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Breast Cancer Screening Trial. Join the Conversation. RSNA ACR Appropriateness Criteria Evidence-based guidelines assist referring providers in making the most appropriate imaging or treatment decision for a specific clinical condition. ACR Appropriateness Criteria. ACR Career Center. Manual on Contrast Media.

MR Safety. View Latest News. The ACR has accredited more than 38, facilities in 10 imaging modalities. Our streamlined application process has cut approval time in half, with accreditation evaluation typically completed within 60 days of image submission.


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This tract is part of the digestive system , a complex process that enables the body to break down and absorb food and eliminate waste. Imaging anatomical information from a cross-sectional plane of the body, each image generated by a computer synthesis of x-ray transmission data obtained in many different directions in a given plane.

Developed in by British electronics engineer Godfrey Hounsfield, CT has revolutionized diagnostic medicine. Hounsfield linked x-ray sensors to a computer and worked out a mathematical technique called algebraic reconstruction for assembling images from transmission data. In , the Mayo Clinic began operating the first machine in the U.

Early machines yielded digital images with at least times the clarity of normal x-rays. Subsequently, the speed and accuracy of machines has improved many times over. CT scans reveal both bone and soft tissues, including organs, muscles, and tumors. Image tones can be adjusted to highlight tissues of similar density, and, through graphics software, the data from multiple cross-sections can be assembled into 3-D images.

CT aids diagnosis and surgery or other treatment, including radiation therapy , in which effective dosage is highly dependent on the precise density, size, and location of a tumor. For details see the CT Angiography page. An injury to the brain that occurs when the head or body is struck hard enough that the brain bounces against the skull. Any internally administered substance that has a different opacity from soft tissue on radiography or computed tomography. Includes: Barium or water, used to make parts of the gastrointestinal tract opaque. Iodine in water, used for arthrography.

Water soluble iodine, used to make blood vessels opaque; to demonstrate the inner structures of the urinary tract kidneys, ureters and bladder ; and to outline joints the spaces between two bones. Iodine mixed with water or oil may be used to evaluate the fallopian tubes and lining of the uterus. Sterile saline salt water is used during hysterosonography. May refer to air occurring naturally or introduced into the body. Paramagnetic substances used in magnetic resonance imaging.

For more information see the Contrast Meterials page. This procedure uses an automated needle, which obtains one sample of tissue at a time and is re-inserted several times. Cowden syndrome A disorder characterized by non-cancerous, tumor-like growths and an increased risk of developing certain cancers. Crohn's disease Also known as regional enteritis. A moderately severe chronic inflammation swelling of the intestine, especially of the small intestine , of unknown cause, involving the obstruction of the lower part of the small intestine and less frequently other parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

It is characterized by patchy deep ulcers that may cause abnormal passages within the bowel, and narrowing and thickening of the bowel. Symptoms include fever, diarrhea , cramping abdominal pain, and weight loss. A minimally invasive treatment that uses extreme cold in the form of liquid nitrogen or argon gas to freeze and destroy diseased tissue, including cancer cells. See the Cryotherapy page for more information.

A procedure in which computed tomography CT scanning is used to produce detailed pictures of the inside of the colon and rectum. CT enteroclysis CT enteroclysis is a special type of computed tomography CT imaging that produces detailed images of the small bowel by infusing contrast material through a tube positioned in the upper small bowel.

CT enterography CT enterography is a special type of computed tomography CT imaging performed with contrast material to produce images of the small intestine.

Advances in MDCT, An Issue of Radiologic Clinics, Volume - 1st Edition

See the CT Enterography page for more information. Origin [Marie and Pierre Curie, French chemists and physicists and Nobel laureates]. The particles are injected at the center of the magnet and spiral outward as their energy increases. Protons produced in a cyclotron can be used to treat cancer, and cyclotron-produced protons can create radioisotopes for nuclear medical procedures. For more information, see the Voiding Cystourethrogram page. This often makes the tumor more responsive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This type of clot may grow big enough to completely block the vein or can pose a serious risk if part of it breaks off and travels to the lungs.

A pacemaker-like device that continuously monitors the heart rhythm and delivers lifesaving shocks if a dangerous heart rhythm is detected. Long-term complications include: development of disorders of the nervous system, eyes and kidneys ; generalized degenerative changes in large and small blood vessels; and an increased susceptibility to infection.

The fistula causes the vein to become enlarged, and allows blood to be easily withdrawn and replaced during dialysis. The dividing membrane between the chest and abdominal cavity. They monitor patients' weight and nutritional problems. Dietitians educate patients and may provide them with recipes and nutritional supplements to improve their nutritional status before, during and after treatment.

Dietitians attend four years of college then usually take part in a one-year internship. The American Dietetic Association registers dietitians who have passed a professional examination. Pictures of these fiber pathways can be helpful in assessing damage to brain by many disease processes, including trauma and brain tumors. The term "digital" refers to the clinician's use of a lubricated finger to conduct the exam. You might think of it as a "bubble" through a weak point in the bowel wall. Doppler ultrasound An application of diagnostic ultrasound used to detect moving blood cells or other moving structures and measure their direction and speed of movement.

The Doppler effect is used to evaluate movement by measuring changes in frequency of the echoes reflected from moving structures. In many instances, Doppler ultrasound has replaced x-ray methods such as angiography, as a method to evaluate blood vessels and blood flow. Doppler ultrasound permits real-time viewing of blood flow that cannot be obtained by other methods. Doppler ultrasound has proved a boon in all areas of ultrasound, aiding in the evaluation of the major arteries and veins of the body, the heart, and in obstetrics for fetal monitoring.

They develop a number of treatment plans that can best destroy the tumor while sparing the normal tissues. Many of these treatment plans are very complex. Dosimetrists work with the doctor and the medical physicist to choose the treatment plan that is just right for each patient. Many dosimetrists start as radiation therapists, then, with very intensive training, become dosimetrists. Others are graduates of one-to-two-year dosimetry programs. The Medical Dosimetrist Certification Board certifies dosimetrists.

Double-contrast barium enema DCBE Also called lower GI tract radiography A test in which a barium solution and air are introduced into the colon and a series of x-rays are taken of the entire colon and rectum. A single-contrast barium enema without air also is available. The stent is made of metal and coated with medication that is slowly released eluted to help prevent the growth of scar tissue in the artery lining. While DCIS must be treated to prevent it from developing into an invasive breast cancer, it is not harmful at this stage. In Latin, it means "tough mother.

A test that records the electrical activity of the heart; it is used to help diagnose certain heart abnormalities. Catheter embolization is the deliberate introduction of foreign "embolic" material such as gelatin sponge or metal coils to stop bleeding or cut off blood flowing to a tumor or arteriovenous malformation. It occurs when the linings of the air sacs within the lungs are damaged and air pockets develop as a result. Once the air becomes trapped, the lungs slowly increase in size and lose their elasticity, which makes breathing difficult because the lungs cannot exhale completely.

An organ consisting of specialized cells that produces and sends hormones into the bloodstream, affecting various processes throughout the body. A contrast material is then injected into the small intestine and x-rays are taken. The epididymis collects the sperm made by the testicles. In this type of hematoma , a blood vessel outside the brain, usually in a groove on the inner side of the skull bursts.

Because it is usually an artery that is involved, blood begins to rapidly accumulate between the inside of the skull and the strong outer covering of the brain called dura mater. The pressure of the blood clot strips the dura mater away from its normal firm attachment to the inside of the skull. The blood clot then can press on the brain, causing injury, and if not diagnosed and treated promptly, may be fatal. In spinal epidural hematoma, the bleeding into the space between the spinal column and the outer lining of the spinal cord may be a result of trauma, bleeding disorders, underlying vascular abnormalities or may occur spontaneously.

A method whereby highly focused beams of high-energy x-rays are targeted at the tumor site to destroy cancer cells while sparing surrounding normal tissues. See the External Beam Therapy page for additional information. If the incoming information packet is flagged by the filters it is not allowed through. A type of seizure or convulsion often associated with epilepsy in which abnormal electrical activity occurs in a specific area of the brain, often producing symptoms that affect one area of the body. Foley catheter A flexible plastic tube a catheter inserted into the bladder to provide continuous urinary drainage.

For more information see the Gallstones page. Gamma Knife A cobalt based radiation therapy machine used to treat brain tumors and abnormalities. The Gamma Knife delivers beams of highly focused gamma rays to the treatment site. See the Gamma Knife page for additional information. A very high frequency form of electromagnetic radiation that consists of photons emitted by radioactive elements. Gamma rays can injure and destroy body cells and tissue, especially cell nuclei. Heartburn is the most common symptom. Left untreated, the disease can cause changes to the tissue lining the esophagus and increase the risk of esophageal cancer.

General anesthetics are always administered under the care of an anesthesiologist or nurse anesthetist. The labrum is a common site of injuries: it can be damaged in falls and from repetitive use, as in throwing and weightlifting. Bristol-Myers Squibb, the manufacturer of Glucophage, recommends that: Glucophage should be stopped at the time of or prior to the procedure. Glucophage should then be withheld for 48 hours after the procedure.

Once renal function is found to be normal, Glucophage therapy can be started again. During the digestive process, carbohydrates break down into this sugar. To transplant an organ or unattached tissue. An artificial blood vessel connection used to facilitate kidney dialysis. A type of seizure or convulsion often associated with epilepsy in which the patient shakes violently and loses consciousness. Graves' disease A condition, also called hyperthyroidism, in which the thyroid gland produces more thyroid hormone than the body needs.

Symptoms include an enlarged thyroid gland, rapid heart rate, and high blood pressure. Guillain-Barre syndrome An autoimmune illness, often occurring after a viral infection, that causes severe nerve damage. They are often found on the face in many sizes and shapes and are usually blue, red, or purple. A machine performs this function instead and the cleansed blood then is returned to the patient. The liver produces and secretes bile which is stored in the gallbladder and released through tubular passageways called bile ducts into the bowel to help digest fat and carry away waste.

The most common type of primary liver cancer that originates from the main cells of the liver. In HDR brachytherapy, a high dose of radiation is delivered to the tumor in a short burst, lasting only a few minutes. This treatment may be repeated several times in a day or a number of times over one or more weeks. The standards address the following:. Hives suddenly erupt and are usually accompanied by intense itching; usually produced by exposure to allergenic substances in susceptible persons.

See Electronic Medical Record. Some cases are caused by an inherited condition called familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Symptoms include weight gain, energy loss, and dry skin.

ACR Acquires and Expands CT Colonography Locator Tool

An x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image either on photographic film or, in a digital system, on the image recording plate of an electronic detector, a device that converts the x-rays into digital signals which are in turn sent to a computer to produce images. Often used in conjunction with intensity-modulated radiation therapy IMRT.

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For details see the IGRT page. High levels of IRT can be an indication of cystic fibrosis. Use of the body's immune system to fight tumors. An immobile mass of stool that does not easily pass from the rectum. Impingement can result in weakness and loss of movement at the shoulder. Material inserted or grafted into tissues. In dentistry, a graft or insert set in or onto the tooth socket prepared for its insertion.

In orthopedics, a metallic or plastic device employed in joint reconstruction. The disk is connected to a catheter that is inserted into a large vein. Fluids, drugs, or blood products can be infused or blood drawn through a needle that is inserted into the disk through the skin.

Examples of manufacturer's names: Port-o-cath, Infusaport, Lifeport. Signs include redness, heat, swelling and pain. Infusaport Manufacturer's name. See implanted port. Fluids, drugs or blood products can be infused or blood drawn through the catheter. For details see the IMRT page. In time the lung tissue may become severely scarred. While some patients recover, others develop respiratory failure or heart failure. In an intraoperative cryotherapy procedure, tissue inside the body is treated by inserting a cryoprobe or a series of small needles through the skin and delivering liquid nitrogen or argon gas to the site of the diseased tissue.

For details see the Intravenous Pyelogram page. For information about diagnosis and treatment see the Therapeutic Enema for intussusception page. The human body requires small amounts of iodine for healthy growth and development. This element is present in many radiographic contrast materials. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation e. In former usage, the mass numbers follow the chemical symbol C Examination of the lining of the abdominal wall with a laparoscope. A mild cathartic; a remedy that moves the bowels slightly without pain or violent action.

In the uterus, commonly called a fibroid. A lesion may be benign noncancerous or malignant cancerous. Lifeport Manufacturer's name. See the Linear Accelerator page for more information. It secretes the bile and is also of great importance in both carbohydrate and protein metabolism. While the local area affected by the anesthetic becomes numb, the patient remains awake and responsive. A medication used to produce a temporary loss of sensation in a specific area of the body during a surgical or other medical procedure; It may be administered as an injection under the skin, applied as a topical cream or a patch to the surface of the skin.

The reference of a sensation to its point of origin. The determination of the location of a tumor, disease or other morbid process. Low dose rate LDR brachytherapy A radiation therapy treatment for cancer that involves the placement of a radioactive material directly inside the body, in or near a tumor, for a specific amount of time and then withdrawn. In LDR brachytherapy, the patient is treated with a low dose of radiation for hours at a time. A minimally invasive diagnostic test that involves the removal of a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid —the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord—or an injection of medication or another substance into the lumbar or lower region of the spinal column.

Lumpectomy generally refers to the removal of a lump from the breast as an alternative to mastectomy, which is the removal of the entire breast including the lump. As a rule, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes an upper, a middle, and a lower , while the left has but two lobes an upper and a lower.


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Each lung is irregularly conical in shape, presenting a blunt upper extremity the apex , a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface following the inner curve of the ribs, an inner or mediastinal surface, a thin and sharp anterior border, and a thick and rounded posterior border.

This surgery is only used for those with severe emphysema. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells chiefly lymphocytes , and a few red blood cells. This procedure has been replaced by lymphoscintigraphy. The two major subgroups of lymphocytes are: B cells that produce antibodies and T cells that destroy disease-causing pathogens.

See the Lymphoscintigraphy page for more information. For details see the MR Angiography page. See the MRCP page for additional information. Malignant is also less commonly used to describe other medical conditions that are severe and becoming progressively worse. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance may also be used to image the breast. For details see the Mammography page. A small amount of healthy tissue surrounding a tumor that may be surgically removed with diseased tissue. This space is mostly occupied by the heart and its major blood vessels, and by the trachea and esophagus.

They oversee the work of the dosimetrist and help ensure that complex treatments are properly tailored for each patient. Qualified medical physicists are responsible for developing and directing quality control programs for equipment and procedures. They are responsible for making sure the equipment works properly. Medical radiation physicists take precise measurements of radiation beam characteristics and do other safety tests on a regular basis. Qualified medical physicists have doctorates or master's degrees.


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Qualified medical physicists have completed four years of college, two to four years of graduate school and typically one to two years of clinical physics training. Women typically experience menstruation also called a period on a monthly basis throughout their sexually reproductive years, from puberty until menopause, except when pregnant or breastfeeding. Metformin See Glucophage. Unlike a standard intravenous catheter IV which is for short term use, a vascular access catheter is more durable and does not easily become blocked or infected.

The midline catheter is inches in length. MCI is considered a transitional state between normal forgetfulness and dementia. Common examples of minimally invasive procedures would be stereotactic breast biopsy, heart catheterization or temporary placement of an implanted port for chemotherapy.

Abdominal Anatomy on Computed Tomography

Monoclonal antibodies mimic the antibodies naturally produced by the body's immune system that attack invading foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses. When combined with a chemotherapy drug or radioactive material , monoclonal antibodies are able to deliver the cancer-killing agent directly to the cancer cell. MR enterography A special type of magnetic resonance imaging MRI performed with a contrast material to produce detailed images of the small intestine.

This diagnostic imaging technique measures the concentration of metabolites, which are produced by chemical reactions in the brain and other areas of the body, and displays the results as a graph. The peaks in the graph represent various metabolites. The concentration of these metabolites can be altered by many diseases, including tumor, infections and trauma. Mucous helps protect and lubricate surfaces within the body. Its purpose is to identify spinal lesions caused by disease or injury.

See the Myelography page for more information. Multiple myeloma is an uncommon cancer of the white blood cells in the bone marrow that is associated with anemia, hemorrhage, recurrent infections, and weakness. If blood flow is not quickly restored, the section of the heart wall involved may begin to die. Although these tumors are not cancerous, they may cause heavy menstrual bleeding, pain in the pelvic region and pressure on the bladder or bowel. It has existed since the beginning of time and is an integral part of the universe in which we live.

Life as we know it on earth has evolved in the presence of radiation. Radiation comes to us from many sources both natural and man-made.

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These sources include cosmic radiation from outer space, radiation from the soil and buildings, and natural isotopes in our own bodies. Cosmic radiation and terrestrial radiation vary with location. The procedure is used primarily to obtain cells from a lesion containing fluid. There are two types of needle electrodes: a simple straight needle; and a straight, hollow needle that contains several retractable electrodes that extend when needed.

Needle electrodes may also be a part of devices that monitor electrical activity for diagnostic purposes such as in the performance of electromyography and nerve conduction studies. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually form a distinct mass of tissue, which may be either benign benign tumor or malignant cancer.

It causes a thickening of the skin, organs and other tissues. Threadlike extensions from a nerve cell. A specialized cell in the brain and nervous system that receives and sends electrical impulses through networks of connections. A lump can be benign or malignant. Examples include CT and MR scanning and ultrasound. NSAID A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that reduces swelling and pain, such as aspirin and ibuprofen.

Certain imaging procedures, including PET scanning, employ radionuclides to provide real-time visuals of biochemical processes. One device, a nuclear imaging machine, employs a scintillation camera, which can rotate around the body to pick up radiation emitted by an injected substance e.

A digitized image of a particular organ, or the whole body, is produced. The nucleus is filled with a soft, rubber-like material. Osteoporosis is primarily classified as an age-related decline in bone mineral density. Secondary osteoporosis results from an identifiable disease for example, diseases of the parathyroid glands, or, for instance, certain medications.

See the Osteoporosis page for additional information. Paget disease A genetic or viral condition characterized by excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue that can lead to enlarged or misshapen bones. The pancreas also secretes hormones, most importantly insulin, into the blood to regulate metabolism of the body. For x-ray pancreatography, the examination requires direct injection of contrast material into the pancreatic ducts.

For MRI, pancreatography is performed without a direct contrast material injection, however an intravenous injection of contrast material may be used. Pap test Also known as Pap smear. They are named the frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses. Protons can pass through healthy tissue without damaging it.

See the Proton Therapy page for more information. They are used in embolization procedures to stop bleeding or block arteries that provide blood flow to a tumor. Arterial disease that occurs outside of the heart or brain in which arteries in the extremities legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, usually as a result of atherosclerosis or plaque. The most common form of PAD affects the large vessels supplying the legs, which can cause severe pain on walking and may in time make a patient immobile.

See the Peripheral Artery Disease page for more information. Unlike a standard intravenous catheter IV which is for short term use, a PICC is more durable and does not easily become blocked or infected. The space within the peritoneum not occupied by the abdominal organs. In most circumstances, this space is empty and the cavity is collapsed. In certain disease, this space can become filled with fluid. In other circumstances, this space may be intentionally inflated with carbon dioxide for laparoscopic surgery, or with a sterile solution for peritoneal dialysis.

The port has a silicone rubber top that can be penetrated by a needle and an attached catheter that is designed to hang down into the abdominal or peritoneal cavity. A type of seizure or convulsion often associated with epilepsy in which the patient stares into space for a short period of time. Picture Archiving and Communication System PACS A computer system for acquiring, storing, viewing, and managing digital medical imaging studies and related information.

They bind at the site of a wound to begin the clotting process. Using imaging guidance, the coils are placed at the site of an aneurysm or fistula to help block the flow of blood or prevent a rupture of the vessel. The cavity that exists between the lungs and underneath the chest wall. It is normally empty, with the lung immediately against the inside of the chest wall.