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Cultural and language barriers worsen their lack of access to such services as do exist. Returning or visiting migrants, many of who do not know their status, may infect their wives or other sex partners in the home community. Discrimination, stigmatisation and denial are the outcomes of such values, affecting life in families, communities, workplaces, schools and health care settings.

People living with HIV and AIDS continue to be burdened by poor care and inadequate services, whilst those with the power to help do little to make the situation better. As a result, many keep their status secret, fearing still worse treatment from others. It is not surprising that among a majority of HIV positive people, AIDS-related fear and anxiety, and at times denial of their HIV status, can be traced to traumatic experiences in health care settings. Other examples of discrimination are children of HIV-positive parents, whether positive or negative themselves, being denied the right to go to school or being separated from other children.

People in marginalized groups female sex workers, hijras transgendered and gay men are often stigmatised on the grounds not only of their HIV status but also being members of socially excluded groups. Although the Indian government encourages NGOs to provide condoms and AIDS education to high-risk groups such as sex workers and men who have sex with men, it seemingly allows law enforcement agencies to harass outreach workers who provide those services.

HIV and mobility in Australia: road map for action - Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations

The second phase of the program aims to promote cooperation among public, private and voluntary sectors. NACO sponsored prevention efforts have included concerts, TV spots with a popular Indian film-star, radio drama, radio programme and organising a voluntary blood donation day.

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School AIDS education programme in India include training teachers and peer educator among students, role-playing, debates and discussions. The programme has worked towards student youth to raise awareness levels, help young people to resist peer pressure and develop a safe and responsible life-style. However it is still debatable as to whether there is sufficient commitment to combating the epidemic at government level. Many Indians in positions of power refuse to accept that their country faces a grave threat from the epidemic.

There needs to be political leadership, and there needs to be effective action taken in respect of all aspects of the epidemic. The success of any HIV mitigation strategy would depend upon its ability to recognize this wider environment in designing interventions. The livelihoods framework figure 3 is a useful analytical tool for organising these competing influences and understanding the impact on rural livelihoods.

The framework also aims to help different stakeholders engage in a structured and coherent debate. Households are seen to possess five sets of livelihood assets essential to their livelihood strategies: human capital, natural capital, financial capital, social capital and physical capital. Utilizing these assets, households adjust to their physical, social, economic and political environments through a set of livelihood strategies designed to strengthen their well being.

The contexts in which households operate involve threats that render them vulnerable to negative livelihood outcomes. These threats can include periodic droughts, floods, pest infestations, crop and livestock shocks, economic shocks, conflict and civil unrest, as well as the illness and death of household members.

Mobility, sexuality and AIDS /

The illness or death of one or more household members can affect each of the livelihood assets resulting in a reduction in the ability of the household to adjust to future shocks. In many countries, sexual intercourse is the predominant mode of HIV transmission and is affecting most people in the 15 to 50 age group, who often have established families. Consequently, large numbers of orphans are left behind when AIDS victims die.

By , it is estimated that In , 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 70 percent of the orphans. Severe food insecurity among orphans is already reported in the most affected areas. Many children lose their parents before learning basic agricultural skills and nutrition or health knowledge. Decrease in the area cultivated, in weeding, pruning and mulching, resulting in a decline in crop variety, yields and ultimately soil fertility. Increase in the malnutrition of people living with AIDS and other household members due to the increasing impoverishment of the household.

HIV and AIDS In India

Liquidation of savings and slaughtering of livestock to provide income for health care and funerals. Loss of agricultural knowledge, practices and skills and their transmission from one generation to the next. Decrease in the availability of skilled labour and essential agricultural knowledge for orphan-headed households. Increase in gender inequality, resulting in a decrease in access to land, credit and knowledge, for women in general, but particularly for widows. Less time available to participate in community-based organizations, associations and other support networks.

Increased stigma associated with HIV, thus increasing the difficulty of maintaining social and kin groups. Mobile people are those who move from one place to another temporarily, seasonally or permanently for a host of voluntary or involuntary reasons. They include truck drivers, seafarers, transport workers, agricultural workers, business people, traders, employees of large industries, miners, government officials, uniformed service officers, construction workers and sex workers.

Source: UNDP Table 1. Projected loss in total population and agricultural labour force due to AIDS, But there was a tendency just to plant the crop and neglect other tasks which reduced yields and income Source: Ncube, NM.

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Source: FAO a. Increase in orphaned children Proportional increase in the elderly Increase in widows and female-headed households. Decrease in the agricultural labour force. Change in household composition.

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Changes in the age or sex of the household head Increase in the household dependency ratio Out-migration of young adults. Increase in the fostering of orphaned children Child headed households resulting in reduced attendance or withdrawal of children from school. Change in household nutritional status. BMJ Open 3:e Berg; Michael W. Ross; Peter Weatherburn; Axel J.

Schmidt High rates of unprotected sex and serosorting among men who have sex with men: A national online study in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 40 8 [in English]. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates.

Rolf Rosenbrock; Axel J. Bundesgesundheitsblatt, [in German]. Ales Lamut Ideas of the best sex life among Slovene MSM. Etnolog, [in Slovenian]. GSB 7. Search Search item. EMIS Journal articles, conference contributions, etc.