Friedrich Engels — German Philosopher born on November 28, , died on August 05, Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist and journalist, who founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx. Utilize our cutting edge search engine to make Friedrich Engels Action quotes and wisdom easily discoverable. Friedrich Engels quotes,Friedrich, Engels, author, authors, writer, writers, people, famous people Explore some of Friedrich Engels best quotations and sayings on Quotes.
Engels had enormous influence on the theories of marxism and dialectical materialism.
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And check out the humorous quotes of many more funny authors in my large collection. Since chronic pain is often misunderstood by others and the Freedom is the recognition of necessity. Had he not been the junior partner, much for which his senior partner is known would not have been done. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
The state is nothing but an instrument of opression Engels always considered himself a junior partner, and so, without doubt, he was. Managing a branch of his father's business in Manchester, England, from , Engels became appalled at the poverty of the workers. He was the eldest son of Friedrich Sr. In , they published The Communist Manifesto together.
Enjoy the best Friedrich Engels quotes and picture quotes! Friedrich Engels The state is nothing but an instrument of oppression of one class by another--no less so in a democratic republic than in a monarchy. Explore some of Friedrich Engels best quotations and sayings on Quotes. Freedom is the recognition of necessity. May you find great value in these quotes by Friedrich Engels. Friedrich Engels was born on Nov. There were but 89 arrests for criminal offences in , and as early as the number had risen to 3,, and in to 4, Let these quotes by Friedrich Engels help you to have a positive attitude toward life, and to think positively.
The very early Engels was Friedrich Engels. He lived from 15th October, — 25th August, , and his work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. All history has been a history of class struggles between dominated classes at various stages of social development. Friedrich Engels was born in Barmen, Rhine Province of the kingdom of Prussia now part of Wuppertal in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany as the elder son of a German textile manufacturer, with whom he had a strained relationship. Friedrich Engels November 28, — August 5, was a 19th-century German philosopher, social scientist, and journalist.
Karl Marx quotes: quotes from Karl Marx, 30 from Engels, with links to the context. We have rounded some famous quotes and sayings by Friedrich Engels which have been excerpted from his books, writings, philosophies, researches, thoughts, works and life. We are thankful for their contributions and encourage you to make your own.
Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar. In he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on Sourced quotations by the German Social scientist Friedrich Engels — about state, class and bourgeoisie.
Quotations are not only inspirational, and a source of wisdom, but can also be seen as a nice way to get a feeling about a certain thinker or visionary. He loved the upper classes, and wasn't so fond of the lower orders, but according to Engels, Balzac was such a great realist because despite his own interests in prejudices, he couldn't help recreating history in his novels—even when that history went against his own ideology.
Look at the Paris Commune. Friedrich Engels, German socialist philosopher, the closest collaborator of Karl Marx in the foundation of modern communism. He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx. Everything must justify its existence before the judgment seat of Reason, or give up existence. Barmen was an industrial hub and Friedrich Sr.
The notes and additions he has supplied are few, but those few are judicious they are short and to the purpose. In the course of a thorough thrashing of the author, Empson takes but a little breath before turning on the editor. Mr Mill, junior, is not likely to have underrated the importance of the trust confided to him by Mr Bentham. If it were likely that a pamphlet might be compiled of the minor inaccuracies of the original, there could be no object in leaving more than a given portion of them uncorrected, and it was surely quite unnecessary to add supplemental errors in the notes.
We must leave Mr Mill, junior, under rebuke for having found fault with the English law, lacking the knowledge of a craftsman; while it is confessed that the law should be level and accessible to all understandings—when the very accusation of ignorance becomes a condemnation of the thing indicated. There can be no doubt that Mr. Otherwise I have nothing to suggest. I should also wish a paragraph to the effect of that on the opposite page, to be added in brackets, at the end of the preface.
Bentham admissible. Otherwise I shall have the appearance of censuring the tone of the work, which I am very far indeed from intending. I still wish to suppress any direct mention of my name, not to prevent it from being known to the reader if he chuses to enquire about it which I know cannot be done, but because its suppression is as it were, an act of disavowal as to any appropriateness in the notes and additions to my present frame of mind, and because I do not like to perk in the face of the world in general that the person known by my name has written things which he is ashamed of, when my name has never in any instance been put to writings I am not [ sic ] ashamed of.
One must not assume, however, that the experience was a disaster for Mill. His account, written, it should be recalled, some thirty years after the editing, concludes with a passage that emphasizes individual without entirely forgetting general utility:.
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The time occupied in this editorial work was extremely well employed in respect to my own improvement. The theory of evidence being in itself one of the most important of Edition: current; Page: [ xv ] his subjects, and ramifying into most of the others, the book contains, very fully developed, a great proportion of all his best thoughts, while, among more special things; it comprises the most elaborate exposure of the vices and defects of English law, as it then was, which is to be found in his works; not confined to the law of evidence, but including, by way of illustrative episode, the entire procedure or practice of Westminster Hall.
The direct knowledge, therefore, which I obtained from the book, and which was imprinted upon me much more thoroughly than it could have been by mere reading, was itself no small acquisition. But this occupation 30 did for me what might seem less to be expected, it gave a great start to my powers of composition.
Everything which I wrote subsequently to this editorial employment, was markedly superior to anything that I had written before it. But his earlier style. So long a course of this admirable writing had a considerable effect upon my own. Nor can one doubt that his practised diligence and beaverish industry were helped into habit by the work. Also, the sheer bulk of the Rationale calls for the kind of commendation too often denied to editors.
And the interconnections are significant. In the first place, the examination of evidence is at the centre of induction. In a letter to Cliffe Leslie, the comment, late and solicited, is definite:. I agree with you in going the complete length with Bentham as to the admissibility of evidence. The one point on which alone B seems to me to be wrong is in allowing the judge to interrogate.
However, on the whole Mill took comparatively little interest in Edition: current; Page: [ xviii ] most legal questions, the early decision not to enter the Inns of Court being as decisive as that not to go to Cambridge. His mind did not take a legal bent, and so, even allowing for his youth and inexperience, it is not surprising to find little obvious originality in his notes and additions, which had not even the energy derived from self-prompting. To judge that they are seems apposite.
Anyone who has had occasion to work with Bentham manuscripts will recognise the magnitude of the task, the crabbed script, the convoluted prose, the tendency to repetition and, above all, the sheer volume of the material, are enough to daunt committed and experienced editors.
The quality of the achievement is less easy to assess. Mill competently filled in a number of gaps; he was generally scrupulous in identifying passages of which he was the author and in indicating points where he disagreed with Bentham. In rebuking the Edinburgh for its earlier sins see esp. Apart from these local and political short-term reverberations, the evidence suggests, as he might have said, that a less bellicose and dismissive tone would have been appropriate, even though it would have left Bentham alone on the provocative salient he himself typically advanced.
It must be seen, therefore, as a much more carefully considered endeavour, and one that reflects lifelong intellectual and indeed personal concerns. The Autobiography gives the initial context. He worked at the Analysis during several successive vacations, up to the year , when it was published, and allowed me to read the manuscript, portion by portion, as it advanced. After its publication J. Mill enlisted others in the regime of careful reading and study to which he attributed so much. Our rule was to discuss thoroughly every point raised, whether great or small, prolonging the discussion until all who took part were satisfied with the conclusion they had individually arrived at, and to follow up every topic of collateral speculation which the chapter or the conversation suggested, never leaving it until we had untied every knot which we found.
We repeatedly kept up the discussion of some one point for several weeks, thinking intently on it during the intervals of our meetings. With this our exercises ended. I have always dated from these conversations my own real inauguration as an original and independent thinker It was also through them that I acquired, or very much strengthened, a mental habit to which I attribute all that I have ever done, or ever shall do, in speculation; that of never accepting half-solutions of difficulties as complete; never abandoning a puzzle, but again and again returning to it until it was cleared up; never allowing obscure corners of a subject to remain unexplored, because they did not appear important; never thinking that I perfectly understood any part of a subject until I understood the whole.
It is surely not fanciful to hear an echo of this discussion in the Preface that Mill supplied for the edition of the Analysis in As a searcher into original truths, the principal contribution which Mr. Mill has rendered to philosophy, is to be found in his most recent work, The Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind. Nothing more clearly proves what I have before asserted, viz.
After quickly summarizing the doctrine, and suggesting that some points should be contended, the notice continues:. The moment in which this remarkable work appeared is unfortunate for its temporary success. Had it been published sixty years ago—or perhaps sixty years hence, it would perhaps have placed the reputation of its author beyond any of his previous writings. In this work he evinced analytical powers rarely, if ever, surpassed; and which have placed him high in the list of those subtile inquirers who have attempted to resolve all the powers of the mind into a very small number of simple elements.
Mill took up this analysis where Hartley had left it, and applied the same method to the more complex phenomena, which the latter did not attempt to explain. From the general neglect of metaphysical studies in the present age, this work, which, at some periods of our history, would have placed its author on a level, in point of reputation, with the highest names in the republic of letters, has been less read and appreciated than his other writings. I commenced and completed soon after I had left Parliament the performance of a duty to philosophy and to the memory of my father, by preparing and publishing an edition of the Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind with notes bringing up the doctrines of that admirable book to the latest improvements in science and in speculation.
Bain and myself, while Mr. Grote supplied some valuable contributions on points in the history of philosophy incidentally raised, and Dr. Andrew Findlater supplied the deficiencies in the book which had been occasioned by the imperfect philological knowledge of the time when it was written. Admirably adapted for a class-book of the Experience Metaphysics, it only required to be enriched, and in some cases corrected, by the results of more recent labours in the same school of thought, to stand, as it now does, in company with Mr.
There can be no doubt that, as in the Autobiography itself, in the new edition of the Analysis the two motives, loyal devotion to his father and active service in the war against intuitionism, were genuine, united, and indeed inseparable. Normally the allegiance is clear. In a passage not found in the Early Draft of his Autobiography, he says of his father:.
And he emphasizes the link between his own major work and the Analysis when explaining the polemical purpose of his System of Logic:. To expel it from these, is to drive it from its stronghold: and because this had never been effectually done, the intuitive school, even after what my father had written in his Analysis of the Mind, had in appearance, and as far as published writings were concerned, on the whole the best of the argument. Again, explaining his purpose in assailing Hamilton, Mill says:. That philosophy [the intuitional metaphysics], not always in its moderate forms, had ruled the thought of Europe for the greater part of a century.
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About the intentions, then, nothing more need be said. About the effect, there is little to be claimed specifically for the Analysis. Of course, though the details are moot and the history tangled, twentieth-century Anglo-American philosophy drew much impetus from the experientialist school and much of its energy from opposing the heirs of the intuitionists, and experimental psychologists, who have shown little interest in their antecedents, owe a considerable debt to the associationists.
A few are merely locative e. He is hardest on James Mill in the discussions of general names, classification, connotation and denotation, memory and expectation, the import of propositions, attention, will, and belief. Probably the best illustrations of his tone come in passages where he strives for balance:. The reason assigned by the author for considering association by resemblance as a case of association by contiguity, is perhaps the least successful attempt at a generalisation and simplification of the laws of mental phenomena, to be found in the work.
It ought to be remembered that the author, as the text shews, attached little importance to it. And perhaps, not thinking it important, he passed it over with a less amount of patient thought than he usually bestowed on his analyses. That the pleasures or pains of another person can only be pleasurable or painful to us through the association of our own pleasures or pains with them, is true in one sense, which is probably that intended by the author, but not true in another, against which he has not sufficiently guarded his mode of expression For students of J.
The battle is joined most obviously at , and in the final chapters, but there are skirmishes throughout e. As a result, useful parallel accounts and modifications of questions that occupy Mill elsewhere are found in these notes. Matters dealt with in his System of Logic recur, for instance in reference to syllogism The most compelling modifications relate to moral theory, the notes to Chaps. Here, indeed, interpretation moves close to biography. Also, he refers to ascending Skiddaw , an experience that occupies an important place in his walking tour of the Lake District.
My own memory recals to me the intense and mysterious delight which in early childhood I had in the colours of certain flowers; a delight far exceeding any I am now capable of receiving from colour of any description, with all its acquired associations. And this was the case at far too early an age, and with habits of observation far too little developed, to make any of the subtler combinations of form and proportion a source of much pleasure to me. This last pleasure was acquired very gradually, and did not, until after the commencement of manhood, attain any considerable height.
Once more, the evidence of the gradual growth of pleasure in form and proportion is found in his walking-tour journals, where the Romantic picturesque is applied in personal ways. The susceptibility to the physical pleasures produced by colours and musical sounds, and by forms if any part of the pleasure they afford is physical , is probably extremely different in different organisations. In natures in which any one of these susceptibilities is originally faint, more will depend on association.
The extreme sensibility of this part of our constitution to small and unobvious influences, makes it certain that the sources of the feelings of beauty and deformity must be, to a material extent, different in different individuals. The bent of his mind was towards that, in which also his greatest strength lay; in seizing the larger features of a subject—the commanding laws which govern and connect many phenomena.
Having reached these, he sometimes gives himself up to the current of thoughts which those comprehensive laws suggest, not stopping to guard himself carefully in the minutiae of their application, nor devoting much of his thoughts to anticipating all the objections that could be made, though the necessity of replying to some of them might have led him to detect imperfections in his analyses. It is tempting to quote the former at length, but one extract will perhaps be sufficient to suggest the whole. These and other moralities he conveyed in brief sentences, uttered as occasion arose, of grave exhortation, or stern reprobation and contempt.
With that account one must compare the passage in the Preface:. The moral qualities which shone in his conversation were, if possible, more valuable to those who had the privilege of sharing it, than even the intellectual. They were precisely such as young men of cultivated intellect, with good aspirations but a character not yet thoroughly formed, are likely to derive most benefit from. A deeply rooted trust in the general progress of the human race, joined with a good sense which made him never build unreasonable or exaggerated hopes on any one event or contingency; an habitual estimate of men according to their real worth as sources of good to their fellow-creatures, and an unaffected contempt for the weaknesses or temptations that divert them from that object,—making those with whom he conversed feel how painful it would be to them to be counted by him among such backsliders; a sustained earnestness, in which neither vanity nor personal ambition had any part, and which spread from him by a sympathetic contagion to those who had sufficient moral preparation to value and seek the opportunity; this was the mixture of qualities which made his conversation almost unrivalled in its salutary moral effect.
He has been accused of asperity, and there was asperity in some few of his writings; but no party spirit, personal rivalry, or wounded amour-propre ever stirred it up. Few sons have done so much to praise while explaining—but then few fathers have needed both so much.
One can date the initiation quite accurately. He introduced the fourteen-year-old Mill, six years his junior, to the pleasures of gathering and, emphatically, of cataloguing. The Linnaeus of Ethics is yet to come. Logic, and the dialectics of Plato, which had formed so large a part of my previous training, had given me a strong relish for accurate classification. This taste had been strengthened and enlightened by the study of botany, on the principles of what is called the Natural Method, which I had taken up with great zeal, though only as an amusement, 87 during my stay in France; and when I found scientific classification applied to the great and complex subject of Punishable Acts, under the guidance of the ethical principle of Pleasurable and Painful Consequences, followed out in the method of detail introduced into these subjects by Bentham, I felt taken up to an eminence from which I could survey a vast mental domain, and see stretching out into the distance intellectual results beyond all computation.
IV, Chap. Although the scientific arrangements of organic nature afford as yet the only complete example of the true principles of rational classification, whether as to the formation of groups or of series, those principles are applicable to all cases in which mankind are called upon to bring the various parts of any extensive subject into mental co-ordination.
They are as much to the point when objects are to be classed for purposes of art or business, as for those of science. The proper arrangement, for example, of a code of laws, depends on the same scientific conditions as the classifications in natural history; nor could there be a better preparatory discipline for that important function, than the study of the principles of a natural arrangement, not only in the abstract, but in their actual application to the class of phenomena for which they were first elaborated, and which are still the best school for learning their use.
Of this the great authority on codification, Bentham, was perfectly aware: and his early Fragment on Government, the admirable introduction to a series of writings unequalled in their department, contains clear and just views as far as they go on the meaning of a natural arrangement, such as could scarcely have occurred to any one who lived anterior to the age of Linnaeus and Bernard de Jussieu. Nonetheless, his moral philosophy came, through a complicated personal development, to incorporate aesthetic feelings: his intense appreciation of landscape, first stimulated on the same journey that introduced him to botany, helped shape the poetic values that he found essential to moral practice.
The evidence comes in several forms, physical as well as literary. These collections, which included Indian plants given to Mill by his colleague, Dr. He commented:. These collections are of both scientific value and historical interest, on account of the eminence of their former possessor as a philosopher and writer, and because his botanical tastes and acquirements were well and widely known. In early life Mr Mill was a diligent observer and collector of British plants, and made some important discoveries relating to the Flora of these Islands, and he continued collecting and observing wherever he resided or travelled up to a very short period before his death.
The complete herbarium of the late J. Stuart Mill was presented after his death by Miss Helen Taylor. Although better known for his philosophical and other writings Mr. Mill collected diligently in the neighbourhood of London and in his later years travelled extensively in south Europe. The range of his specimens extends from the Pyrenees to the Bithynian Olympus, and Greece is particularly well represented partly by plants gathered by his own hands and partly by a collection procured from Professor Van Heldreich of Athens.
Amongst plants from Asia Minor is a new and very distinct species of flat-leaved Sedum which has been described by Mr. Baker in the Journal of Botany under the name of Sedum Millii. Also a record of the donation to Melbourne has not been located. Gray agreed to accept the material Hooker did not wish to retain at Kew, and when it arrived, made a selection from Edition: current; Page: [ xxxiv ] it, which is now at Harvard.
Redfield, a scientific friend in Philadelphia, donated the bulk of the collection to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, which was in the process of revitalizing its collections. Some, however, were traded by Redfield, then Conservator of the Botanical Section in the Academy, to Isaac Martindale, another active supporter; his collection eventually was purchased by the U. National Arboretum in , and in it were some sheets attributable to Mill. Like all dedicated observers in that heyday of natural history, Mill knew the value of lists; like many, he was obsessive in keeping them; like few, he was famous enough to have them preserved.
The pass [beyond Tilberthwaite] contains much boggy ground, which is completely covered with that delightful shrub, the sweet gale, also called the Dutch myrtle, from its myrtle like appearance and smell: here and in Langdale, whole acres are covered with it, and the air is perfumed by it to a great distance. Mixed with its little bushes, a more delicate plant the Lancashire bog asphodel raises its bright yellow spikes. But perhaps you have found it either in [Riverhead] or in [the Weald?
By the bye among those I want Henry to dry for me, I forgot to mention the common elder. She, however, took or was induced to adopt an interest in his hobby. For instance, he reports to her from St. I was not at all tired, except the hand which carried the plants, for the load.
I never felt so much the embarras des richesses. I am here in the season of flowers as well as of all other beauty. Even she, much more physically active than her mother, sometimes found Mill too much for her. Mill is still well, although he suffers from the great heat. Throughout his life, his letters written during or after tours report interesting findings to sympathetic ears and at least temporarily sedentary legs.
An early example reveals Mill in May moving towards acquaintance with William Jackson Hooker, the leading English botanist of the day, and author of the just-published British Flora. Through the agency of Henry Cole, who knew Hooker, Mill sends his notes on the work, giving additional stations, especially for Oenanthe aprifloria and Vicia sativa. He adds:. I have explored some parts of the County very fully, and almost every part of it more or less, but I expect to make many more discoveries before I have done.
The most extensive single letter is worth extracting at length, because it suggests much that may have been lost in non-extant correspondence. His friend Henry S. He asked Chapman to send Jameson New Zealand seeds for trial in India, and he added, turning to the personal:. Many thanks for thinking of ferns for me. If you have anybody there who can name them it would be useful, as there are probably no books here on the botany of New Zealand; but if not, I will find someone to name and describe them here, as in any case there are likely to be new ones among them.
All this activity did not mean that Mill confused collecting with extirpation. The journal, which began publication in June , was initially conducted by George Luxford, was owned and printed by another botanical enthusiast, Edward Newman, and was published by yet another, John Van Voorst. From May to March the editor was Alexander Irvine. They are not regularly distributed, however, seven of the ten in the first series being from , and nothing appearing between and , when the first of his eighteen in the second series appeared.
It would appear that mention in this list did not preclude publication of an actual extract elsewhere in the same or succeeding issues, though there were no regular quotations from correspondence until , except for , when three extracts from Mill appeared. Further evidence of his passion, not in itself persuasive or exciting for the general reader, comes from his collection of reference works. The following titles, however, were included in the gift of his library to Somerville College, Oxford, in those marked with Edition: current; Page: [ xli ] an asterisk are no longer in the collection : C.
Babington, Manual of British Botany, 5th ed. London, ; A. Flowering Plants. Indigenous to the Isle of Wight, ed. Hooker and T. Paris, ; M. Smith, Flora of South Kent ; H. Watson, Compendium of the Cybele Britannica, 4 vols.
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Many of these are well worn, though some must have been difficult to carry in the field. What they demonstrate in the company of all the other evidence is the remarkable devotion that Mill gave to his avocation. In an age of amateurs, he made a mark, though not a top one. Mainly content with the pursuit as an outdoor occupation, with such an amount of home-work as was necessary to determine the names and affinities of the species, Mr. Mill never penetrated deeply into the philosophy of botany, so as to take rank among those who have, like Herbert Spencer, advanced that science by original work either of experiment or generalization, or have entered into the battle-field where the great biological questions of the day are being fought over.
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His slight contributions—slight compared to his work in other areas as well as to the major labours of others in this—are not quite trivial. Surrey was his special territory, but certainly not his only one. I made a Flora of Surrey. The glimpses into his daily life and pleasures certainly help correct the view of him as a joyless moral machine. A letter from Mill to Herbert Spencer, not himself known for playful exuberance, is welcome evidence:.
My murderous propensities are confined to the vegetable world. I take as great a delight in the pursuit of plants as you do in that of salmon, and find it an excellent incentive to exercise. Indeed I attribute the good health I am fortunate enough to have, very much to my great love for exercise, and for what I think the most healthy form of it, walking.
My late attack at Paris [at the end of June] was choleraic, dangerous for a few hours, and leaving me a little weak, but I am now quite recovered, thanks partly to having wandered about the Dunes at Calais and the Downs at Dover in pursuit of specimens for my herbarium. The writer of this notice well remembers meeting, a few years since, the at that time parliamentary logician, with his trousers turned up out of the mud, and armed with the tin insignia of his craft, busily occupied in the search after a marsh-loving rarity in a typical spongy wood on the clay to the north of London.
On Saturday, 3 May, , he made a fifteen-mile botanizing walk in Orange with Edition: current; Page: [ xliii ] Fabre, and had lunch with him before returning to Avignon, where he developed a chill on the Monday, and died on Wednesday, 7 May, of the erysipelas endemic to the area. His last extant letter was to Fabre, concerning their trip, and what seems to have been his last written word is a notation of a plant located on that final—and happy—excursion. It will be noted that in both Mill emphasizes the importance of systematic method, praising the Continental physiologists for their powers of generalization, which the English were only beginning to emulate.
His botanical bent is also shown in his praise of Carpenter for including the physiology of plants in his discussion. Anyone interested in Mill and medicine, however, should turn to his letters, especially those to his wife, and to a manuscript of twelve pages suggesting the proper preventive care and medication appropriate for visitors to Egypt. In January he confirmed that will and added a codicil willing her additional properties he had acquired in the neighbourhood, as well as any he might acquire in the future.
Another codicil in January added to her legacy all real and personal property that he possessed in Avignon and environs. Finally, in Mill added a long codicil to his English will, cancelling earlier codicils to it not now known, reconfirming Helen Taylor as executor and, failing her, Ellis and Thornton.
His French will was mentioned, and his wish that his mortal remains be buried in the tomb of his wife in Avignon. In the manuscript list of his published works he included four articles to which he felt his contribution sufficiently justified the claim of co-authorship. Two of these are related to his specific interests, and are consequently included in earlier thematic volumes of the Collected Works.
They contribute, however, to an appreciation of his role and activity as editor, especially when read with his correspondence of the period, and his editorial notes to the London and Westminster, which are reprinted in Volume I of the Collected Works. Napier declined, but gave important details in his letter, and suggested Charles Shaw as a substitute; in his reply Mill indicated that Shaw was not appropriate, as his work would be reviewed in the article, and said that an unnamed author had been found. He spoke often on the issue, and served Edition: current; Page: [ xlvi ] actively on the Select Committee considering the proposal.
The Committee issued three reports, two in , and a third in He was elected to it in , and became a member of its ruling Committee in , as did his friend Edwin Chadwick. His father was one of its founding members a portion of the draft rules is in his hand , though he seldom attended and resigned in , presumably because of ill-heath; and George Grote was the first treasurer. The membership, originally limited to thirty, and raised to thirty-five in , was not thoroughly orthodox but economically eclectic, including businessmen, politicians cabinet ministers were honorary members after , civil servants, and men of letters, as well as writers on economics.
The sessions began with a dinner at p. His questions cover, not surprisingly, a wide range of topics, from technical definitions, through queries about the practical effects of measures, to broad social and moral issues. His final appearance is interesting in that he gave attendance at the Club as the reason for his return to London early in July ; he in fact became caught up reluctantly in the successful campaign for his election on 11 July as Member of Parliament for Westminster.
Considering what those dots conceal, I should further confess that the temptation to include in this volume all the various bits and pieces connected with Mill has been very great. An inoculation of common sense, however, not unrelated to a cost-benefit regime, has controlled the impulse. As indicated above, we have had to exclude his manuscript botanical lists. The categorical view thus generates the strong dichotomy dividing civilized and savage peoples, leading to different political rights, and even different moral standards, for either group.
Like his father, J. This reductionism ignores the internal value or agency of any cultural group below a certain civilizational threshold. Subject cultures are interchangeable and consequently valueless; the parameters of a pre-determined index of social progress provide no measure by which to recognize the value of cul- tural particularity. The converse of this was, of course, to regard civilized, European social forms as unequivocally good, occupying a categorically dis- tinct and hierarchically superior position on the civilizational ladder.
In many of his writings, and most problematically in On Liberty and Considerations on Representative Government, Mill does appeal to the categorical distinction described above. For insightful commentary on the role of historical temporality in relation to colonialism, see Dipesh Chakrabarty, Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference Princeton, John Robson Toronto, , p. Mill reiterates this view — that the capacity for cooperation is the lynchpin of civilization — in his Principles of Political Economy.
John M. Robson, introduction by V. Bladen Toronto, , p. Cited hereafter as PPE. Robson, introduction by Stefan Collini Toronto, , p. MARWAH In these passages and others , Mill attributes the successes of civilized societies to their superior capacity for reasoned calculation, their discipline and their willingness to engage in self-sacrifice; in short, they are able to per- ceive the benefits of cooperation.
These views are not restricted to his earlier texts. Acton London, , p. Cited hereafter as RG. Schultz and Varouxakis, pp. Reject- ing the biological account of social development, he perceives the develop- ment of any people — including Europeans — out of the savage state as a matter of historical contingency and sociological-institutional conditioning, and so as highly variable.
Not any superior excellence in them, which, 32 Ibid. Robson, introduction by R. McRae Toronto, , p. Cited hereafter as SL. XXI, p. See Varouxakis, Mill on Nationality, ch. MARWAH when it exists, exists as the effect not as the cause; but their remarkable diver- sity of character and culture. Europe is, in my judgment, wholly indebted to this plurality of paths for its progressive and many-sided development.
This produced the social conditions that pushed Europeans to learn the hallmark of civilization: cooperation. Fortuitous social diversity and proximity forced Europeans to cede their immediate self-interest and realize the long-term advantages of social combination. Cited hereafter as OL. Robson, introduction by John C. Cairns Toronto, , p.
Cited hereafter as GLH. Yet Mill is keenly aware of the plurality of ways in which these beneficial tendencies become manifested in the modern world, and of the problems that, unat- tended, these are capable of producing. Throughout his writings on politics and society, he cautions against the pathologies of unguided, or unrestrained, civilization.
While praising the general tendencies of civilization, Mill is deeply critical of the particular iterations of civilization embodied in modern European and American societies. While industrial, economic and institutional advances are undoubtedly beneficial, civilized societies also face deep social and political problems requiring institutional restraint. Robson, introduction by Alexander Brady Toronto, , p. Cited here- after as DTA2. Cited hereafter as DTA1. Modern, Western societies produced the social and political conditions corrupting individuality and originality, as Mill notes in On Liberty.
These are not incidental problems; the social tyranny against which Mill cautions in On Liberty is endemic in democracy and requires concerted institutional rectification. Civilization is Janus-faced; all of the benefits of civilized society are accompanied by the ills — psycho- logical, social and political — characteristic of modern European societies. Robson, introduction by F.