Similarly, AHR encounters this challenge as it receives many more requests for information, technical assistance, and training sessions from around the world than it can possibly respond to. The most significant obstacle to achieving the goal of ending violence against women is convincing those with the power to make and enforce laws and policies reflecting the fact that women have the right to be free from violence in their homes.
Despite the many efforts described in this paper, this right is not fully accepted in the world today. AHR's experience partnering with NGOs from other countries to improve the government response to domestic violence has been a very positive one. AHR has been privileged to work with extraordinary women and men whose vision for ending domestic violence has propelled their countries forward and resulted in better laws and policies. Although significant work remains, AHR is confident that these changes will continue toward the ultimate realization of women's fundamental human right to be free from violence.
New Zealand has serious and concerning problems with violence against women and children, as is evidenced by the number of high-profile deaths of children and women killed by partners or ex-partners.
Nevertheless, a prevailing social acceptance of and willingness to turn a blind eye to violence against women and children has made getting traction on this problem difficult, frustrating, and at times torturous. Violence and abuse occurring in various close interpersonal relationships is called family violence in New Zealand and is broadly defined to include partner abuse, child abuse and neglect, elder abuse, child-to-parent violence, and sibling abuse.
The predominant forms of family violence in New Zealand are male partner violence against women and child abuse and neglect. Although violence against women and children is evident across different ethnic and social groups, indigenous women and children are clearly overrepresented among victims and are at greater risk of being targets of family violence. A whole-government approach has been adopted by New Zealand in an effort to address violence against women and children at a governmental level.
Statistics confirm that generally women and children are recipients of violence inflicted by men occurring in the home—86 percent of those arrested are male, and 92 percent of protection orders are made for women New Zealand Family Violence Clearinghouse, More than 50 percent of all homicides are family violence related. From to , 45 women were killed by a male or ex-partner, and 39 children were killed 26 by men; 15 by women.
One study found that 33 to 39 percent of women experience physical or sexual abuse sometime during their lifetime, and 19 to 23 percent reported it being severe Fanslow and Robinson, Another study reported that 35 percent of men reported being physically violent toward a partner sometime in a lifetime and 20 percent in the previous year Leibrich et al.
Fanslow and Robinson found that victims of partner abuse were twice as likely as non-victims to have visited a health care provider in the previous month. Among children living in New Zealand who were hospitalized, 4 to 10 percent reported having experienced physical abuse, while 11 to 20 percent reported having experienced sexual abuse Duncanson et al. In , 47 percent of notifications to the Child, Youth, and Family Service required further follow-up. Between and , 49 children under the age of 15 died as a result of child maltreatment.
For a country with a population of less than 4. On average 8 to 10 children die a year in New Zealand at the hands of someone who should protect them from harm. Most at risk are those under 1 year of age and those older than 11 years. Addressing family violence has been difficult, especially given the engrained social acceptance of violence against women and children within the context of families. The debate surrounding the repeal of Section 59 of the Crimes Act of illustrates the deeply engrained beliefs of many living in New Zealand.
Despite the intention of the repeal being to improve the safety and integrity of children, polls showed between 70 and 80 percent of New Zealanders did not support the repeal, reflecting a resistance to addressing child abuse when activities interfered with parental rights. The outcome was a substitution of Section 59 defining when parental control using force was justified to appease the public.
Interestingly, the United Nations Report on Children's Rights in New Zealand criticizes the repeal for not going far enough and banning corporal punishment for children. One of the 13 goals of the New Zealand Health Strategy was to reduce interpersonal violence King, Not only did this signal the government's intention to put family violence on its agenda, but also it recognized family violence as a health issue. In the Te Rito New Zealand Family Violence Prevention Strategy was launched as an official government response and commitment to addressing all forms and degrees of violence, and it provided a framework for action.
The fundamental vision was for families to live free from violence. Family violence prevention was viewed holistically and broadly and included all levels—primary prevention, secondary early identification and immediate intervention, and tertiary prevention of its reoccurrence. Communities were also given the right and responsibility to be involved in preventing family violence. The Taskforce for Action on Violence within Families was established in June to advise the Family Violence Ministerial Team, which is composed of ministers of parliament, on improving how family violence is addressed and eventually eliminating it.
This taskforce was composed of chief executive officers and other decision makers from government and nongovernment sectors, the judiciary, and various government agencies, such as social development, women's affairs, and health. In the associate minister for social development and employment and associate minister of health , the Honorable Tariana Turia, was given the responsibility for the national government's response to addressing and reducing the impact of family violence as well as the establishment of the Family Violence Ministerial Group replacing the Family Violence Ministerial Team.
This ministerial group meets quarterly and is responsible for the oversight of the whole-of-government approach and the alignment and coordination of responses. Ministers inform and consult with each other on developments and proposed family violence—related work within their respective portfolios. Legislation aimed at protecting women and children includes the Domestic Violence Act , which changed immensely the way women and children could be protected.
This legislation removed the need for women to lay charges of assault against a partner before the police would intervene. Women wanting immediate protection from partners' abuse apply for a temporary protection order for a period of three months, and it is often issued without notice.
After this time a partner can apply to the court for a hearing prior to making an order permanent. If the request for the order goes undefended, the order automatically becomes permanent. At the time a protection order is granted, orders can be made concerning occupancy or tenancy as well as furniture in order to enable women to stay in the home and have some or all of the furniture. A woman's children are granted the same protection under these orders.
This legislation stipulates that, when children live amid abuse and violence, it is considered violence against children. Still, the research of Roberston et al. More recently police have been allowed to issue police safety orders PSOs in situations where they have reasonable grounds to believe that family violence has occurred or may occur, with no right of appeal and without the consent of the person s at risk.
PSOs aim to protect those at risk of violence, harassment, and intimidation and any children living at the residence. Abusers are required to leave the residence for up to five days, and they must not assault, threaten, intimidate or harass, follow, stop or contact their partner in any place, or encourage anyone else to do this. They must also surrender firearms and their firearms license to the police. The Child Youth and Their Families Act of promotes the responsibility of parents, families, and family groups to prevent children from suffering harm, ill treatment, abuse, neglect, or deprivation.
However, it is commonly associated with the Child Youth and Family Service's statutory duty to protect those children who are being harmed or neglected or who are at risk of being harmed or neglected. Despite the high demand on its services, the efficacy of the Child Youth and Family Service is often questioned in the media. The Care of Children Act of shifted a prior focus on parental rights to parental responsibilities. The key focus of this legislation is the welfare and best interests of the children where any dispute about them exists in order to keep the children safe and free from all forms of violence.
However, where family violence exists, children still tend to be invisible beyond custody battles. In addition to strengthening legislation to protect women and children, the government has initiated a number of campaigns aimed at addressing all forms of family violence. It is valuable to examine two such government-driven initiatives in some detail. The It's Not OK campaign www. Evaluation of the campaign has demonstrated increased recall of the television advertisements with every survey. Ninety-five percent of the people surveyed in September recalled something from at least one of the ads.
Of those surveyed, the advertisements helped 68 percent identify unacceptable behaviors and influenced 57 percent to see change is possible. As a result of seeing the ads, 22 percent reported taking action McLaren, In addition, nongovernmental organizations such as Jigsaw www. The Violence Intervention Program VIP promotes assessment for family violence among those using District Health Board DHB hospital services as well as assessment for child abuse work is currently under way in the primary health care sector.
Although the Ministry of Health supports this research and evaluation and offers technical advice and training support to health services committed to the program, the FVIPCs are responsible for promoting assessment and education of staff. VIP has developed significantly to a point where there is now national standardization in training requirements and reporting formats. Steady progress has been made over 60 months, although some DHBs need further improvement.
Importantly, evaluations demonstrate the importance of a dedicated family violence intervention coordinator to the program's sustainability and development Koziol-McLain et al. Cultural indicators have also been evaluated, and although improvements have been made, the more challenging cultural indicators need further improvement. In summary, although there is still a long way to go in New Zealand to reduce the prevalence of violence against women and children, some exciting initiatives are happening.
The whole government approach is an attempt to have a more cross-sectoral approach to addressing family violence, because the previous silo approach adopted by government departments meant that women and children reliant on help from services would fall through the chasms that existed. The adoption of a mass media program to address societal attitudes and behaviors is also important, so rather than a stance that ignores the plight of women and children, they will be able to live free from violence.
This violence can take the form of pushing, hitting, choking, slapping, kicking, burning, or stabbing. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs. Strategies for confronting domestic violence: A resource manual. This definition reflects data indicating that women are the primary victims of domestic violence.
AHR was founded in by a group of Minnesota lawyers who recognized the community's unique spirit of social justice as an opportunity to promote and protect human rights at home and worldwide. The organization involves volunteers in research, education, and advocacy, building broad constituencies for human rights in the United States and select global communities. AHR holds special consultative status with the United Nations. The movement to address domestic violence began more than 30 years ago in the United States, and other countries have comparable legacies.
Minnesota's efforts began in the early s.
Australian Family & Society Abstracts Database
Although alcoholism can exacerbate violent behavior, studies show that it is not the cause of domestic violence. Research has in fact shown that counseling or mediation can be dangerous for domestic violence victims. Furthermore, counseling and mediation is often not an appropriate response to domestic violence cases because it presupposes that both the victim and perpetrator are equal when, in fact, we know that the offender exercises power and control over the victim. Laws containing the civil order-for-protection remedy were first introduced in the United States in the mid s.
The goal of these laws was to provide an immediate remedy to women and their children that would keep them safe while allowing them to stay in their home. As is the case today, many victims did not want to involve the criminal justice system and see their partners go to jail; rather, their priority was stopping the violence. These laws allow a victim to petition the court for an order directing the violent offender to leave the home.
Minnesota's Domestic Abuse Act has been amended every year since it passed in —reflecting the developing knowledge about what legal system responses work to promote victim safety and offender accountability and what responses do not work. They analyze information gathered through review of laws and policies, research, and, most importantly, interviews with government officials, judges, prosecutors, police, lawyers, advocates, medical professionals, and others about domestic violence. In addition to the domestic violence reports, AHR has published six other reports on other forms of violence against women: sex trafficking, employment discrimination, and sexual assault.
Most of these reports focus on other countries; however, in , AHR published the report, Sex Trafficking Needs Assessment for the State of Minnesota and worked with advocates to lobby and pass improvements to the Minnesota criminal code on sex trafficking. Paul Metropolitan Area: A Human Rights Report and worked with advocates and government officials to make changes that promoted victim safety and offender accountability. Since the Advocates for Human Rights has documented human rights abuses around the world and advocated for change.
Romanian domestic violence advocates do remain deeply concerned about gaps and weaknesses in the government's response to the problem, and they continue their advocacy efforts. For a further discussion of this issue, see Charlesworth, H. Chinkin, and S. Wright, Feminist approaches to international law. Domestic violence as a human rights issue. Human Rights Quarterly ; and Thomas, C. Domestic violence. Women and International Human Rights Law There is now a significant body of research on the dynamics of domestic violence.
This research addresses batterers' use of power and control over their victims and victims' responses to these tactics, including the tendency to recant their allegations against batterers when cases go to court. StopVAW has become a resource for individuals and community groups and government. In one month of , 2, pages of StopVAW received 25, unique page-views.
These visits came from different countries, and 82 percent of these were new visits. Most site visitors visited two or three pages on the StopVAW website. For several years, AHR has worked with local advocates in the region to present their own country's response to violence against women in the Country Pages section of the website. Minneapolis, Minnesota.
For copies, contact the Advocates for Human Rights. Removing victims from their homes results, of course, in hardship and disruption in their daily lives and the lives of their children, including lack of access to personal belongings, the inability to safeguard such belongings from the violent offender, difficulties with access to work and school, and the loss of support systems close to home including friends and families.
In fact, one Polish advocate explained that the prioritization of men's property rights has been a major impediment to the passage of any order-for-protection remedy in her country. Armenia's draft law included a similar provision authorizing authorities to remove the victim from the home. This amendment passed in Georgia in Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. Background Despite compelling evidence that GBV is a serious health risk for women and a public health issue, research indicates that, although battered women use health services more than non-abused women, only a very small percentage of battered women are identified by health workers.
The InterCambios Alliance The alliance emerged from an expert meeting that PATH convened to identify gaps and challenges in addressing GBV in the region, particularly within the health sector, and to propose future collaborations to strengthen the field. InterCambios' Prevention Actions Communication for Social Change One of the lessons learned in the alliance's work has been the need for materials and methodologies that strengthen the work of those working on gender-based violence in Latin America and the Caribbean. Monitoring and evaluation results show that the methodology allows analysis of VAW through personnel reflection, analysis of myths and prejudices related to VAW, identification of the role of institutions and support networks in facilitating or limiting women's decision making, and highlighting the link between GBV and other aspects of general and reproductive health e.
A total of 1, sets of In Her Shoes have been disseminated, and 1, training workshops have been held in 12 countries on two continents. The document also has been adapted to the African context. Promoting the Use of Evidence In coordination with several stake-holders, Intercambios has helped improve approaches to VAW through conducting research and using evidence, facilitating access to both research findings and evaluation processes, and disseminating data and lessons learned in research methodology. Lessons Learned Through its prevention work, InterCambios has learned several lessons, which are: Because they already have communication and distribution channels, coordination with local networks and interagency commissions is the best path for successful distribution of materials and methodologies;.
Electronic mechanisms, such as newsletters, social networks, and webpages, are a good alternative for maintaining a consistent presence in the community. Strengthening Training Capacities and the Quality of Care for Survivors of Violence InterCambios works to strengthen the capacities and increase the quality of care available to survivors of violence. Challenges and Lessons Learned from Working Regionally The following challenges and related lessons learned have emerged since InterCambios began working regionally in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Compared to local initiatives, regional work is slower, which hinders the organizations' more active participation in the processes. The identification of strategic allies e.
Social Issues: Family Violence | Vision
Frequent changes in NGO personnel are common, which makes it necessary for the capacity-building processes to be ongoing. A changing context where new variables are appearing—migration, organized crime, and drugs, among others—makes it necessary to think about new strategies and approaches where regional work plays a key role. Thomas , J. Affiliations The Advocates for Human Rights. Introduction and Background Since the Advocates for Human Rights' Women's Program has been working with partners internationally to address domestic violence through an improved government response, particularly, better laws and more effective implementation of those laws.
Partnerships to Document the Government Response to Domestic Violence Global partnerships can strengthen efforts to address domestic violence. AHR's Early Partnerships to Draft Reports on Domestic Violence Beginning in , before many of the international efforts to reform laws on domestic violence began, AHR worked with partners to document domestic violence as a human rights violation. Recent Partnerships in Drafting and Implementing Domestic Violence Laws Today, although though there is increasing acknowledgement internationally that domestic violence is a pervasive human rights violation with devastating consequences, there is still an urgent need for technical assistance in drafting and implementing new domestic violence laws and amendments to existing laws.
Bulgaria Based on the findings and recommendations of the report Domestic Violence in Bulgaria, published in and described above, Bulgarian advocates undertook a campaign for a new domestic violence law. Georgia After initial visits and exchanges with advocates in Georgia, which began in , AHR invited the Georgian working group of government officials and civil society members who were in the process of drafting the new domestic violence law to visit Minnesota.
Armenia As with Bulgaria, AHR's partnership with Armenian advocates began with a collaboration to provide documentation of the government and community response to domestic violence. Challenges to International Partnerships Overall, while AHR's experience partnering with NGOs from other countries has been a very positive one, there have been notable challenges. Conclusion AHR's experience partnering with NGOs from other countries to improve the government response to domestic violence has been a very positive one.
Affiliations Auckland University of Technology. Legislation Legislation aimed at protecting women and children includes the Domestic Violence Act , which changed immensely the way women and children could be protected. The Advocates for Human Rights comments on the draft law of the Republic of Armenia on domestic violence. Advocates for Human Rights. Implementation of the Bulgarian law on protection against domestic violence.
Catalano S. Intimate partner violence in the United States. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics;. Adverse health conditions and health risk behaviors associated with intimate partner violence.
- The health and social impacts of family violence.
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Minneapolis MN: Domestic violence in Albania. Minneapolis: MN; a. Domestic violence in Bulgaria. Minneapolis: MN; b. Domestic violence in Armenia. Addressing gender-based violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region: A critical review of interventions. New Zealand Family Violence Clearinghouse. Family violence and gender fact sheet. Living at the cutting edge: Women's experiences of protection orders.
Volume 2: What's to be done? A critical analysis of statutory and practice approaches to domestic violence. While more young people are choosing to postpone or opt out of marriage, those who enter into the union do so with the expectation that it will last. A great deal of marital problems can be related to stress, especially financial stress.
This is connected to factors such as age and education level that correlate with low incomes. The addition of children to a marriage creates added financial and emotional stress. Research has established that marriages enter their most stressful phase upon the birth of the first child Popenoe and Whitehead This is particularly true for couples who have multiples twins, triplets, and so on. Married couples with twins or triplets are 17 percent more likely to divorce than those with children from single births McKay Another contributor to the likelihood of divorce is a general decline in marital satisfaction over time.
As people get older, they may find that their values and life goals no longer match up with those of their spouse Popenoe and Whitehead Divorce is thought to have a cyclical pattern. Children of divorced parents are 40 percent more likely to divorce than children of married parents. And when we consider children whose parents divorced and then remarried, the likelihood of their own divorce rises to 91 percent Wolfinger This might result from being socialized to a mindset that a broken marriage can be replaced rather than repaired Wolfinger That sentiment is also reflected in the finding that when both partners of a married couple have been previously divorced, their marriage is 90 percent more likely to end in divorce Wolfinger A study from Radford University indicated that bartenders are among the professions with the highest divorce rates Other traditionally low-wage industries like restaurant service, custodial employment, and factory work are also associated with higher divorce rates.
Aamodt and McCoy People in a second marriage account for approximately The vast majority 91 percent of remarriages occur after divorce; only 9 percent occur after death of a spouse Kreider Most men and women remarry within five years of a divorce, with the median length for men three years being lower than for women 4.
This length of time has been fairly consistent since the s. The majority of those who remarry are between the ages of twenty-five and forty-four Kreider The general pattern of remarriage also shows that whites are more likely to remarry than black Americans. Marriage the second time around or third or fourth can be a very different process than the first. Remarriage lacks many of the classic courtship rituals of a first marriage.
In a second marriage, individuals are less likely to deal with issues like parental approval, premarital sex, or desired family size Elliot In a survey of households formed by remarriage, a mere 8 percent included only biological children of the remarried couple. Divorce and remarriage can been stressful on partners and children alike. Divorce is often justified by the notion that children are better off in a divorced family than in a family with parents who do not get along. However, long-term studies determine that to be generally untrue.
Research suggests that while marital conflict does not provide an ideal childrearing environment, going through a divorce can be damaging. Children are often confused and frightened by the threat to their family security. They may feel responsible for the divorce and attempt to bring their parents back together, often by sacrificing their own well-being Amato Only in high-conflict homes do children benefit from divorce and the subsequent decrease in conflict. The majority of divorces come out of lower-conflict homes, and children from those homes are more negatively impacted by the stress of the divorce than the stress of unhappiness in the marriage Amato Studies also suggest that stress levels for children are not improved when a child acquires a stepfamily through marriage.
Although there may be increased economic stability, stepfamilies typically have a high level of interpersonal conflict McLanahan and Sandefur Research has found that divorce may be most difficult for school-aged children, as they are old enough to understand the separation but not old enough to understand the reasoning behind it. Older teenagers are more likely to recognize the conflict that led to the divorce but may still feel fear, loneliness, guilt, and pressure to choose sides. Infants and preschool-age children may suffer the heaviest impact from the loss of routine that the marriage offered Temke Boys who live or have joint arrangements with their fathers show less aggression than those who are raised by their mothers only.
Similarly, girls who live or have joint arrangements with their mothers tend to be more responsible and mature than those who are raised by their fathers only. Nearly three-fourths of the children of parents who are divorced live in a household headed by their mother, leaving many boys without a father figure residing in the home U. Census Bureau b. There is empirical evidence that divorce has not discouraged children in terms of how they view marriage and family.
The blended family also has a ex-parent that has different discipline techniques. These numbers have continued to climb over the last twenty-five years. Abuse can occur between spouses, between parent and child, as well as between other family members. The frequency of violence among families is a difficult to determine because many cases of spousal abuse and child abuse go unreported.
In any case, studies have shown that abuse reported or not has a major impact on families and society as a whole. Domestic violence is a significant social problem in the United States. It is often characterized as violence between household or family members, specifically spouses. To include unmarried, cohabitating, and same-sex couples, family sociologists have created the term intimate partner violence IPV. Women are the primary victims of intimate partner violence.
It is estimated that one in four women has experienced some form of IPV in her lifetime compared to one in seven men Catalano IPV often starts as emotional abuse and then escalates to other forms or combinations of abuse Centers for Disease Control Thirty percent of women who are murdered are killed by their intimate partner. What does this statistic reveal about societal patterns and norms concerning intimate relationships and gender roles?
In , of IPV acts that involved physical actions against women, 57 percent involved physical violence only; 9 percent involved rape and physical violence; 14 percent involved physical violence and stalking; 12 percent involved rape, physical violence, and stalking; and 4 percent involved rape only CDC This is vastly different than IPV abuse patterns for men, which show that nearly all 92 percent physical acts of IVP take the form of physical violence and fewer than 1 percent involve rape alone or in combination Catalano IPV affects women at greater rates than men because women often take the passive role in relationships and may become emotionally dependent on their partners.
Perpetrators of IPV work to establish and maintain such dependence in order to hold power and control over their victims, making them feel stupid, crazy, or ugly—in some way worthless. IPV affects different segments of the population at different rates. The rate of IPV for black women 4.
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These numbers have been fairly stable for both racial groups over the last ten years. However, the numbers have steadily increased for Native Americans and Alaskan Natives up to Those who are separated report higher rates of abuse than those with other marital statuses, as conflict is typically higher in those relationships. Similarly, those who are cohabitating are more likely than those who are married to experience IPV Stets and Straus Other researchers have found that the rate of IPV doubles for women in low-income disadvantaged areas when compared to IPV experienced by women who reside in more affluent areas Benson and Fox Overall, women ages twenty to twenty-four are at the greatest risk of nonfatal abuse Catalano Accurate statistics on IPV are difficult to determine, as it is estimated that more than half of nonfatal IPV goes unreported.
It is not until victims choose to report crimes that patterns of abuse are exposed. Most victims studied stated that abuse had occurred for at least two years prior to their first report Carlson, Harris, and Holden Sometimes abuse is reported to police by a third party, but it still may not be confirmed by victims. A study of domestic violence incident reports found that even when confronted by police about abuse, 29 percent of victims denied that abuse occurred. Surprisingly, 19 percent of their assailants were likely to admit to abuse Felson, Ackerman, and Gallagher According to the National Criminal Victims Survey, victims cite varied reason why they are reluctant to report abuse, as shown in the table below.
The majority of abuse takes place between the hours of 6 p.
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Many perpetrators of IVP blame alcohol or drugs for their abuse, though studies have shown that alcohol and drugs do not cause IPV, they may only lower inhibitions Hanson IPV has significant long-term effects on individual victims and on society. Studies have shown that IPV damage extends beyond the direct physical or emotional wounds. Extended IPV has been linked to unemployment among victims, as many have difficulty finding or holding employment.
Additionally, nearly all women who report serious domestic problems exhibit symptoms of major depression Goodwin, Chandler, and Meisel Female victims of IPV are also more likely to abuse alcohol or drugs, suffer from eating disorders, and attempt suicide Silverman et al. IPV is indeed something that impacts more than just intimate partners. In a survey, 34 percent of respondents said they have witnessed IPV, and 59 percent said that they know a victim personally Roper Starch Worldwide Many people want to help IPV victims but are hesitant to intervene because they feel that it is a personal matter or they fear retaliation from the abuser—reasons similar to those of victims who do not report IPV.
Children are among the most helpless victims of abuse. In , there were more than 3. Three-fifths of child abuse reports are made by professionals, including teachers, law enforcement personal, and social services staff. The rest are made by anonymous sources, other relatives, parents, friends, and neighbors.
Child abuse may come in several forms, the most common being neglect Some children suffer from a combination of these forms of abuse. The majority Infants children less than one year old were the most victimized population with an incident rate of This age group is particularly vulnerable to neglect because they are entirely dependent on parents for care. Some parents do not purposely neglect their children; factors such as cultural values, standard of care in a community, and poverty can lead to hazardous level of neglect.
If information or assistance from public or private services are available and a parent fails to use those services, child welfare services may intervene U. Department of Health and Human Services. The Casey Anthony trial, in which Casey was ultimately acquitted of murder charges against her daughter, Caylee, created public outrage and brought to light issues of child abuse and neglect across the United States.
Infants are also often victims of physical abuse, particularly in the form of violent shaking. Other stress factors such as a poor economy, unemployment, and general dissatisfaction with parental life may contribute this type of abuse. While there is no official central registry of shaken-baby syndrome statistics, it is estimated that each year 1, babies die or suffer serious injury from being shaken Barr