Contrast in Character of Motion and Temperature Laws IT would, however, be premature to conclude that because the laws of temperature in this one respect follow more closely the outlines of bare experience, they are therefore necessarily purer or more worthy of preservation than the laws of motion. We must look more closely into the matter, for it may be that, when the necessary supplementary clauses, so to speak, have been added, the type of law which has been constructed to describe motions is, by its greater scope, more adaptable to further experiences than the type constructed to describe temperature changes.
Other [ edit ] Law of the jungle , the idea that in nature, the only "law" is to do whatever is needed for survival See also [ edit ] Natural law disambiguation Crime against nature disambiguation Disambiguation page providing links to topics that could be referred to by the same search term. Categories : Disambiguation pages.
Hidden categories: Disambiguation pages with short description All article disambiguation pages All disambiguation pages. A good start for further readings on laws is also the respective chapter in the more recent Schrenk Show all references. Subcategories: Anti-Realism about Laws Best-Systems Analyses Ceteris Paribus Laws Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws Law Statements Laws as Relations between Universals Necessitarianism about Laws Probabilistic Laws Special Science Laws Laws of Nature, Misc Jobs in this area.
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3. The instrumentalist and reductivist readings
Explanation and Laws in General Philosophy of Science. Remove from this list. Nancy Cartwright has drawn attention to how explanations are actually given in mathematical sciences.
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She argues that these procedures support an antirealist thesis that fundamental explanatory laws are not true. Moreover, she claims to be be essentially following Duhem's line of thought in developing this thesis.
The Laws of Nature*
Without wishing to detract from the importance of her observations, it is suggested that they do not necessarily require the antirealist thesis. The antirealist interpretation of Duhem is also disputed. It is argued that Duhemian Philosophy of Physical Science. This book on the philosophy of science argues for an empiricism, opposed to the tradition of David Hume, in which singular rather than general causal claims are primary; causal laws express facts about singular causes whereas the general causal claims of science are ascriptions of capacities or causal powers, capacities to make things happen.
Taking science as measurement, Cartwright argues that capacities are necessary for science and that these can be measured, provided suitable conditions are met.
Laws of Nature
There are case studies Causation and Laws in Metaphysics. Dispositions and Laws in Metaphysics. Science, Logic, and Mathematics. SummaryThere are two rival ways in which events in the world can be explained: the covering law way and the dispositionalist way.
The covering law model, which takes the law of nature as its fundamental explanatory unit, faces a number of renown difficulties. Rather than attempt to patch up this approach, the alternative dispositionalist strategy is recommended. On this view, general facts are dependent upon particular facts about what things do, rather than vice versa. This way of viewing the world The dispositionalist strategy faces its own difficulties of explaining generality and contingency of behaviour. It is shown, however, that at least these difficulties should not dissuade the dispositionalist.
The prospects for a convincing dispositionalist ontology to replace one based on laws of nature are thus healthy. Liar Paradox in Logic and Philosophy of Logic. The topic of laws of nature provides a kind of Rorschach test for philosophy.
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Some philosophers see in laws only Humean regularities; others see a kind of physical necessity; others see a necessity closer to logical necessity; others see expressions of causal powers; others see inference tickets; still others see relations between universals; We can also perform a meta-Rorschach test on the results of the first test. When van Fraassen and I Where we differ is in drawing morals from this un- pleasant experience.
For me the opprobrium falls mainly on the way philos- ophy is practiced. For van Fraassen, the disgrace also touches the practice, but for him the source is the rottenness of the concept of laws. Theories and Models in General Philosophy of Science. The view that takes laws of nature to be essentially nothing more than descriptions of facts is still rather popular. The present article, on the contrary, defends the claim that the only real motivation for defending a descriptive view of laws—the quest for ontological parsimony—entails too high a price to pay in philosophical terms. It is argued that nomic primitivism, namely the alternative option that takes laws to be primitive fundamental entities in our ontology, is decisively more appealing, since it Finally, the implications that nomic primitivism might have for the issue of the status of the wave function in that particular formulation of quantum mechanics known as Bohmian mechanics are considered.
In this paper I argue against Nancy Cartwright's claim that we ought to abandon what she calls "fundamentalism" about the laws of nature and adopt instead her "dappled world" hypothesis.