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The strength of states. The continuum of state strength. The perils of the weak the statestrength dilemma. The variety of states. Structural characteristics of weak states. Analyzing an anomaly war peace and the state in South America. South America as a zone of peace? Toward a zone of peace? System transformation at the end of the millennium. The theoretical significance of the South American states system.

International responses to the weak state managing and resolving wars of the third kind. The founding fathers image of the United Nations. Expanding tasks and changing norms since The ultimate question.


  • Historical dictionary of Lithuania.
  • English school of international relations theory?
  • The Prehistory of Language!
  • Holsti, K. J. (Kalevi Jaakko) 1935-.
  • Kal Holsti | Political Science.

War the state and the study of international politics. Major armed conflicts by region and type Thinking about war in international politics. Efforts by Iraqi forces to expel ISIL from Iraq, with the support of a US-led coalition, continued under Abadi, with the group finally being pushed out of most of the country by the end of The referendum, however, found very little international support, many countries having urged the KRG not to proceed with it in order to avoid further exacerbating the already unstable nature of the region.

The Iraqi central government was strongly opposed to the referendum. Iraqi forces quickly retook Kirkurk, as well as other disputed areas outside the Kurdish autonomous region. Tensions between the two sides were reduced somewhat in March by the progress of ongoing negotiations. The Arab Spring refers to the outbreak of protests in the Middle East that ultimately resulted in regime changes in countries such as Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya. The participants in these grassroots movements sought increased social freedoms and greater participation in the political process Brownlee, Masoud and Reynolds ; Lynch Not all of the movements, however, could be deemed successful.

In fact, in many Middle East countries the revolts of the Arab Spring resulted in increased instability and oppression Bayat ; Fisk and Cockburn In some cases, these protests morphed into full-scale civil wars, as seen in countries such as Libya, Syria, and Yemen.

The series of large-scale political and social movements associated with the Arab Spring began in December when a Tunisian street vendor — Mohammed Bouazizi — set himself on fire to protest the arbitrary seizing of his vegetable stand by police over failure to obtain a permit. The Tunisian government attempted to end the unrest by using violence against street demonstrations and by offering political and economic concessions.

A democratically chosen president and prime minister took office in December In addition, political prisoners were released and the political police was dissolved. In new protests began against the interim Islamist-led government, which led to the adoption of a new constitution. On October , parliamentary elections took place; an event that signified the end of the political transition with Tunisia becoming a unicameral parliamentary republic. The successful uprising in Tunisia inspired activists in other countries in the region to protest similar authoritarian governments in their own nations.

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Specifically, massive protests broke out in Egypt in late January The Egyptian government tried and failed to control protests by offering concessions while cracking down violently against protesters. After several days of massive demonstrations and clashes between protesters and security forces in Cairo and around the country, a turning point came at the end of the month when the Egyptian army announced that it would refuse to use force against protesters calling for the removal of President Hosni Mubarak Fisk and Cockburn Having lost the support of the military, Mubarak left office on 11 February ceding power to a council of senior military officers.

In the period of euphoria that followed, the new military administration enjoyed high public approval, since the military had played a decisive role in ending the Mubarak regime. However, optimism was dampened when the new administration appeared hesitant to begin a full transfer of power to an elected government and when military and security forces resumed the use of violence against protesters Danahr , 54; Zartman , Confrontations between protesters and security forces became frequent occurrences.

Following the controversial election of Mohamed Morsi in , a coup led by Defence Minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi installed the latter as president and he has remained in office since In response to a subsequent insurgency in Sinai, Egyptian armed forces launched anti-terror military operations in the peninsula. Nevertheless, violence and attacks by insurgents have increased since the ouster of Morsi.

In these countries, however, outpourings of popular discontent led to protracted bloody struggles between opposition groups and ruling regimes. Political chaos led to the occupation of several Yemeni regions by al-Qaeda and Houthi rebels. In response, Saleh sacked the military leaders and restructured the Yemeni military forces.

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However, al-Hadi was ousted by Houthi rebels and a violent civil war broke out as a result. As a result, protests were violently suppressed by Bahraini security forces, aided by a force of about 1, soldiers from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates UAE. By the end of March, the protest movement had been stifled. In November , an independent investigation into the uprising, commissioned by the Bahraini government, concluded that the government had used excessive force and torture against protesters. As a result, the Head of the National Security Apparatus removed from his post while the government vowed to act on the recommendations for reform included in the report.

To this end, a Committee to implement the recommendations was formed. Today, officially, the country has a constitutional monarchy form of government, but personal freedoms remain limited. In Libya, protests against the authoritarian regime of Colonel Muammar Qaddafi erupted in mid-February and they quickly escalated into a violent civil war Danahr , —; Fisk and Cockburn Qaddafi was forced from power in August after rebel forces took control of Tripoli. After evading capture for several weeks, Qaddafi was captured, tortured, and eventually executed by opposition fighters in Surt in October The challenges of governing Libya in the post-Qaddafi era became apparent soon after the internationally recognised provisional government, known as the Transitional National Council TNC , took power.

The TNC struggled to restart the Libyan economy, establish functional institutions of government, and exert control over the many autonomous regional and tribal militias that had participated in the rebellion against Qaddafi. This has contributed, in part, to the ongoing worldwide refugee crisis, which has seen thousands flee Libya, most often by boat across the Mediterranean Sea, with hopes of new opportunities in Europe.

In Syria protests calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad broke out in southern Syria in mid-March and spread through the country Danahar , —; Fisk and Cockburn ; Lynch , —; Zartman , — The initial response of the Syrian government was to release some political prisoners, end the Emergency Law, and dismiss the Provincial Governors. This followed by the resignation of the government, as well as the resignation of members of the Syrian Parliament.

The State, War, and the State of War

Nevertheless the protests continued. The Assad regime responded with a brutal crackdown against protesters, drawing condemnation from international leaders and human rights groups. As a result, the Syrian army experienced a large number of defections, which led first to clashes between soldiers and defectors and eventually to the formation of the Free Syrian Army and a full-scale civil war. A leadership council for the Syrian opposition formed in Istanbul in August, and opposition militias began to launch attacks on government forces. Meanwhile, divisions in the international community made it unlikely that international military intervention, which had proved decisive in Libya, would be possible in Syria.

The arrival of a delegation of peace monitors from the Arab League in December did little to reduce violence. The monitoring mission was suspended several weeks later over concerns for the safety of the monitors. The Syrian Civil War has lasted for several years, forcing many to leave the country to seek refuge in Turkey, Greece and throughout Western Europe. The group executed thousands of people, and many others fled the region in fear of their lives. Yet, although ISIS has largely been defeated in Syria, the oppressive regime of Bashar al Assad remains in power in the country largely due to the military assistance it has received from Russia.

Lastly, the effects of the Arab Spring movement were felt elsewhere throughout the Middle East and North Africa as many of the countries in the region experienced at least minor pro-democracy protests. In Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Oman rulers offered a variety of concessions, ranging from the dismissal of unpopular officials to constitutional changes, in order to head off the spread of protest movements in their countries.

Political (In)Security in the Middle East

Specifically, in Algeria the year old state of emergency was lifted Zartman , — In Kuwait, protests led to the resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah and the dissolution of the Parliament, while in Morocco political concessions were offered by King Mohammed VI, including a referendum on constitutional reforms, respect and observance of civil rights, and a commitment to end corruption Zartman , — In Saudi Arabia, economic concessions were offered by King Abdullah and male-only municipal elections were held on 29 September Lynch , — Later, King Abdullah announced his approval for women to vote and be elected in the municipal elections, as well as to be nominated to the Shura Council.

Due to their low degree of socio-political cohesion, weak states face great insecurity at the regime level. This is not only crucial to their own security, but also to that of the regions within which they are located. International anarchy is a decentralised system of order and, therefore, depends for its stability on the stability of its component units states.

Weak states are problematic for international order because their internal politics are often violent, and their domestic insecurity often spills over to disrupt the security of neighbouring states. Moreover, weak states can easily attract competitive outside intervention, as well as serve as targets to opportunistic aggressors.

Al-Marashi, Ibrahim. Hass and David W. Lesch, — London: Routledge. Ayibi, N. In The Arab State edited by G. Luciani, — Berkeley: University of California Press. Bajoghli, Narges and Arang Keshavarzian. Bayat, Asef. Revolution without Revolutionaries.

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Making Sense of the Arab Spring. Bellin, Eva. Comparative Politics , 36 2 : — Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Logic of Anarchy. New York: Columbia University Press. Ciftci, Sabri. Clancy-Smith, Julia. Lesch, Dawisha, Adeed. Fisk, Robert and Patrick Cockburn. Arab Spring: Then and Now. London: Independent Print Limited. Halliday, Fred. Millennium , 16 2 : — Hass, Mark L. Lesch eds. Holsti, Kalevi J.

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Abstract The relationship between International Relations IR theory and diplomacy has largely been one of mutual neglect. Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed.

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