In turn, they lost control to military coups, mass revolts, and interim governments. Economic recession and mismanagement of the government brought military intervention in , which gave way to an interim civilian government and an effort to restore electoralism in This initiative ultimately failed when in the ever power-hungry Velasco Ibarra again seized control for the fifth and final time.
Consequently, an ever-widening rift had developed between him and congress. Also, due to suspicions of his catering to the interests of the elites, coupled with slow industrial growth and stagnant export revenue under his leadership, his proposed initiatives, such as attempts to add tariffs to imports, largely were suffocated. Worried that the possibilities of growth and development would dissipate under the populist platform, the armed forces defied their constitutional limits by intervening in the elections that year and establishing authoritarian rule.
An attempt was made to incorporate dominant and middle classes economically to create a peaceful modus vivendi with the military. Meanwhile, political participation, in respect to the lower classes, was being closely regulated. The s: Military Rule The two military regimes that ruled until focused on economic modernization as their primary objective.
Perhaps it was due to the economic gains being made in the country at that time, although it also might be attributable to the absence of significant guerilla movements that called for the recruitment of a repressive counterinsurgency force. Later boosted by the boom in petroleum prices, the military oversaw substantial economic growth in Ecuador. This took place under newly implemented modernization policies developed to promote the overall size of the state sector, develop infrastructure, and promote economic diversification through channeling state credit and investment.
According to Sodaro, one of the most integral conditions to democratization is an elite class committed to democracy and to resisting the temptations to dominance and corruption.
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Despite the increase in national wealth, another factor encouraging the pace of democratization, the overarching power of the elites, and their ability to control the economic and political structures, prevented natural democratic features from easily developing. Instead, associations that represented the elite class interests, such as the Chamber of Industry, thrived under the economic boom while simultaneously those that represented the masses proved largely ineffective.
Ultimately, all formal group representation was eliminated. In , Rodriguez Lara was deposed after he was placed under the close surveillance of the elite class that felt threatened by his progressive policies. He was replaced by the more conservative, pro-elite figure, Admiral Poveda Burbano, who initiated dialogue between the military and civilian leaders, which lead to an eventual change in governance in Authoritarian-led modernization had unsettled the bourgeoisie enough to mobilize them to protect their interests, and it appeared that democracy would be the most expeditious way to reinstate their dominance.
Modernizing Democracy : Associations and Associating in the 21st Century
It was simply the best way to reassert the influence of business groups on policy. Given the existing disorganization among the popular class, there was no threat of a real political adversary. To the elites, democracy proved a safe alternative to military authoritarianism. Still, this transition to democracy was monitored and tightly controlled by the armed forces. For the first time in Ecuadorian history the indigenous population was allowed to vote, after the newly ratified Constitution eliminated a literacy requirement for participation, a tool that had long been employed to single-mindedly disenfranchise the masses.
Instead, under Hurtado, policies in favor of the private sector took root, while under his successor, Febres Cordero, a highly pro-business policy stance was implemented. Due to these uninspiring changes in leadership, marginalized groups were once again pushed to the fringe. Homogenous society is argued to be another necessary condition for achieving democracy, and a major contributor to national unity. Ecuador was far from being homogenous. Home to one of the largest indigenous populations in Latin America estimates stand around 3. Hesitant to compromise their traditional values and attitudes for minimal political gain, indigenous regionalism allowed only slow political progression and effective representation, and hindered the development of democracy.
How Development Leads to Democracy | Foreign Affairs
During this period one could even detect a bit of nostalgia for the previous era of military rule and the economic growth that had accompanied it. When, under pressure from political elites, based on clientelism and personalism, governing parties often discarded their electoral commitments towards progressive goals, reform and increased accountability. Ecuadorian political parties were developed in an environment hostile to strong popular movements, crippled by a dominant oligarchy and the continued intervention of the military into the political process. A new provision that required all candidates for public office to join legally registered parties, along with an historic disdain for political parties — instilled in part by Velasco Ibarra and continued by President Febres Cordero — continued to weaken lasting ties to these party organizations.
A phenomenon termed cambio de camisetas began to take place, which entailed the desertion of congressmen from their respective parties in favor of another party based on future aspirations.
It is based on these widespread institutional failures that genuine representation of the masses seemed a near impossibility. With the goal of eliminating costly as well as wasteful bureaucratic spending, he pursued structural reform, successfully recording a significant reduction of government deficits and a robust private sector.
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Although democratically elected, his administration abused civil liberties and violated democratic traditions. Known for censoring the press, threatening organizations critical of the government, and allowing police brutality to go either unnoticed or unpunished, Gutierrez was a corrupt leader with few redeeming qualities to note. The author uses the concept of structural patterns to analyse volunteering as complex social phenomena and to reveal its social embeddedness and consequences. The purpose of this article is to show that volunteering can cause trust, depending on the institutional context and the types of organizations for which people volunteer.
Role: Principal investigator. Praha: Agnes, s. European Societies.
What Causes Democratization
In: M. Freise, T.
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