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Dictionary of Biomedical Science

Central Queensland University. Charles Sturt University. Deakin University. A non-invasive imaging technology used to investigate anatomy and function of the body in both health and disease without the use of damaging ionizing radiation. It is often used for disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring. It is based on sophisticated technology that excites and detects changes in protons found in the water that makes up living tissues. A non-invasive analytic imaging technique used to study metabolic changes in diseases affecting the brain, including tumors, strokes, and seizures.

The technique is also used to study the metabolism of other organs. MRS complements MRI as a non-invasive means for the characterization of tissue, by providing measure of the concentration of different chemical components within the tissue. An X-ray imaging method used to image the breast for the early detection of cancer and other breast diseases. It is used as both a diagnostic and screening tool. A term used to define non-blood adult stem cells from a variety of tissues.

However, it is not clear whether mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues are the same. An abbreviation for mobile health, which is the practice of medicine and public health supported with mobile devices such as mobile phones for health services and information. Microscopic, preformed bubbles composed of varying materials that enable widespread applications.

One application of microbubbles in medicine is as a contrast agent to help obtain clearer ultrasound images.

Dictionary of biomedical sciences / Peter J. Gosling. - Version details - Trove

A multidisciplinary field including engineering, physics, chemistry and biotechnology involving the design of systems for the precise control and manipulation of fluids on a small, sub-millimeter scale. Typically fluids are moved, mixed, separated or processed in various ways. Particles between 0. Man-made microparticles include ceramics, glass, polymers and metals. In biological systems, microparticles are small membrane- bound vesicles derived from cells circulating in the bloodstream.

Microparticles are generally times larger than nanoparticles. Using microscopes to view samples and objects that cannot be seen with the unaided eye. A surgical procedure typically utilizing one or more small incisions through which laparoscopic surgical tools are inserted and manipulated by a surgeon. Minimally invasive surgery can reduce damage to surrounding healthy tissue, decrease the need for pain medication, and reduce patient recovery time.

A discipline that involves the visualization of molecular processes and cellular functions in living organisms. With the inclusion of a biomarker, which interacts chemically with tissues and structures of interest, many imaging techniques can be used for molecular imaging including ultrasound, x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography.

The measurement of the form of living systems or their parts. In medicine, morphometry is often used to study changes in brain structure during development, aging and in response to disease. Researchers can measure anatomical features of the brain in terms of shape, mass and volume and derive various measures such as grey matter density and white matter connectivity using neuroimaging techniques and neuroinformatics.

An imaging technique that uses two or three-photon excitation of a fluorophore in a specimen. Fluorescence occurs when two or more photons of excitation light are absorbed by the specimen at the same time. Because excitation occurs only where photons coincide, there is reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching and greater depth penetration.

Because of the reduced toxicity, the method is ideal for imaging living specimens especially when deep imaging is required. Multiscale modeling uses mathematics and computation to quantitatively represent and simulate a system at more than one scale while functionally linking the mathematical models across these scales.

N Nanoparticle Ultrafine particles between 1 and nanometers in size. The size is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures. Nanoparticles can be engineered for a wide variety of biomedical uses including diagnostic devices, contrast agents, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles. Nanoparticles are generally times smaller than microparticles.

The manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to nanometers. Research areas include surface science, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, and microfabrication. Applications are diverse and include device physics, molecular self-assembly, and precisely manipulating atoms and molecules.

A spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum for pharmaceutical and medical diagnostics, typically measurements of blood sugar and blood oxygen levels. Includes the use of a number of techniques to image the structure and function of the brain, spinal cord, and associated structures. A broad discipline of neuroscience and biomedical engineering concerned with developing devices that can substitute a motor, sensory or cognitive function lost due to injury or disease.

Examples encompass a wide range including cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, and brain-computer interfaces for conscious control of movement in paralyzed individuals. A medical specialty that uses radioactive tracers radiopharmaceuticals to assess bodily functions and to diagnose and treat disease. Diagnostic nuclear medicine relies heavily on imaging techniques that measure cellular function and physiology. O Oncoprotein A protein encoded by an oncogene which can cause the transformation of a cell into a tumor cell if introduced into it. A technique for obtaining sub-surface images such as diseased tissue just below the skin.

For example, ophthalmologists use OCT to obtain detailed images from within the retina. Cardiologists also use it to help diagnose coronary artery disease. A technique for non-invasively looking inside the body, as is done with x-rays. Unlike x-rays, which use ionizing radiation, optical imaging uses visible light and the special properties of photons to obtain detailed images of organs and tissues as well as smaller structures including cells and molecules.

P Perfusable The movement of fluid through blood vessels to a cell tissue or an organ, generally referring to blood. A particle of light or electromagnetic radiation. The energies of photons range from high-energy gamma rays and x-rays to low-energy radio waves. Crystals in the transducer of an ultrasound device that vibrate when an electric signal is applied, emitting high-frequency sound pressure waves. The crystals are the crucial component of an ultrasound device both producing and detecting the ultrasound waves used to image structures inside of the body. Testing and treating of patients at sites close to where they live.

Rapid diagnostic tests are used to obtain immediate, on-site results. The success of the concept relies on portable, rapid diagnostic devices that provide results directly to the user, which allows health care workers in remote areas to test and treat patients at the time of the visit.

A large molecule composed of many repeating subunits. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA. Polymers have unique physical properties, including strength, flexibility and elasticity. In the s we saw innovation in technology across all fields, but most importantly there was a lot of breakthroughs that helped lead us to modern medicine.

On March 6, Dr. Jonas Salk announced the completion of the first successful killed-virus Polio vaccine. The vaccine was tested on about 1. The vaccine was announced as safe on April 12, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with Biomedical research. See also: Biomedicine. Audiology and hearing therapy Autonomic neurovascular function Cardiac physiology Clinical perfusion Critical care science Gastrointestinal physiology Neurophysiology Ophthalmic and vision science Respiratory and sleep physiology Urology Vascular science.

Biomechanical engineering Biomedical engineering Clinical engineering Clinical measurement Diagnostic radiology Equipment management Maxillofacial prosthetics Medical electronics Medical engineering design Medical illustration and clinical photography Non-ionising radiation Nuclear medicine Radiopharmacy Radiation protection and monitoring Radiotherapy physics Rehabilitation engineering Renal technology and science Ultrasound. Academic health science centre Biomedical research Biomedical technology Health Sciences Descriptors Healthcare science Medical diagnosis Medical laboratory Medical scientist Public health Publicly funded health care.

Retrieved 1 June November Department of Health. Retrieved 9 May The University of Chicago. Retrieved 10 May Clinical and Translational Science. Health care.