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The algorithm , according to the characteristics of the dataset, automatically determined the possible maximum number of clusters instead of using the empirical rule n and obtained the optimal initial cluster centroids, improving the limitation of FCM that randomly selected cluster centroids lead the convergence result to the local minimum.

Secondly, this paper, by introducing a penalty function, proposed a new fuzzy clustering validity index based on fuzzy compactness and separation, which ensured that when the number of clusters verged on that of objects in the dataset, the value of clustering validity index did not monotonically decrease and was close to zero, so that the optimal number of clusters lost robustness and decision function. Then, based on these studies, a self-adaptive FCM algorithm was put forward to estimate the optimal number of clusters by the iterative trial-and-error process.

At last, experiments were done on the UCI, KDD Cup , and synthetic datasets, which showed that the method not only effectively determined the optimal number of clusters , but also reduced the iteration of FCM with the stable clustering result. An image segmentation method based on fuzzy C-means clustering and Cuckoo search algorithm. Image segmentation is a significant step in image analysis and machine vision.

Many approaches have been presented in this topic; among them, fuzzy C-means FCM clustering is one of the most widely used methods for its high efficiency and ambiguity of images. However, the success of FCM could not be guaranteed because it easily traps into local optimal solution. Cuckoo search CS is a novel evolutionary algorithm , which has been tested on some optimization problems and proved to be high-efficiency. Therefore, a new segmentation technique using FCM and blending of CS algorithm is put forward in the paper. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is robust, adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper.

Clustering algorithms are widely used in pattern recognition and data mining applications. Due to their computational efficiency, partitional clustering algorithms are better suited for applications with large datasets than hierarchical clustering algorithms. K-means is among the most popular partitional clustering algorithm , but has a major…. Developing the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm based on maximum entropy for multitarget tracking in a cluttered environment. For fast and more effective implementation of tracking multiple targets in a cluttered environment, we propose a multiple targets tracking MTT algorithm called maximum entropy fuzzy c-means clustering joint probabilistic data association that combines fuzzy c-means clustering and the joint probabilistic data association PDA algorithm.

The algorithm uses the membership value to express the probability of the target originating from measurement. The membership value is obtained through fuzzy c-means clustering objective function optimized by the maximum entropy principle. When considering the effect of the public measurement, we use a correction factor to adjust the association probability matrix to estimate the state of the target. As this algorithm avoids confirmation matrix splitting, it can solve the high computational load problem of the joint PDA algorithm. The results of simulations and analysis conducted for tracking neighbor parallel targets and cross targets in a different density cluttered environment show that the proposed algorithm can realize MTT quickly and efficiently in a cluttered environment.

Further, the performance of the proposed algorithm remains constant with increasing process noise variance. The proposed algorithm has the advantages of efficiency and low computational load, which can ensure optimum performance when tracking multiple targets in a dense cluttered environment. The cascaded moving k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms for unsupervised segmentation of malaria images.

Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic infectious disease that corresponds for nearly one million deaths each year. Due to the requirement of prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria, the current study has proposed an unsupervised pixel segmentation based on clustering algorithm in order to obtain the fully segmented red blood cells RBCs infected with malaria parasites based on the thin blood smear images of P. In order to obtain the segmented infected cell, the malaria images are first enhanced by using modified global contrast stretching technique.

Then, an unsupervised segmentation technique based on clustering algorithm has been applied on the intensity component of malaria image in order to segment the infected cell from its blood cells background. In this study, cascaded moving k-means MKM and fuzzy c-means FCM clustering algorithms has been proposed for malaria slide image segmentation.

After that, median filter algorithm has been applied to smooth the image as well as to remove any unwanted regions such as small background pixels from the image. Finally, seeded region growing area extraction algorithm has been applied in order to remove large unwanted regions that are still appeared on the image due to their size in which cannot be cleaned by using median filter.

The effectiveness of the proposed cascaded MKM and FCM clustering algorithms has been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by comparing the proposed cascaded clustering algorithm with MKM and FCM clustering algorithms. Overall, the results indicate that segmentation using the proposed cascaded clustering algorithm has produced the best segmentation performances by achieving acceptable sensitivity as well as high specificity and accuracy values compared to the segmentation results provided by MKM and FCM algorithms.

Traffic monitoring and managing in urban intelligent transportation systems ITS can be carried out based on vehicular sensor networks. In a vehicular sensor network, vehicles equipped with sensors such as GPS, can act as mobile sensors for sensing the urban traffic and sending the reports to a traffic monitoring center TMC for traffic estimation. The energy consumption by the sensor nodes is a main problem in the wireless sensor networks WSNs ; moreover, it is the most important feature in designing these networks.

Clustering the sensor nodes is considered as an effective solution to reduce the energy consumption of WSNs. Each cluster should have a Cluster Head CH , and a number of nodes located within its supervision area. The cluster heads are responsible for gathering and aggregating the information of clusters. Then, it transmits the information to the data collection center. Hence, the use of clustering decreases the volume of transmitting information, and, consequently, reduces the energy consumption of network.

In this paper, Fuzzy C-Means FCM and Fuzzy Subtractive algorithms are employed to cluster sensors and investigate their performance on the energy consumption of sensors. It can be seen that the FCM algorithm and Fuzzy Subtractive have been reduced energy consumption of vehicle sensors up to Comparing the performance of the algorithms implies the 1. The implementation of hybrid clustering using fuzzy c-means and divisive algorithm for analyzing DNA human Papillomavirus cause of cervical cancer. Clustering aims to classify the different patterns into groups called clusters.

In this clustering method, we use n-mers frequency to calculate the distance matrix which is considered more accurate than using the DNA alignment. The clustering results could be used to discover biologically important sub-sections and groups of genes. Many clustering methods have been developed, while hard clustering methods considered less accurate than fuzzy clustering methods, especially if it is used for outliers data. Among fuzzy clustering methods, fuzzy c-means is one the best known for its accuracy and simplicity. Fuzzy c-means clustering uses membership function variable, which refers to how likely the data could be members into a cluster.

Fuzzy c-means clustering works using the principle of minimizing the objective function. Parameters of membership function in fuzzy are used as a weighting factor which is also called the fuzzier. In this study we implement hybrid clustering using fuzzy c-means and divisive algorithm which could improve the accuracy of cluster membership compare to traditional partitional approach only. In this study fuzzy c-means is used in the first step to find partition results. Furthermore divisive algorithms will run on the second step to find sub- clusters and dendogram of phylogenetic tree.

To find the best number of clusters is determined using the minimum value of Davies Bouldin Index DBI of the cluster results. In this research, the results show that the methods introduced in this paper is better than other partitioning methods. Finally, we found 3 clusters with DBI value of 1. Moreover, DBI values after implementing the second step of clustering are always producing smaller IDB values compare to the results of using first step clustering only. This condition indicates that the hybrid approach in this study produce better performance of the cluster results, in term its DBI values.

The generalized linear least square method GLLS is an efficient method to estimate unbiased kinetic parameters and parametric images. The influx rate K I , volume of distribution V d were estimated for the cerebellum, thalamus and frontal cortex. Image segmentation is not only one of the hottest topics in digital image processing, but also an important part of computer vision applications. As one kind of image segmentation algorithms , fuzzy C-means clustering is an effective and concise segmentation algorithm. However, the drawback of FCM is that it is sensitive to image noise.

To solve the problem, this paper designs a novel fuzzy C-mean clustering algorithm based on multi-objective optimization. In the algorithm , the local correlation of neighboring pixels is added to the improved multi-objective mathematical model to optimize the clustering cent. Two different experimental results show that the novel fuzzy C-means approach has an efficient performance and computational time while segmenting images by different type of noises.

k-means clustering - Wikipedia

A curvature-based weighted fuzzy c-means algorithm for point clouds de-noising. In order to remove the noise of three-dimensional scattered point cloud and smooth the data without damnify the sharp geometric feature simultaneity, a novel algorithm is proposed in this paper. The feature-preserving weight is added to fuzzy c-means algorithm which invented a curvature weighted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Firstly, the large-scale outliers are removed by the statistics of r radius neighboring points.

Then, the algorithm estimates the curvature of the point cloud data by using conicoid parabolic fitting method and calculates the curvature feature value. Finally, the proposed clustering algorithm is adapted to calculate the weighted cluster centers. The cluster centers are regarded as the new points. The experimental results show that this approach is efficient to different scale and intensities of noise in point cloud with a high precision, and perform a feature-preserving nature at the same time.

Also it is robust enough to different noise model. This paper is concerned with developing a distributed k-means algorithm and a distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm for wireless sensor networks WSNs where each node is equipped with sensors. The underlying topology of the WSN is supposed to be strongly connected. The consensus algorithm in multiagent consensus theory is utilized to exchange the measurement information of the sensors in WSN.


The proposed distributed k-means algorithm is capable of partitioning the data observed by the nodes into measure-dependent groups which have small in-group and large out-group distances, while the proposed distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm is capable of partitioning the data observed by the nodes into different measure-dependent groups with degrees of membership values ranging from 0 to 1. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed algorithms can achieve almost the same results as that given by the centralized clustering algorithms. The report reviewed the algorithm fuzzy c-means , performs image segmentation, give an estimate of the quality of his work on the criterion of Xie-Beni, contain the results of experimental studies of the algorithm in the context of solving the problem of drawing up detailed two-dimensional maps with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles.

According to the results of the experiment concluded that the possibility of applying the algorithm in problems of decoding images obtained as a result of aerial photography. The considered algorithm can significantly break the original image into a plurality of segments clusters in a relatively short period of time, which is achieved by modification of the original k-means algorithm to work in a fuzzy task. Modified fuzzy c-means applied to a Bragg grating-based spectral imager for material clustering. We have modified the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm for an application related to segmentation of hyperspectral images.

Classical fuzzy c-means algorithm uses Euclidean distance for computing sample membership to each cluster. We have introduced a different distance metric, Spectral Similarity Value SSV , in order to have a more convenient similarity measure for reflectance information. SSV distance metric considers both magnitude difference by the use of Euclidean distance and spectral shape by the use of Pearson correlation. Experiments confirmed that the introduction of this metric improves the quality of hyperspectral image segmentation, creating spectrally more dense clusters and increasing the number of correctly classified pixels.

Many students are confused in choosing their own field of specialization, ultimately choosing areas of specialization that are incompatible with a variety of reasons such as just following a friend or because of the area of interest of many choices without knowing whether they have Competencies in the chosen field of interest. This research aims to apply Clustering method with Fuzzy C-means algorithm to classify students in the chosen interest field.

The Fuzzy C-Means algorithm is one of the easiest and often used algorithms in data grouping techniques because it makes efficient estimates and does not require many parameters. Several studies have led to the conclusion that the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm can be used to group data based on certain attributes. In this research will be used Fuzzy C-Means algorithm to classify student data based on the value of core subjects in the selection of specialization field. This study also tested the accuracy of the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm in the determination of interest area.

From this research, it is expected to get the specialization field, according to the students' ability based on the prerequisite principal value. Query by example video based on fuzzy c-means initialized by fixed clustering center. Currently, the high complexity of video contents has posed the following major challenges for fast retrieval: 1 efficient similarity measurements, and 2 efficient indexing on the compact representations.

A video-retrieval strategy based on fuzzy c-means FCM is presented for querying by example.

Clustering 8: Optimal number of clusters

Initially, the query video is segmented and represented by a set of shots, each shot can be represented by a key frame, and then we used video processing techniques to find visual cues to represent the key frame. Next, because the FCM algorithm is sensitive to the initializations, here we initialized the cluster center by the shots of query video so that users could achieve appropriate convergence.

After an FCM cluster was initialized by the query video, each shot of query video was considered a benchmark point in the aforesaid cluster , and each shot in the database possessed a class label. The similarity between the shots in the database with the same class label and benchmark point can be transformed into the distance between them. Finally, the similarity between the query video and the video in database was transformed into the number of similar shots. Our experimental results demonstrated the performance of this proposed approach.

Purpose: Accurate tumor delineation in positron emission tomography PET images is crucial in oncology. Although recent methods achieved good results, there is still room for improvement regarding tumors with complex shapes, low signal-to-noise ratio, and high levels of uptake heterogeneity. Robustness was assessed by studying the consistency of results obtained on multiple acquisitions of the NEMA phantom on three different scanners with varying acquisition parameters.

Accuracy was evaluated using classification errors CEs on simulated and clinical images. Background Understanding how neurons contribute to perception, motor functions and cognition requires the reliable detection of spiking activity of individual neurons during a number of different experimental conditions. An important problem in computational neuroscience is thus to develop algorithms to automatically detect and sort the spiking activity of individual neurons from extracellular recordings. While many algorithms for spike sorting exist, the problem of accurate and fast online sorting still remains a challenging issue.

Results Here we present a novel software tool, called FSPS Fuzzy SPike Sorting , which is designed to optimize: i fast and accurate detection, ii offline sorting and iii online classification of neuronal spikes with very limited or null human intervention. The method is based on a combination of Singular Value Decomposition for fast and highly accurate pre-processing of spike shapes, unsupervised Fuzzy C-mean , high-resolution alignment of extracted spike waveforms, optimal selection of the number of features to retain, automatic identification the number of clusters , and quantitative quality assessment of resulting clusters independent on their size.

After being trained on a short testing data stream, the method can reliably perform supervised online classification and monitoring of single neuron activity. We evaluated the performance of our algorithm both on benchmark simulated datasets with different levels of background noise and on real extracellular recordings from premotor cortex of Macaque monkeys.

The results of these tests showed an excellent accuracy in discriminating low-amplitude and overlapping spikes under strong background noise. The performance of our method is competitive with respect to. Automatic online spike sorting with singular value decomposition and fuzzy C-mean clustering. Understanding how neurons contribute to perception, motor functions and cognition requires the reliable detection of spiking activity of individual neurons during a number of different experimental conditions.

Here we present a novel software tool, called FSPS Fuzzy SPike Sorting , which is designed to optimize: i fast and accurate detection, ii offline sorting and iii online classification of neuronal spikes with very limited or null human intervention. The performance of our method is competitive with respect to other robust spike.

Multiresolution edge detection using enhanced fuzzy c-means clustering for ultrasound image speckle reduction. Purpose: Speckle suppression in ultrasound US images of various anatomic structures via a novel speckle noise reduction algorithm. Methods: The proposed algorithm employs an enhanced fuzzy c-means EFCM clustering and multiresolution wavelet analysis to distinguish edges from speckle noise in US images.

The edge detection procedure involves a coarse-to-fine strategy with spatial and interscale constraints so as to classify wavelet local maxima distribution at different frequency bands. As an outcome, an edge map across scales is derived whereas the wavelet coefficients that correspond to speckle are suppressed in the inverse wavelet transform acquiring the denoised US image. Each of these images was subjected to the proposed EFCM algorithm and, for comparison, to commercial speckle reduction imaging SRI software and another well-known denoising approach, Pizurica's method.

The quantification of the speckle suppression performance in the selected set of US images was carried out via Speckle Suppression Index SSI with results of 0. Peak signal-to-noise ratios of Furthermore, it yielded results similar to those for SRI for breast and thyroid images significantly better results than SRI for liver imaging, thus improving diagnostic accuracy in both superficial and in-depth structures.

Conclusions: A new wavelet. Speckle suppression in ultrasound US images of various anatomic structures via a novel speckle noise reduction algorithm. The proposed algorithm employs an enhanced fuzzy c-means EFCM clustering and multiresolution wavelet analysis to distinguish edges from speckle noise in US images. Based on two independent radiologists' qualitative evaluation the proposed method significantly improved image characteristics over standard baseline B mode images, and those processed with the Pizurica's method.

A new wavelet-based EFCM clustering model was introduced toward. Fractal dimension to classify the heart sound recordings with KNN and fuzzy c-mean clustering methods. The heart abnormalities can be detected from heart sound. A heart sound can be heard directly with a stethoscope or indirectly by a phonocardiograph, a machine of the heart sound recording. This paper presents the implementation of fractal dimension theory to make a classification of phonocardiograms into a normal heart sound, a murmur, or an extrasystole. There were two steps to make a classification of phonocardiograms, feature extraction, and classification.

For feature extraction, we used Discrete Wavelet Transform to decompose the signal of heart sound into several sub-bands depending on the selected level. After the decomposition process, the signal was processed using Fast Fourier Transform FFT to determine the spectral frequency. The classification of fractal dimension of all phonocardiograms was done with KNN and Fuzzy c-mean clustering methods.

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Based on the research results, the best accuracy obtained was Meanwhile, for fuzzy c-mean clustering , the accuracy was Application of fuzzy c-means clustering to PRTR chemicals uncovering their release and toxicity characteristics. Increasing manufacture and usage of chemicals have not been matched by the increase in our understanding of their risks. Pollutant release and transfer register PRTR is becoming a popular measure for collecting chemical data and enhancing the public right to know. However, these data are usually in high dimensionality which restricts their wider use.

Each chemical with membership degrees belongs to each cluster. Cluster I features high releases from non-listed industries and the household sector and high environmental toxicity. Cluster II is characterized by high reported releases and transfers from 24 listed industries above the threshold, mutagenicity, and high environmental toxicity. Chemicals in cluster III have characteristics of high releases from non-listed industries and low toxicity. Cluster IV is characterized by high reported releases and transfers from 24 listed industries above the threshold and extremely high environmental toxicity.

Cluster V is characterized by low releases yet mutagenicity and high carcinogenicity. Chemicals with the highest membership degree were identified as representatives for each cluster. For the highest membership degree, half of the chemicals have a value higher than 0. FCM can serve as an approach to uncover the implicit information of highly complex chemical dataset, which subsequently supports the strategy development for efficient and effective chemical management.

All rights reserved. Segmentation is one of the fundamental issues of image processing and machine vision. It plays a prominent role in a variety of image processing applications. In this paper, one of the most important applications of image processing in MRI segmentation of pomegranate is explored. Pomegranate is a fruit with pharmacological properties such as being anti-viral and anti-cancer. Having a high quality product in hand would be critical factor in its marketing. The internal quality of the product is comprehensively important in the sorting process.

The determination of qualitative features cannot be manually made. Therefore, the segmentation of the internal structures of the fruit needs to be performed as accurately as possible in presence of noise. Fuzzy c-means FCM algorithm is noise-sensitive and pixels with noise are classified inversely. As a solution, in this paper, the spatial FCM algorithm in pomegranate MR images' segmentation is proposed. The algorithm is performed with setting the spatial neighborhood information in FCM and modification of fuzzy membership function for each class.

Self-organization and clustering algorithms. Kohonen's feature maps approach to clustering is often likened to the k or c-means clustering algorithms. The author concludes that some differences are significant, but at the same time there may be some important unknown relationships between the two methodologies. Several avenues of research are proposed. Comparison of K-means and fuzzy c-means algorithm performance for automated determination of the arterial input function.

The arterial input function AIF plays a crucial role in the quantification of cerebral perfusion parameters. The traditional method for AIF detection is based on manual operation, which is time-consuming and subjective. Two automatic methods have been reported that are based on two frequently used clustering algorithms : fuzzy c-means FCM and K-means. However, it is still not clear which is better for AIF detection.

Hence, we compared the performance of these two clustering methods using both simulated and clinical data. The results demonstrate that K-means analysis can yield more accurate and robust AIF results, although it takes longer to execute than the FCM method. We consider that this longer execution time is trivial relative to the total time required for image manipulation in a PACS setting, and is acceptable if an ideal AIF is obtained. BP network identification technology of infrared polarization based on fuzzy c-means clustering.

Infrared detection system is frequently employed on surveillance operations and reconnaissance mission to detect particular targets of interest in both civilian and military communities. By incorporating the polarization of light as supplementary information, the target discrimination performance could be enhanced. So this paper proposed an infrared target identification method which is based on fuzzy theory and neural network with polarization properties of targets.

The paper utilizes polarization degree and light intensity to advance the unsupervised KFCM kernel fuzzy C-Means clustering method. And establish different material pol1arization properties database. KFCM, which has stronger robustness and accuracy than FCM, introduces kernel idea and gives the noise points and invalid value different but intuitively reasonable weights.

Because of differences in characterization of material properties, there will be some conflicts in classification results. And D - S evidence theory was used in the combination of the polarization and intensity information. The artificial neural network method realizes material identification, which reasonable solved the problems of complexity in environmental information of infrared polarization, and improperness of background knowledge and inference rule. This method of polarization identification is fast in speed, good in self-adaption and high in resolution.

Thermogram breast cancer prediction approach based on Neutrosophic sets and fuzzy c-means algorithm. The early detection of breast cancer makes many women survive. In this paper, a CAD system classifying breast cancer thermograms to normal and abnormal is proposed.

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This approach consists of two main phases: automatic segmentation and classification. Also, post-segmentation process was suggested to segment breast parenchyma i. ROI from thermogram images. For the classification, different kernel functions of the Support Vector Machine SVM were used to classify breast parenchyma into normal or abnormal cases. Using benchmark database, the proposed CAD system was evaluated based on precision, recall, and accuracy as well as a comparison with related work. To explore the application of fuzzy time series model based on fuzzy c-means clustering in forecasting monthly incidence of Hepatitis E in mainland China.

Apredictive model fuzzy time series method based on fuzzy c-means clustering was developed using Hepatitis E incidence data in mainland China between January and July The incidence datafrom August to November were used to test the fitness of the predictive model. The forecasting results were compared with those resulted from traditional fuzzy time series models. The fuzzy time series model based on fuzzy c-means clustering had 0. The results indicate that the fuzzy time series model based on fuzzy c-means clustering has a better performance in forecasting incidence of Hepatitis E.

Brain vascular image segmentation based on fuzzy local information C-means clustering. Light sheet fluorescence microscopy LSFM is a powerful optical resolution fluorescence microscopy technique which enables to observe the mouse brain vascular network in cellular resolution. However, micro-vessel structures are intensity inhomogeneity in LSFM images, which make an inconvenience for extracting line structures. In this work, we developed a vascular image segmentation method by enhancing vessel details which should be useful for estimating statistics like micro-vessel density.

Since the eigenvalues of hessian matrix and its sign describes different geometric structure in images, which enable to construct vascular similarity function and enhance line signals, the main idea of our method is to cluster the pixel values of the enhanced image.


Our method contained three steps: 1 calculate the multiscale gradients and the differences between eigenvalues of Hessian matrix. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method, mouse brain vascular images have been acquired by a commercial light-sheet microscope in our lab. The results illustrated that our approach extracting line structures of blood vessels dramatically improves the vascular image and enable to accurately extract blood vessels in LSFM images.

Normed kernel function-based fuzzy possibilistic C-means NKFPCM algorithm for high-dimensional breast cancer database classification with feature selection is based on Laplacian Score. In the last decade, breast cancer has become the focus of world attention as this disease is one of the primary leading cause of death for women.

Therefore, it is necessary to have the correct precautions and treatment. In previous studies, Fuzzy Kennel K-Medoid algorithm has been used for multi-class data. The objective of this paper is to obtain the best accuracy in classification of breast cancer data. In order to improve the accuracy of the two methods, the features candidates are evaluated using feature selection, where Laplacian Score is used. Automatic detection of multiple UXO-like targets using magnetic anomaly inversion and self-adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering.

We have developed a method for automatically detecting UXO-like targets based on magnetic anomaly inversion and self-adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering. Magnetic anomaly inversion methods are used to estimate the initial locations of multiple UXO-like sources. Although these initial locations have some errors with respect to the real positions, they form dense clouds around the actual positions of the magnetic sources. Then we use the self-adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm to cluster these initial locations.

The estimated number of cluster centroids represents the number of targets and the cluster centroids are regarded as the locations of magnetic targets. Effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated using synthetic datasets. Computational results show that the proposed method can be applied to the case of several UXO-like targets that are randomly scattered within in a confined, shallow subsurface, volume.

A field test was carried out to test the validity of the proposed method and the experimental results show that the prearranged magnets can be detected unambiguously and located precisely. Hierarchical modularization of biochemical pathways using fuzzy- c means clustering. Biological systems that are representative of regulatory, metabolic, or signaling pathways can be highly complex. Mathematical models that describe such systems inherit this complexity. As a result, these models can often fail to provide a path toward the intuitive comprehension of these systems.

More coarse information that allows a perceptive insight of the system is sometimes needed in combination with the model to understand control hierarchies or lower level functional relationships. In this paper, we present a method to identify relationships between components of dynamic models of biochemical pathways that reside in different functional groups.

We find primary relationships and secondary relationships.


The secondary relationships reveal connections that are present in the system, which current techniques that only identify primary relationships are unable to show. We also identify how relationships between components dynamically change over time. This results in a method that provides the hierarchy of the relationships among components, which can help us to understand the low level functional structure of the system and to elucidate potential hierarchical control.

As a proof of concept, we apply the algorithm to the epidermal growth factor signal transduction pathway, and to the C3 photosynthesis pathway. We identify primary relationships among components that are in agreement with previous computational decomposition studies, and identify secondary relationships that uncover connections among components that current computational approaches were unable to reveal. One of the techniques known in Data Mining namely clustering.

Image segmentation process does not always represent the actual image which is caused by a combination of algorithms as long as it has not been able to obtain optimal cluster centers. In this research will search for the smallest error with the counting result of a Fuzzy C Means process optimized with Cat swam Algorithm Optimization that has been developed by adding the weight of the energy in the process of Tracing Mode.

So with the parameter can be determined the most optimal cluster centers and most closely with the data will be made the cluster. Weigh inertia in this research, namely: 0. Then compare the results of each variable values inersia W which is different and taken the smallest results. Of this weighting analysis process can acquire the right produce inertia variable cost function the smallest. Semisupervised GDTW kernel-based fuzzy c-means algorithm for mapping vegetation dynamics in mining region using normalized difference vegetation index time series.

Mapping vegetation dynamic types in mining areas is significant for revealing the mechanisms of environmental damage and for guiding ecological construction. Dynamic types of vegetation can be identified by applying interannual normalized difference vegetation index NDVI time series. However, phase differences and time shifts in interannual time series decrease mapping accuracy in mining regions. To overcome these problems and to increase the accuracy of mapping vegetation dynamics, an interannual Landsat time series for optimum vegetation growing status was constructed first by using the enhanced spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model algorithm.

We then proposed a Markov random field optimized semisupervised Gaussian dynamic time warping kernel-based fuzzy c-means FCM cluster algorithm for interannual NDVI time series to map dynamic vegetation types in mining regions. The proposed algorithm has been tested in the Shengli mining region and Shendong mining region, which are typical representatives of China's open-pit and underground mining regions, respectively. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can solve the problems of phase differences and time shifts to achieve better performance when mapping vegetation dynamic types. The overall accuracies for the Shengli and Shendong mining regions were Objective: Accurate segmentation of abnormal and healthy lungs is very crucial for a steadfast computer-aided disease diagnostics.

Methods: For this purpose a stack of chest CT scans are processed. In this paper, novel methods are proposed for segmentation of the multimodal grayscale lung CT scan. The results illustrate that the proposed method can able to segment the various kinds of complex multimodal medical images precisely. Conclusion: However, in this paper, to obtain an exact boundary of the regions, every empirical dispersion of the image is computed by Fuzzy C-Means Clustering segmentation. A classification process based on the Convolutional Neural Network CNN classifier is accomplished to distinguish the normal tissue and the abnormal tissue.

Creative Commons Attribution License. Locating the boundary parameters of pupil and iris and segmenting the noise free iris portion are the most challenging phases of an automated iris recognition system. In this paper, we have presented person authentication frame work which uses particle swarm optimization PSO to locate iris region and circular hough transform CHT to device the boundary parameters.

To undermine the effect of the noise presented in the segmented iris region we have divided the candidate region into N patches and used Fuzzy c-means clustering FCM to classify the patches into best iris region and not so best iris region noisy region based on the probability density function of each patch. Weighted mean Hammimng distance is adopted to find the dissimilarity score between the two candidate irises. The proposed CAD system firstly compensates motion artifacts and segments the breast region. Then, the potential lesion voxels are detected and used as the initial seed points for the seeded region-growing algorithm.

A new and robust region-growing algorithm incorporating with Fuzzy C-means FCM clustering and vesselness filter is proposed to segment any potential lesion regions. Subsequently, the false positive detections are reduced by applying a discrimination step. This is based on 3D morphological characteristics of the potential lesion regions and kinetic features which are fed to the support vector machine SVM classifier. The prepared dataset has been used to verify the accuracy of the proposed CAD system. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation.

Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw i. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region.

The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then aggregated into a. Keller, Brad M. The high dimensionality of image-based dataset can be a drawback for classification accuracy.

In this study, we propose the application of fuzzy c-means clustering , cluster validity indices and the notation of a joint-feature- clustering matrix to find redundancies of image-features. The introduced matrix indicates how frequently features are grouped in a mutual cluster. The resulting information can be used to find data-derived feature prototypes with a common biological meaning, reduce data storage as well as computation times and improve the classification accuracy. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques.

Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors.

Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between HMRF and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with FCM techniques. Support vector machine and fuzzy C-mean clustering -based comparative evaluation of changes in motor cortex electroencephalogram under chronic alcoholism.

In this study, the magnitude and spatial distribution of frequency spectrum in the resting electroencephalogram EEG were examined to address the problem of detecting alcoholism in the cerebral motor cortex. Data were taken from motor cortex region and divided into five sub-bands delta, theta, alpha, beta-1 and beta Three methodologies were adopted for feature extraction: 1 absolute power, 2 relative power and 3 peak power frequency.

The dimension of the extracted features is reduced by linear discrimination analysis and classified by support vector machine SVM and fuzzy C-mean clustering. Among the bands, relatively higher classification accuracy was found over theta band and beta-2 band in most of the channels when computed with the EEG features of relative power. Electrodes wise CZ, C3 and P4 were having more alteration. Considering the good classification accuracy obtained by SVM with relative band power features in most of the EEG channels of motor cortex, it can be suggested that the noninvasive automated online diagnostic system for the chronic alcoholic condition can be developed with the help of EEG signals.

Basic firefly algorithm for document clustering. The Document clustering plays significant role in Information Retrieval IR where it organizes documents prior to the retrieval process. To date, various clustering algorithms have been proposed and this includes the K-means and Particle Swarm Optimization. Even though these algorithms have been widely applied in many disciplines due to its simplicity, such an approach tends to be trapped in a local minimum during its search for an optimal solution.

To address the shortcoming, this paper proposes a Basic Firefly Basic FA algorithm to cluster text documents. Experiments utilizing the proposed algorithm were conducted on the 20Newsgroups benchmark dataset. Online clustering algorithms for radar emitter classification. Radar emitter classification is a special application of data clustering for classifying unknown radar emitters from received radar pulse samples.

The main challenges of this task are the high dimensionality of radar pulse samples, small sample group size, and closely located radar pulse clusters. In this paper, two new online clustering algorithms are developed for radar emitter classification: One is model-based using the Minimum Description Length MDL criterion and the other is based on competitive learning.

Computational complexity is analyzed for each algorithm and then compared. Simulation results show the superior performance of the model-based algorithm over competitive learning in terms of better classification accuracy, flexibility, and stability. Minimax similarity stresses the connectedness of points via mediating elements rather than favoring high mutual similarity.

The grouping principle yields superior clustering results when mining arbitrarily-shaped clusters in data. However, it is not robust against noises and outliers in the data. There are two main problems with the grouping principle: first, a single object that is far away from all other objects defines a separate cluster , and second, two connected clusters would be regarded as two parts of one cluster. In order to solve such problems, we propose robust minimum spanning tree MST -based clustering algorithm in this letter.

First, we separate the connected objects by applying a density-based coarsening phase, resulting in a low-rank matrix in which the element denotes the supernode by combining a set of nodes. Then a greedy method is presented to partition those supernodes through working on the low-rank matrix. Instead of removing the longest edges from MST, our algorithm groups the data set based on the minimax similarity. Finally, the assignment of all data points can be achieved through their corresponding supernodes.

Experimental results on many synthetic and real-world data sets show that our algorithm consistently outperforms compared clustering algorithms. An algorithm for spatial heirarchy clustering. A method for utilizing both spectral and spatial redundancy in compacting and preclassifying images is presented. In multispectral satellite images, a high correlation exists between neighboring image points which tend to occupy dense and restricted regions of the feature space. The image is divided into windows of the same size where the clustering is made.

The classes obtained in several neighboring windows are clustered , and then again successively clustered until only one region corresponding to the whole image is obtained. By employing this algorithm only a few points are considered in each clustering , thus reducing computational effort. DCE-MRI defined subvolumes of a brain metastatic lesion by principle component analysis and fuzzy- c-means clustering for response assessment of radiation therapy.

Purpose: To develop a pharmacokinetic modelfree framework to analyze the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging DCE-MRI data for assessment of response of brain metastases to radiation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with 45 analyzable brain metastases had MRI scans prior to whole brain radiation therapy WBRT and at the end of the 2-week therapy.

The volumetric DCE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner with approximately 5 s temporal resolution and a total scan time of about 3 min. DCE curves from all voxels of the 45 brain metastases were normalized and then temporally aligned. Then, the projection coefficient maps prior to and at the end of WBRT are created for each lesion. Next, a pattern recognition technique, based upon fuzzy- c-means clustering , is used to delineate the tumor subvolumes relating to the value of the significant projection coefficients.

The relationship between changes in different tumor subvolumes and treatment response was evaluated to differentiate responsive from stable and progressive tumors. Performance of the PC-defined tumor subvolume was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic ROC analysis in prediction of nonresponsive lesions and compared with physiological-defined tumor subvolumes.

Results: The projection coefficient maps of the first three PCs contain almost all response-related information in DCE curves of brain metastases. The first projection coefficient, related to the area under DCE curves, is the major component to determine response while the third one has a complimentary role. In ROC analysis, the area under curve of 0. Noise-enhanced clustering and competitive learning algorithms. Noise can provably speed up convergence in many centroid-based clustering algorithms. This includes the popular k-means clustering algorithm.

The clustering noise benefit follows from the general noise benefit for the expectation-maximization algorithm because many clustering algorithms are special cases of the expectation-maximization algorithm. Simulations show that noise also speeds up convergence in stochastic unsupervised competitive learning, supervised competitive learning, and differential competitive learning.

Many researchers have applied various techniques however fuzzy c-means FCM based algorithms is more effective compared to other methods. The objective of this work is to develop some robust fuzzy clustering segmentation systems for effective segmentation of DCE - breast MRI. This paper obtains the robust fuzzy clustering algorithms by incorporating kernel methods, penalty terms, tolerance of the neighborhood attraction, additional entropy term and fuzzy parameters.

The initial centers are obtained using initialization algorithm to reduce the computation complexity and running time of proposed algorithms. Experimental works on breast images show that the proposed algorithms are effective to improve the similarity measurement, to handle large amount of noise, to have better results in dealing the data corrupted by noise, and other artifacts.

The clustering results of proposed methods are validated using Silhouette Method. Implementation of spectral clustering on microarray data of carcinoma using k-means algorithm. Clustering is one of data analysis methods that aims to classify data which have similar characteristics in the same group. Spectral clustering is one of the most popular modern clustering algorithms. As an effective clustering technique, spectral clustering method emerged from the concepts of spectral graph theory. With Free Saver Delivery. Facebook Twitter Pinterest Share. Description Reviews More Details.

Description The need for optimal partition arises from many real-world problems involving the distribution of limited resources to many users. The "clustering" problem, which has recently received a lot of attention, is a special case of optimal partitioning. This book is the first attempt to collect all theoretical developments of optimal partitions, many of them derived by the authors, in an accessible place for easy reference. Much more than simply collecting the results, the book provides a general framework to unify these results and present them in an organized fashion.

Many well-known practical problems of optimal partitions are dealt with. The authors show how they can be solved using the theory - or why they cannot be. These problems include: allocation of components to maximize system reliability; experiment design to identify defectives; design of circuit card library and of blood analyzer lines; abstraction of finite state machines and assignment of cache items to pages; the division of property and partition bargaining as well as touching on those well-known research areas such as scheduling, inventory, nearest neighbor assignment, the traveling salesman problem, vehicle routing, and graph partitions.

The authors elucidate why the last three problems cannot be solved in the context of the theory. More Details Contributor: Frank K. Free Returns We hope you are delighted with everything you buy from us. However, if you are not, we will refund or replace your order up to 30 days after purchase.