Tylis , who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in BC. Geography Galatia was bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia, on the east by Pontus and Cappadocia, on the south by Cilicia and Lycaonia, and on the west by Phrygia. Its capital was Ancyra i. Ankara, today the capital of modern Turkey. Yellow: 31BC. Each province was ruled by a Roman who was appointed as governor.
Although different in many ways, they were similar to the states in Australia or the United States, the regions in the United Kingdom or New Zealand, or the prefectures in Japan. Canada refers to some of its territory as provinces. Overview A province was the basic and, until the tetrarchy from AD , the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The word province in Modern English has its origins in the Latin term used by the Romans.
Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, us. Roman Empire in AD. Imperial provinces are shown in green.
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Pink indicates senatorial provinces, as well as Italy itself, which was governed directly by the senate. An imperial province was a Roman province during the Principate where the Roman Emperor had the sole right to appoint the governor legatus Augusti. These provinces were often the strategically located border provinces.
The provinces were grouped into imperial and senatorial provinces shortly after the accession of Augustus.
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The Byzantine writer Theophanes informs us that at a later period Germa took the name of Myriangeli. The city was situated at the point where the road from Ancyra forked, one branch going to Dorylaeum, the other to Pessinus. From the time of Domitian it had a mint. Its Christian bishopric was a residential see until the 12th century and is now, as "Germa in Galatia", a titular see of the Catholic Church.
Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire. Annuario Pontificio Libreria Ed. Constantine granted their request in He speaks of them as "supporters of the most holy religion", an ambiguous term that may perhaps refer to Christianity. The Roman provinces of Anatolia under Trajan, including Asia. The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian ruled AD , showing, in western Anatolia, the senatorial province of Asia southwestern Turkey.
The Roman conquest of Asia minor. It was a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul. The arrangement was unchanged in the reorganization of the Roman Empire in It came to be used by the Greeks for all of Lydia the northwestern part of what is today Turkey , that shore being the closest part of Lydia to Greece.
The Roman province of Asia occupied almost exactly the area of that Lydian kingdom. As time went on, the word came to be used by the far West to refer to an ever. Cilicia  was an early Roman province, located on what is today the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Cilicia was annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey, as a consequence of his military presence in the east, after pursuing victory in the Third Mithridatic War.
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It was subdivided by Diocletian in around , and it remained under Roman rule for several centuries, until falling to the Islamic conquests. Its Armenian heritage goes back thousands of years. The area was a haven for pirates that profited from the slave trade with the Romans. When the Cilician pirates began to attack Roman shipping and towns, the Roman senate decided to send various commanders to deal with the threat.
It was during the course of these interventions that the province of Cilicia came into being. Parts of Cilicia Pedias became Ro. In their origin they were a part of the great migration which invaded Macedon, led by Brennus. The originals who settled in Galatia came through Thrace under the leadership of Leotarios and Leonnorios c. They consisted mainly of three tribes, the Tectosages, the Trocmii, and the Tolistobogii, but there were also other minor tribes.
They spoke a Celtic language, the Galatian language, which is sparsely attested. The tribe entered Anatolia in BC as a contingent of Celtic raiders from the Danube region, and settled in those regions of Phrygia which would later become part of the Roman province of Galatia. The Galatians retained their Celtic language through the 4th century AD, when Saint Jerome mentions that the Galatians still spoke a Celtic language in his times. Gaul on the eve of the Gallic Wars. Gaul Latin: Gallia  was a historical region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, and parts of Northern Italy, Netherlands, and Germany, particularly the west bank of the Rhine.
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Scholars have suggested that this is either the Roman province of Galatia in southern Anatolia, or a large region defined by an ethnic group of Celtic people in central Anatolia. Paul argues that the gentile Galatians do not need to adhere to the tenets of the Mosaic Law, particularly religious male circumcision, by contextualizing the role of the law in light of the revelation of Christ.
The Epistle to the Galatians has exerted enormous influence on the history of Christianity, the development of Christian theology, and the study of the apostle Paul. Papyrus 46, the earliest reasonably complete version available to scholars toda.
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History It was built as one of a chain of defensive points in the Byzantine empire. The archbishop of Pessinus moved his see to the new capital at this time. The Geography. Richard Talbert, ed. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. Lund University. The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula which would later be conquered by Trajan. The province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy. Aegyptus was by far the wealthiest Eastern Roman province, and by far the wealthiest Roman province outside of Italia.
The population of Roman Egypt is unknown; estimates vary from 4 to 8 million. It roughly comprised the territory of present-day Tunisia, the northeast of Algeria, and the coast of western Libya along the Gulf of Sirte. The territory was originally inhabited by Berber people, known in Latin as Mauri indigenous to all of North Africa west of Egypt; in the 9th century BC, Phoenicians built settlements along the Mediterranean Sea to facilitate shipping, of which Carthage rose to dominance in the 8th century until its conquest by the Roman Republic. It was one of the wealthiest provinces in the western part of the Roman empire, second only to Italia.
Apart from the city of Carthage, other large settlements in the province were Hadrumetum modern Sousse, Tunisia , capital of Byzacena, and Hippo Regius modern Annaba, Algeria. The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian ruled — AD , showing, in northern Africa, the senatorial. The province incorporated the former kingdom of Macedonia with the addition of Epirus, Thessaly, and parts of Illyria, Paeonia and Thrace.
This created a much larger administrative area, to which the name of 'Macedonia' was still applied. The Dardanians, to the north of the Paeonians, were not included, because they had supported the Romans in their conquest of Macedonia. Description Organization After the reforms of Diocletian in the late 3rd century, Epirus Vetus was split off, and sometime in the 4th century, the province of Macedonia itself was divided into Macedonia Prima in the south and Macedonia Secunda or Salutar. Year 25 BC was either a common year starting on Wednesday, Thursday or Friday or a leap year starting on Wednesday or Thursday link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar the sources differ, see leap year error for further information and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar.
At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Augustus and Silanus or, less frequently, year Ab urbe condita. The denomination 25 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Gabinius trib. Domitius Calvinus praet. Fannius praet.
Cosconius praet. Manlius praet. Octavius praet. Terentius Varro Lucullus aed. Aufidius Orestes aed. Aurelius Cotta praet. Cornelius Sisenna praet. Valerius Triarius praet. Aquinus leg. Peducaeus praet. Cassius Longinus praet. Iuncus praet. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus praet. Caesius praet. Furius praet. Turius praet. Licinius C. Sacerdos praet. Coelius praet. Arrius praet. None of the senators who were appointed in 81 BC without ever having held a magistracy can be identified.
There is, however, a category of people who are known to have been members of the Senate in the late Eighties and in the 39 Eques: Nicolet, Ordre I, p. JRS, 68, , p. Collected Papers, Oxford, , p. On the personality of Sisenna and his historical work, see E. Perutelli, Prolegomeni a Sisenna,. Pisa, , p. Beck and U. Patronat, p. Excluded by Nicolet, Ordre II, p. Seventies, without their magistracy, if any, being left on the record.
At least some of them may be Sullan appointees:. Faberius senator by 78 48; Petillius senator by 78 ; Manlius Torquatus senator by 78 49; Velleius senator before 77 : uncertain Luscius Ocrea senator by 76 50; Vatienus senator after 76? Octavius Ligus senator by 75 ; Popillius senator before 74 52; Fidiculanius Falcula senator by 74 53; Gutta senator by 74 54; Iuventius Pedo senator by 74 55; Caulius Mergus senator by 74 56; Basilus senator by 74 57; Caudinus senator by 74 ; Cassius senator by 74 58; Heius senator by 74 59; Saturius senator by 74 60; Octavius Balbus senator by 74 61; Octavius Considius senator by 74 62; Atilius Bulbus senator by 74 63; Perhaps related to the Sullan centurion Luscius, who gathered huge wealth in the proscriptions, but was convicted in 64 BC Ascon.
Berrendonner, ibid. Varenus RE s. There is no direct evidence, but his wife was a Cornelia L. Scipionis f. Egnatius senator by 74 65; Septimius Scaevola senator by 74 ; Claudius senator by 73 66; Annaeus Brocchus senator by 73 67; Claudius senator by 73 68; Axius senator by 73 69; Pompeius Rufus senator by 73 70; Aulus Cascellius senator by 73 71; Minucius Thermus senator by 73 72; Publicius Scaeva senator by 73 73; Claudius senator by 73 74; Rancius senator by 73 75; Calidius senator by 76; Verres senator by 72 77; Popilius senator by 70 78; Titinius senator by 70 79; Antonius Hybrida senator by 70 80; Aquillius Gallus senator by 70 81; Octavius Balbus senator by 70 82; At t idius senator by 67 BC Statius senator after 87 He was expelled from the Senate in 70 BC, for unknown reasons: Cic.
See Wiseman, New Men, p. There is no way of knowing whether he became a senator before or after the Civil War. Nicolet, Ordre II, p. On this character and the involvement of his family in the proscriptions, see Nicolet, Ordre II, p. Nicolet, Ordre I, p. He was the youngest son of the orator M. Antonius, and he had served in Greece under Sulla: Ascon. See B. The position of the members of this group is even less certain than that of those of the previous one, especially because it is unclear whether the Sullan senators joined the assembly with the rank of quaestorii or not.
If they did, of course, these individuals should be discounted:. Staienus quaest. Plaetorius quaest. Seius aedilis cur. Visellius Varro trib. Octavius quaest. Voluscius aedilis by 73 88; Caecilius Niger quaest. Sicily 72 89; Caesetius quaest. Sicily 72 90; Cervius leg. Verres in Sicily 91; Plaetorius Cestianus quaest.
Even using the least restrictive criteria, there are not even one hundred members on the list, and only ten senators may be safely believed to have been included in the Sullan lectio. The results of this prosopographic enquiry are, to say the least, disappointing. Wiseman, New Men, p. He may be gn.
Panciera ed. According to M. Hasenohr eds. Follet S. Etudes chronologiques et prosopographiques, Paris, , p. Kirchner J. CR du Vol. Two Prosopographical Catalogues, Amsterdam, , p. Tribute to B. Meritt, New York, , p. Vestigia, Poralla P. Paros Berranger D. Berranger-Auserve D. Erga, 1. Grainger J. Supplements, Heckel W. Prosopography of Alexander's Empire, Oxford, Blackwell, , p. Mooren L. Introduction and Prosopography, Bruxelles, , p. Olshausen E. Von Triparadeisos bis Pydna, Louvain, , p. Studia Hellenistica, Rice M. Savalli-Lestrade I. Sciences historiques et philologiques, III.
Tataki, A. Mandouze A.
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Nicolet Cl. Pflaum H. From the Second Century B. Studien zur klassischen Philologie, BEFAR, Actes du colloque international Bruxelles-Leuven, octobre , Rome, , p. Prosopographie des chevaliers romains, 2 vol. BEFAR, et Suolahti J. A Study on Social Structure, Helsinki, , p.