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Shame on you! I hope his family sues! But not good for Crock-Pot. We love him and we love you too. In fact, there were even some upsides for Crock-Pot, as it got a hefty dose of unexpected attention. Ellen DeGeneres defended the appliance on air. Holmes Report 29 Oct We feel that the views of the reader are as important as the views of the writer.

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Crisis Management at the Speed of the Internet - 1st Edition

Creativity in PR In-depth annual research into the PR industry's efforts to raise creative standards. The Holmes Report Book. PRovoke: Global PR Summit The biggest PR conference of the year, a high-level forum designed for senior practitioners to address the critical issues that matter most. Then, there was the United Airlines scandal that provoked a massive outrage on social media and even a federal investigation. Although all these issues were different, they have one thing in common - social media.

Some companies did everything right and were able to deal with their crisis and even benefit from it. Others made mistakes and lost clients, money, and even their reputation. But for us, there is a bright side. We can all learn from the mistakes of others and use the techniques of successful companies for ourselves. The conflict occurred in United Airlines flight number , which departed from Chicago to Louisville on April 9, Before passengers began boarding, it was announced that the flight was overbooked.

United needed to put their employees on this plane. No one volunteered.

Crisis Management at the Speed of the Internet: Trend Report

When boarding was complete,it was announced that four passengers had to leave the plane. Again, no one volunteered, so the company decided to choose passengers randomly. Two of the passengers left, and one refused. The one who remained said that he was a doctor and needed to get to his patients. When he refused to leave the plane, he was forcefully dragged from his seat and was struck in the process. The crisis started when a cell phone video recording of the incident was published on social media.

This statement provoked a new wave of crisis. Instead of apologizing for forcing the passenger to deplane,Munoz apologized for his inconvenience. They satirized the situation, created memes and GIFs, and made jokes. Why was that? The instance that occurred on the plane was quite traumatic to those that witnessed it personally and those that saw it on video. It deserved a heartfelt response, but the tweet showed a lack of understanding and accountability.

Online apologies have to be carefully crafted. Think of the emotions that need to be addressed and consider your words carefully - "how could this be offensive"? An apology should not sound like a press-release. When a brand makes a mistake they need to own up to it and let the public know they are going to address it and ensure it never happens again. When you are ready to apologize publicly, say it with passion and from your heart. Do not use formal language or sound like a typical press-release. Pepsi presented a brand new advertising campaign featuring the mega-celebrity Kendall Jenner.

Within 48 hours the video got nearly 1. In the video, Kendall throws off her blond wig and runs away from a photo shoot to join a protest in the street. The most epic moment of the video is when Kendall hands a can of Pepsi to a police officer, who takes a sip and smiles at his partners. Memes and jokes were spread all over social media.

The social media crisis had begun. As in the previous case, this fiasco affected the market value of the company. Clearly, we missed the mark and we apologize. Although, that was exactly what they did. The social media audience felt that the brand made light of a serious issue, and that provoked the crisis. In addition, many tools are available for moving operational data into a warehouse, extracting and cleaning them, and loading them in parallel. The warehouses hold much more data than do operational transaction-processing systems, often terabytes of information.

Database languages and query processors have extensions for efficient data analysis. For example, they could analyze all sales for a large retailer such as Wal-Mart and display it by store, by department, and by quarter. Such tasks frequently involve analyzing hundreds of millions to billions of records. To support applications with many users, a middle tier is evolving between the database and desktop. This application server acts as an intermediary between clients and back-end databases. The client portion of an application might simply be a form in a Web browser that captures some information about what data and operations are needed.

The application server determines what back-. In relational databases, pluggable modules called extenders or cartridges are added. A well-managed company such as Wal-Mart can be in control of all its data and can make at least the formats consistent. The ad hoc composition that characterizes much of crisis management information processing is not centrally managed, due to the large number of independent organizations involved, and can present huge challenges for analysis. Maier said that the database companies are starting to figure out how their products can make this middle layer easier to construct and manage.

A benefit of this approach is that, rather than trying to update 10, clients with a new application including worrying about providing and controlling remote access to each , one could simply update 10 application servers with new logic. Amid all these advances, databases continue to have limitations. One is the disk-centric focus of current database system products. For example, some people still argue that a large enterprise should not deploy servers in all the locations where it conducts business but should instead have one large server to which each business site is connected.

In other words, the focus is still on data storage rather than on data movement, which Maier pointed to as a key to the future of database technology. Database systems should involve data staging and movement, rather than just holding data in readiness for future queries. That is, if a user uncovers some interesting information of a new type and wants to preserve it and its structure for manipulation and delivery later, the current generation of database system products generally cannot readily accommodate the new information.

For database systems to expand in scope, this "schema first" requirement must be relaxed. Philip Karn of Qualcomm discussed some past, current, and future trends in wireless communications, which have been driven by a combination of increased demands for end-to-end performance and the need to achieve greater efficiency in use of the finite radio spectrum.

In the mid- to late s, analog two-way radio systems were commonplace. Analog technology continues to be used in combination with sophisticated control systems and is the workhorse for two-way public service and emergency communications. The concept was that packet radio networks could be dropped into remote areas. The Evolution of Untethered Communications. National Academy Press, Washington, D. Much of that early research is now starting to bear fruit in operational systems, Karn said.


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In the early to mids, advanced mobile phone service AMPS , which uses traditional analog voice modulation, was developed and deployed. The major innovation was its use of digital control channels, so that calls could be switched automatically from one cell site to another, allowing the user to treat an AMPS cellular telephone in much the same manner as a wireline telephone. In the late s, demand for cellular telephone service increased. Qualcomm started trying to apply well-established spread-spectrum techniques to improve the efficiency of cellular telephony.

In the early s, the company launched tests of code division multiple access CDMA , which is based on the spread-spectrum technologies used in the military. At that time there were a number of competing digital systems. By the mids, digital cellular systems were widely deployed. Similar underlying technologies, particularly high-speed digital signal processing, video compression, and audio compression, are used in the direct broadcasting satellite business, which is among the most rapidly developing consumer technologies.

Low-Earth-orbit satellite networks are close to commercial operation and, if successful, will provide access to disaster-stricken remote areas where there is no cellular coverage.


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The prices are relatively low compared to those for today's satellite systems but are high enough that competition with a terrestrial system will be difficult. Therefore, many see these satellite services primarily as a way of filling in the gaps in terrestrial cellular coverage in remote areas. Another interesting development is Part 15 ad hoc networks. Certain segments of radio spectrum are set aside for use by low-power devices that meet a relatively simple set of technical requirements.

Metricoms's Ricochet modems are an example of a Part 15 ad hoc network that employs a mesh network topology. Efforts are also finally under way to set wireless standards for the next generation of wireless telephony, which, given the multitude of possible design choices in digital systems, is important. This is an important issue for emergency communications because interoperability problems inhibit rapid network deployment.

Historically, the wireless industry has been characterized by proprietary protocols, and getting true inter-. Advances in digital wireless have been enabled by four important technologies. Spread-spectrum technologies simplify spectrum management and can enhance privacy. Because the industry is close to the theoretical channel capacity limits established by Claude Shannon in the s, low-bit-rate voice coding is increasingly important. Error-control coding is another enabling technology that maximizes system capacity. In addition, application-specific integrated circuits have been crucial to making these systems work efficiently at low power.

Further increases in system capacity will come at high costs. Companies could deploy more and smaller cells, use directional antennas, or implement more flexible channel management strategies. A recent FCC mandate to improve capabilities for pinpointing the positions of cellular telephones when they are used to report emergencies of course has direct implications for crisis management. Existing technologies can only identify in which cell the caller is located. Particularly relevant to crisis management is the provision of data services by wireless carriers.

In the early s, carriers developed cellular digital packet data CDPD , an overlay for the existing AMPS analog network, to provide some basic capability to send Internet Protocol IP data packets over cellular frequencies. CDPD systems are also slow, and the wider the area covered, the slower a system will be. Furthermore, CDPD is expensive; charges when the service was first offered were about 15 cents per kilobyte.

The low adoption rate was interpreted as being indicative of low demand for wireless data services. CDPD is now being sold by carriers on a flat-rate basis, and its use is increasing. The potential exists to provide support for IP packet data in digital cellular services. The existing infrastructure generally does not support this capability, in part because the transition to digital services was managed for fast deployment of voice-only service.

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This situation is beginning to change. A related trend is the development of new modulation and channel-access schemes specifically designed for packet data instead of voice. For many years it has provided support for emergency and disaster communications. Today, as cellular telephones and other commercial systems are meeting most of the operational requirements for disaster communications, the primary role of amateur packet radio has shifted toward technical experimentation and education.

Instead of guaranteeing a particular quality of service, these systems perform the best they can in current conditions, optimizing overall system throughput. Daniel Siewiorek of Carnegie Mellon University discussed trends in wearable computers. He demonstrated an early-generation wearable computer that was designed in about and supported a marine in performing a element inspection of an amphibious tractor.

This system, which employed a head-mounted display to replace a clipboard, was awkward to use in many situations. It did not use voice input, which might be overheard by an enemy, but relied instead on a keypad interface. Field studies showed that the wearable computer saved 70 percent of the time needed to perform an inspection and enter the data into a logistics computer that would then generate work orders for mechanics.

To indicate the possible roles of wearable computers, an analogy between computing and electrical motors is useful. About years ago, big dynamos produced energy, and people brought their work e.