The critical essays span more than twenty years of commentary and suggest several approaches to the story--formalistic, thematic, deconstructionist-- all within the grasp of the undergraduate, while the introduction also points interested students toward still other resources. Useful for both beginning and advanced students, this casebook provides an in-depth introduction to one of America's most gifted modern writers.
A lyrical, philosophical, and often explicit exploration of personal suffering and the limitations of vision and love, as refracted through the color blue. With Bluets, Maggie Nelson has entered the pantheon of brilliant lyric essayists. Revoyr's novel is honest in detailing southern California's brutal history, and honorable in showing how families survived with love and tenacity and dignity.
A young Japanese-American woman, Jackie Ishida, is in her last semester of law school when her grandfather, Frank Sakai, dies unexpectedly. While trying to fulfill a request from his will, Jackie discovers that four African-American boys were killed in the store Frank owned during the Watts Riots of Along with James Lanier, a cousin of one of the victims, Jackie tries to piece together the story of the boys' deaths.
In the process, she unearths the long-held secrets of her family's history. Southland depicts a young woman in the process of learning that her own history has bestowed upon her a deep obligation to be engaged in the larger world.
And in Frank Sakai and his African-American friends, it presents characters who find significant common ground in their struggles, but who also engage each other across grounds--historical and cultural--that are still very much in dispute. Moving in and out of the past--from the internment camps of World War II, to the barley fields of the Crenshaw District in the s, to the streets of Watts in the s, to the night spots and garment factories of the s--Southland weaves a tale of Los Angeles in all of its faces and forms. She lives and works in Los Angeles.
Account Options Sign in. Top charts. New arrivals. How do we know that Emily Dickinson wrote poems?
How do we recognize a poem when we see one? In Dickinson's Misery , Virginia Jackson poses fundamental questions about reading habits we have come to take for granted. Because Dickinson's writing remained largely unpublished when she died in , decisions about what it was that Dickinson wrote have been left to the editors, publishers, and critics who have brought Dickinson's work into public view. The familiar letters, notes on advertising fliers, verses on split-open envelopes, and collections of verses on personal stationery tied together with string have become the Dickinson poems celebrated since her death as exemplary lyrics.
If so, then what is—or was—a lyric?
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To put briefly what I will unfold at length in the pages that follow: from the mid-nineteenth through the beginning of the twenty-first century, to be lyric is to be read as lyric—and to be read as a lyric is to be printed and framed as a lyric. Whereas other poetic genres epic, poems on affairs of state, georgic, pastoral, verse epistle, epitaph, elegy, satire may remain embedded in specific historical occasions or narratives, and thus depend upon some description of those occasions and narratives for their interpretation it is hard to understand The Dunciad, for example, if one does not know the characters involved or have access to lots of handy footnotes , the poetry that comes to be understood as lyric after the eighteenth century is thought to require as its context only the occasion of its reading.
It is simply to propose that the riddles, papyrae, epigrams, songs, sonnets, blasons , Lieder , elegies, dialogues, conceits, ballads, hymns and odes considered lyrical in the Western tradition before the early nineteenth century were lyric in a very different sense than was or will be the poetry that the mediating hands of editors, reviewers, critics, teachers, and poets have rendered as lyric in the last century and a half. As my syntax indicates, that shift in genre definition is primarily a shift in temporality; as variously mimetic poetic subgenres collapsed into the expressive romantic lyric of the nineteenth century, the various modes of poetic circulation—scrolls, manuscript books, song cycles, miscellanies, broadsides, hornbooks, libretti, quartos, chapbooks, recitation manuals, annuals, gift books, newspapers, anthologies—tended to disappear behind an idealized scene of reading progressively identified with an idealized moment of expression.
While other modes—dramatic genres, the essay, the novel—may have been seen to be historically contingent, the lyric emerged as the one genre indisputably literary and independent of social contingency, perhaps not intended for public reading at all. By the early nineteenth century, poetry had never before been so dependent on the mediating hands of the editors and reviewers who managed the print public sphere, yet in this period an idea of the lyric as ideally unmediated by those hands or those readers began to emerge and is still very much with us.
Dickinson's misery: a theory of lyric reading
Yet even if the lyric especially in its broadly defined difference from narrative and drama is a larger version of the new antique, a retro-projection of modernity, a new concept artificially treated to appear old, the fact that it is a figment of modern poetics does not prevent it from becoming a creature of modern poetry. The interesting part of the story lies in the twists and turns of the plot through which the lyric imaginary takes historical form.
But what plot is that? My argument here is that the lyric takes form through the development of reading practices in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that become the practice of literary criticism. As Mark Jeffreys eloquently describes the process I am calling lyricization, lyric did not conquer poetry: poetry was reduced to lyric. Thus by the early twenty-first century it became possible for Mary Poovey to describe the lyricization of literary criticism as the dependence of all postromantic professional literary reading on the genre of the romantic lyric.
Or that might be the critical predicament if the retrospective definition and inflation of the lyric were either as historically linear or as hermeneutically circular as much recent criticism, whether historicist or formalist, would lead us to believe. What has been left out of most thinking about the process of lyricization is that it is an uneven series of negotiations of many different forms of circulation and address.
Shenstone, and concludes that the names of so many men of learning and character the Editor hopes will serve as amulet, to guard him from every unfavourable censure for having bestowed any attention on a parcel of Old Ballads.
Poetry is feeling confessing itself to itself, in moments of solitude. On the contrary, because of the explosion of popular print, by the early nineteenth century in England, as Stuart Curran has put it, the most eccentric feature of [the] entire culture [was] that it was simply mad for poetry —and as Janowitz has trenchantly argued, such madness extended from the public poetry of the eighteenth century through an enormously popular range of individualist, socialist, and variously political and personal poems. At the risk of making a long story short, it is fair to say that the progressive idealization of what was a much livelier, more explicitly mediated, historically contingent and public context for many varieties of poetry had culminated by the middle of the twentieth century around the time Dickinson began to be published in complete editions in an idea of the lyric as temporally self-present or unmediated.
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Includes bibliographical references p. This book has been composed in Palatino Printed on acid-free paper. The poem is printed, with its comparative manuscript note, as follows: 2 There is another sky, Ever serene and fair, And there is another sunshine, Though it be darkness there; Never mind faded forests, Austin, Never mind silent fields— Here is a little forest, Whose leaf is ever green; Here is a brighter garden, Where not a frost has been; In its unfading flowers I hear the bright bee hum; Prithee, my brother, Into my garden come!
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Gottlieb and Kimball: "Reading Lyrics" (Pantheon) - Diane Rehm
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