anecdotal sense is that wome do indeed seem to bring a different "feel" to peace negotiatons and conflict resoluton, the same cannot be said for good goernance.
There have been nunerous examples of corrupt female politicians see Asia in particular, for example and i have also heard any argue agaist gender equality, human rights and LGBTI rights; I think that the better argument is simply on princpope - womenmake up half the population of all countries ad deserve to have a direct say in public decision making which will impact their lives.
Historically, women were relegated to the private domain, but this is increasibgly ot the case and politics needs to play catch up with the rest of society. Charmaine Rodriques, you make. WPP and violence. Advantages to political parties. Erika, I agree, but we need. Engendering political parties. Nika Saeedi. Myths and Reality. Gender sensitive political party interlan organization. Caroline Hubbard. Continuing the conversation on violence against women,.
Members tagged in this comment:. Charmaine, I agree that. Obstacles in urbanization Rawan Yaghi. Social norms are the most. Women are still reluctant to have a serious step into the world of politics for different reasons: 1- Women need social and family support which is not often there. Women from all religions in Lebanon are usually "adviced" to take care of their family future and if they dont have one to think of having a family instead and look after her personal life especially because she can't change how things are 2- Women are usually excluded from the political parties decision making level.
A Ladder of Citizen Participation - Sherry R Arnstein
Obstacles to participation - resourcing. It would be great to hear from others on successful strategies to overcome this barrier. Emphasising the international context of the issues involved, this bookillustrates the interlinking nature of society, death and loss, and gives examples of governance that promotes the empowerment, participation and the increasing need for the involvement of ordinary people and communities in differing social and cultural contexts. All chapters are written at an accessible level and will appeal to a wide readership.
Part 1 of the book provides a sociological understanding of the governance of death and loss in international and historical contexts, and the implications for practice. Part 2 provides examples of good practice,drawing upon a sociological understanding. About The Author. Select Parent Grandparent Teacher Kid at heart. Age of the child I gave this to:. Hours of Play:. Tell Us Where You Are:. Preview Your Review. Thank you. Your review has been submitted and will appear here shortly.
Extra Content. From the Author Political, economic, social, cultural and technological changes have led to profound transformations in the ways that death and loss are perceived and managed in contemporary society. Margaret Gibson: Death and community2. Jenny Hockey: Contemporary cultures of memorialisation: blending social inventiveness and conformity? Arnar Arnason: Un Regulating bereavement4.
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Naomi Richards: Promoting the self through the arts: the transformation of private testimony into public witnessing5. Peter Beresford and Suzy Croft: Involvement and empowerment at the end of life: overcoming the barriers6. Wing Hoi Chan: Reviving sociability in contemporary cultural practices and concepts of death in Hong KongPart 2 - Principles into practice7.
Steve Conway: The shameful death: implications for public health8. David Clark: A history of the project on death in America: programmes, outputs, impacts9. Allan Kellehear and Barbara Young: Resilient communities John Rosenberg and Patsy Yates: Transition from conventional to health promoting palliative care: an Australian case study