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Once collected, they would be roped or chained together and marched, with little food or water, long distances to camp.

Murder and Martial Justice: Spying and Retribution in World War II America - Semantic Scholar

They often died or were killed along the way, sometimes less than 50 percent reaching camp alive. Then recruit camp was no better, with hospitals resembling Nazi concentration camps Probably 3,, died during the Sino-Japanese War; likely another 1,, during the Civil War—4,, dead in total.

Just during conscription [emphasis added]. According to historian Mark Johnston , "the killing of unarmed Japanese was common" and Australian command tried to put pressure on troops to actually take prisoners, but the troops proved reluctant. In one instance he recalled during the battle at Gorari that "the leading platoon captured five or seven Japanese and moved on to the next battle. The next platoon came along and bayoneted these Japanese. American soldiers in the Pacific often deliberately killed Japanese soldiers who had surrendered.

According to Richard Aldrich, who has published a study of the diaries kept by United States and Australian soldiers, they sometimes massacred prisoners of war. Japanese who did become prisoners were killed on the spot or en route to prison compounds". Ferguson states such practices played a role in the ratio of Japanese prisoners to dead being in late That same year, efforts were taken by Allied high commanders to suppress "take no prisoners" attitudes, [92] among their own personnel as these were affecting intelligence gathering and to encourage Japanese soldiers to surrender.

Ferguson adds that measures by Allied commanders to improve the ratio of Japanese prisoners to Japanese dead, resulted in it reaching , by mid Nevertheless, taking no prisoners was still standard practice among US troops at the Battle of Okinawa , in April—June Ulrich Straus , a US Japanologist , suggests that frontline troops intensely hated Japanese military personnel and were "not easily persuaded" to take or protect prisoners, as they believed that Allied personnel who surrendered, got "no mercy" from the Japanese.

More important for most soldiers was the perception that prisoners would be killed by the enemy anyway, and so one might as well fight on. US historian James J. Weingartner attributes the very low number of Japanese in US POW compounds to two important factors, a Japanese reluctance to surrender and a widespread American "conviction that the Japanese were "animals" or "subhuman" and unworthy of the normal treatment accorded to POWs. Some Allied soldiers collected Japanese body parts.

The incidence of this by American personnel occurred on "a scale large enough to concern the Allied military authorities throughout the conflict and was widely reported and commented on in the American and Japanese wartime press". The collection of Japanese body parts began quite early in the war, prompting a September order for disciplinary action against such souvenir taking. When Japanese remains were repatriated from the Mariana Islands after the war, roughly 60 percent were missing their skulls.

Cramer , asserted that "such atrocious and brutal policies", were both "repugnant to the sensibilities of all civilized people" [95] and also violations of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field , which stated that: "After each engagement, the occupant of the field of battle shall take measures to search for the wounded and dead, and to protect them against pillage and maltreatment. These practices were in addition also in violation of the unwritten customary rules of land warfare and could lead to the death penalty.

US soldiers raped Okinawan women during the Battle of Okinawa in Okinawan historian and former director of the Okinawa Prefectural Historical Archives Oshiro Masayasu writes based on several years of research:. According to interviews carried out by The New York Times and published by them in , multiple elderly people from an Okinawan village confessed that after the United States had won the Battle of Okinawa three armed marines kept coming to the village every week to force the villagers to gather all the local women, who were then carried off into the hills and raped.

The article goes deeper into the matter and claims that the villagers' tale - true or not - is part of a 'dark, long-kept secret' the unraveling of which 'refocused attention on what historians say is one of the most widely ignored crimes of the war': "the widespread rape of Okinawan women by American servicemen". It has been claimed that the rape was so prevalent that most Okinawans over age 65 around the year either knew or had heard of a woman who was raped in the aftermath of the war. Military officials denied the mass rapings, and all surviving veterans refused The New York Times' request for an interview.

Professor of East Asian Studies and expert on Okinawa Steve Rabson said: "I have read many accounts of such rapes in Okinawan newspapers and books, but few people know about them or are willing to talk about them". Books, diaries, articles and other documents refer to rapes by American soldiers of various races and backgrounds. Samuel Saxton, a retired captain, explained that the American veterans and witnesses may have believed: "It would be unfair for the public to get the impression that we were all a bunch of rapists after we worked so hard to serve our country".

Masaie Ishihara, a sociology professor, supports this: "There is a lot of historical amnesia out there, many people don't want to acknowledge what really happened". An explanation given for why the US military has no record of any rapes is that few - if any - Okinawan women reported abuse, mostly out of fear and embarrassment. Those who did report them are believed by historians to have been ignored by the US military police. A large scale effort to determine the extent of such crimes has also never been called for.

Over five decades after the war has ended the women who were believed to have been raped still refused to give a public statement, with friends, local historians and university professors who had spoken with the women instead saying they preferred not to discuss it publicly. According to a Nago, Okinawan police spokesman: "Victimized women feel too ashamed to make it public". He explains that it was: "partly because of shame and disgrace, partly because Americans were victors and occupiers".

Feifer claimed: "In all there were probably thousands of incidents, but the victims' silence kept rape another dirty secret of the campaign. In interviews, historians and Okinawan elders said that some Okinawan women who were raped did give birth to biracial children, but that many of them were immediately killed or left behind out of shame, disgust or fearful trauma. More often, however, rape victims underwent crude abortions with the help of village midwives.

Molasky argues that Okinawan civilians "were often surprised at the comparatively humane treatment they received from the American enemy. There were 1, reported rapes during the first 10 days of the occupation of Kanagawa Prefecture after the Japanese surrender. According to James D.

Morrow, "Death rates of POWs held is one measure of adherence to the standards of the treaties because substandard treatment leads to death of prisoners". The "democratic states generally provide good treatment of POWs". Bacque's figures have been disputed by academics , [ who? The focus on supposed Allied atrocities during the war has been a theme of Holocaust denial literature, particularly in countries where outright denial of the Holocaust is illegal.

Japanese neo-nationalists argue that Allied war crimes and the shortcomings of the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal were equivalent to the war crimes committed by Japanese forces during the war. Dower has written that this position is "a kind of historiographic cancellation of immorality—as if the transgressions of others exonerate one's own crimes". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Razing of Friesoythe.


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See also: Marocchinate. Main article: American mutilation of Japanese war dead. Main article: War rape. Main article: Rape during the occupation of Japan.

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Sometimes attributed to Winston Churchill, it is in fact a slight misquote of "A joke's a very serious thing" from the poem "The Ghost" by Charles Churchill. The idea that a nation can tax itself into prosperity is one of the cruelest delusions which has befuddled the human mind.

Boller, Jr. Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts. It actually derives from an advertising campaign for Budweiser beer in the late s. Churchill : If I were your husband I'd drink it. Dates to , American humor origin, originally featuring a woman upset by a man's cigar smoking.

Cigar often removed in later versions, coffee added in Wilder and De Wolf Hopper. George Bernard Shaw is said to have told W. Come and bring a friend—if you have one. Will attend the second—if there is one. Originally only featured first half about lack of friend; second half retort about lack of second performance attested , as was replacement of personages by George Bernard Shaw and Winston Churchill.

Specific plays added in later variants, ranging from Man and Superman to Saint Joan , and appeared in biographies and quote collections from the s. If you're going through hell, keep going.

Cameron Addis, Ph.D.

True origin unknown. Finest Hour described it as "not verifiable in any of the 50 million published words by and about him" Finest Hour, The Journal of Winston Churchill, Number , Winter —10, p. A similar quotation: "If you're going through hell, don't stop! This is a modification of a March quote by Israeli politician Abba Eban who said, "Men and nations behave wisely when they have exhausted all other resources. In he said, "My experience teaches me this: Men and nations do act wisely when they have exhausted all the other possibilities.

It was attributed to an unnamed Irishman.

Retribution and Remembrance

He said that you can depend on Americans to do the right thing when they have exhausted every other possibility. It is time to start thinking. Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm Attribution debunked in Langworth's Churchill by Himself. Coming Men on Coming Questions. Rhodes James, Robert. Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches Bowker Company. ISBN Churchill: His Complete Speeches vol. Britain Since A Nation in the World , p.

Churchill, Churchill in His Own Words, ed. Richard M. The Guardian. Muller, ed. A readable. This Day in Quotes. I wish I had,' responded Churchill. AMB to the editor.