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There were a few Armenian families who escaped Turkish persecution and came to Utah as Mormon converts. Syrians sold rugs, tablecloths, and bedspreads in mining camps, transplanted nomads. Gypsies made the rounds of industrial towns to tell fortunes and to sell flowerpot stands, made of rough wood and willows, and garish shawls. As late as the s, twenty-six nationalities were counted in Helper, Carbon County, many of them listed in the census as "all others. Enabling legislation to supply the state with sheepherders has kept their numbers from diminishing further.

The depression years of the thirties began the ultimate acceptance of America by these later immigrants as their primary country: if America was in trouble, they feared what life would be in their perpetually impoverished fatherlands. Loyalty to their homelands became increasingly tempered by concern for American life. The Second World War completed the metamorphosis. Children of immigrants were in America's armed services and these sons and daughters knew America as their country. Children of Japanese immigrants were also serving this, their country, yet thousands of first, second, and third generation people of Japanese ancestry were interned in the Topaz relocation center in Millard County.

Hundreds stayed on to relive the immigrant experience of frugality leading to financial independence. After the war the relaxation of immigration quotas again brought increased numbers of diverse peoples into Utah. The missionary program of the Latter-day Saints church still adds that vitality that is immigration's primary contribution to America. Although Chicanos and Blacks live in specific neighborhoods, there are no longer "colonies" and "towns.

Italians gather annually to acknowledge a cultural commonality. Basques meet in a westside hotel and restaurant. Swiss days are celebrated and a German hour is heard on radio. Spanish-speaking performers entertain with ethnic dances and songs on television. On the first day of May, a small band of Finnish ancestry drive to the Scofield ceme-.

An increasing number of Koreans have been coming to Utah since the Korean War, mostly as students. Filipinos have never been in the state in large numbers, fewer than four hundred were counted in the Census. They stayed for twenty-eight years, during which they created a small town and planted fruit and shade trees and yellow roses. They were unable, however, to adjust to the extremes of heat and cold of the desert, and leprosy added to the graves in the sagebrush. The younger Hawaiians left for Salt Lake City and mining camps to look for work. When a Mormon Temple was built in Laie, Oahu, Hawaii, the small band of converts returned to their island and Iosepa became a desert once more.

Following the Second World War when ethnic and racial prejudices began to decline, a new awareness for people's origins grew. The Latter-day Saints church stresses now the relearning and preserving of cultural heritage. Universities are documenting the immigrant experience in Utah. Today there are only scatterings and patches of sagebrush around the cities and towns of Utah. Where sagebrush covered mountain slopes, wheat and orchards now grow. There are plains of it still, but far into isolated places.

Industries and factories increase. Utah is no longer an agrarian society of a "peculiar people. More than a dozen of Utah's distinctive cultural groups are represented between these covers. Each is surveyed by a historian especially qualified by blood ties and training to comment on the particular role served by that group in shaping our state's complex and fascinating history. They join with me in dedicating this effort to the memory of our ancestors, who left us a unique and rich legacy, and to the present Bicentennial generation which carries it forth. I am standing on a high hill overlooking a vast amount of country and wondering if one of my forefathers stood here and saw the same country as I see now.

If so, he saw a completely different kind of country. He saw the wonders of nature and how they were created for him. Nothing was overlooked, for if he missed certain things, part of his life was gone. He saw the mountains and knew that from those mountains came part of his livelihood. He knew in those mountains were the deer, elk, bear, mountain sheep, and the different kinds of birds, and in the streams, many kinds of fish; likewise, he looked at the prairie and saw the buffalo, antelope, and other creatures meant to live in the lower area.

He saw the many kinds of trees, brush, and plants that would become a part of him. This was his native land. In order to make use of the things and creatures created for him, he had to come up with his own idea of producing crude weapons and the apparatus needed to harvest his own needs and those of his fellow tribesmen. He developed many kinds of weapons and tools to make his life easier.

He made tools for the women to use at home and around the encampment, and he had to have the knowledge to get the right kind of materials to make them work for his purposes. He had to find the right kind of wood, bone, and clay to make his cooking and eating utensils; the right kind of stone to make into grinding stone, ax, hammer, or battle ax. The flint stone he knew would be good for knives, scrapers, spears, and arrowheads because of its keen edge and hardness.

He had to know what part of the country would contain certain woods, flints, paints, and other useful items. He knew that wood, stones, and flints were located within the territory of his enemies, and therefore certain wood and stones were considered sacred by him. This was good for him because this was his native land. I wonder, as I stand here, if he knew that he would be labeled as a renegade, savage, a blocker of another civilization, a hindrance to progress, and, someday be thought of as not even a human being by people of other races.

I wonder if he saw the dark clouds coming over the horizon, an atmosphere that would soon change or try to change his way of living or his beliefs. I believe the natives had the philosophy to accept anything that was true. Their faith evolved from the understanding that the Father was the creator of everything that was on this earth. I know there was a conflict of beliefs when Christianity was brought by the strangers and the invaders. This was merely part of the movement to destroy the natives' attitudes, beliefs, customs, and culture. The natives could not say God is Red, White, Black, or any other color.

They only thought the Great Spirit was the color of the universe, which no people can claim. The native people could see this because his creation was tangible. My people saw the explorer who was employed by an alien government to make geographical discoveries. They saw the white trappers and fur traders who first came into our country for economic reasons, then the woodsmen who followed and lived in log cabins with hunting, fishing, and small-scale farming as their means of subsistence.

Then the farmers came to stay and built their schools, churches, town halls, and established an urban community. The native land changed with the coming of these white people but more completely when the Office of Indian Affairs was established within the War Department in In Congress authorized the appointment of a commissioner of Indian affairs who reported to the secretary of war on Indian matters. In the office of the commissioner of Indian affairs was transferred from the War Department to the new Department of the Interior, where it has remained.

The policy was first to do away with the natives, confiscate their crude weapons, destroy their beliefs, tradition, and culture, ahd encourage them to adopt the white man's ways; but the natives found it hard to accept beliefs and customs of any alien culture. They faced starvation. Their main source of subsistence had been the buffalo. After it was exterminated by the great white buffalo hunters, the natives were quickly reduced to poverty, making them dependent on government annuity goods and rations for their daily bread.

As I stand here, I can see it has been a long, hard road back toward the natives' economic independence. We have moved from our tepees to better living and housing conditions. We are caretakers of the natives' once-beloved, ever-dwindling land. The question now comes, as a descendant of that person who might have stood on this same hill a long time ago, whether or not I have forgotten his beliefs, traditions, customs, and culture.

T o truly understand our native land, we have to learn about our own people and the many great leaders and chiefs who were charged with taking care of the Great Spirit's creation. We have to find ways to cope with the policies and restrictions that do not allow us to be free in exercising our lifestyle. I stand here and know this is my native land. In beauty happily I walk.

With beauty before me I walk. With beauty behind me I walk. With beauty below me I walk. With beauty above me I walk. It is finished again in beauty. It is finished in beauty. The Dine' mention their strong relationship to their Anasazi, the Ancient Ones, in their mythology and ceremonies. Hesperus Peaks in Colorado on the north. The Navajos live "in severely eroded plateau country. Userights were established by anyone who used and needed the land. The Dine' philosophy embodied Father Sky and Mother Earth as the parents of all and gave no individual absolute title to a piece of the sky or the earth.

Also, they asked, who in his right mind would hold absolute ownership when his existence on this earth is but brief? Father Sky is sacred as are his offerings: air, wind, thunder, lightning, and rain. Mother Earth is also sacred and all that she offers the Navajos is therefore sacred: mountains, vegetation, animals, and water. Food and shelter are more than utilitarian objects for the Navajos who are always conscious that they are Mother Earth's gifts.

Their food is simple and easily prepared. Mutton is commonly eaten; other meats are small game like rabbits and prairie dogs and large game such as deer and antelope. Infrequently a horse is butchered and all of the animal is used: the meat and entrails are eaten fresh or dried for later needs and the hide is made into footwear, belts, and articles of clothing.

Corn is used not only for food but for offerings to the gods and for the mundane yet useful repair of leaky baskets. A large portion of Navajo myth is centered around corn, telling how Changing Woman Nature , who created the ancestors of the Dine', gave instructions on how it should be raised. The dependability of corn for food is emphasized; cornmeal mush, cakes, and bread are some of the corn foods. When wheat flour was stocked by trading posts, the Navajos conceived their well known fried bread, made from flour, baking powder, salt, and water sugar and milk may be added , formed into flat rounds, and fried in lard or animal fat.

Every cook has her own special recipe. For baking loaf bread, an outdoor earth oven is used. Wyman, ed. The hogan, like corn, has deep religious importance. A similar structure, the Navajos believe, was used by the gods when they first laid down the ceremonies for the people. Every ceremony ends with a sacred hogan chant and everyone inside the hogan must be awake when it is sung. There are two types of hogan, both built according to religious dictates that require four main support posts: one each in the east, west, south, and north for the different gods in these directions.

The hogan always faces east and the space inside is organized around the centrally placed fireplace. The conical type of hogan is the original kind and is made by leaning cedar logs together to form a smoke hole and doorway. The domed-roof, or round hogan, is larger and has support posts arranged in a circle with logs laid horizontally from post to post.

The logs are intersticed one upon the other until a small smoke hole is left at the top of the dome. The support poles are usually in multiples of four. A typical domed hogan usually has eight supports, but there could be as many as twelve. The logs are covered with brush, bark, and dirt. Chants for the purification and blessing of the hogan belong to a multitude of rituals that are the fabric of the complex Navajo religion. Religious rites and the conduct of daily life are centered in the Navajo ideal: to live in sacred harmony, in beauty, and in blessedness.

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A significant short rite is the morning prayer to White Dawn to welcome a new day. Pollen from corn tassels is used and is richly symbolic of purity as well as of peace, happiness, and prosperity. Pollen-sprinkling along with specific chants consecrate and sanctify hogans, patients, prayer sticks, dry sand paintings, and cornmeal mush that is eaten ceremonially. Navajos call the haze in the air, pollen of morning sky and pollen of evening sky.

Some 2 Gladys A. While the lengthy sings go on, the medicine man performs an extremely complicated ritual with his bundle of herbs, prayer sticks, pollen, emetics at times , and sand and sandstone for the dry paintings. The following, taken from a Beautyway ceremony, sung to the medicine man's ministrations, has only perplexity for the uninitiated: Dusty Body [Rattler], youth chief, I have made you an offering.

Dusty Body maiden chief an offering Pollen Body [Bull Snake], youth chief Pollen Body maiden chief Arrowsnake, youth chief. Arrowsnake, maiden chief.. Under the two categories of ceremonies, Blessingway and Evilway, there are far too many ceremonies for any one medicine man singer to know all of them.

Most medicine men specialize in one to six or seven ceremonies, and rarely will a medicine man specialize in more than eight. Everything has to be learned by memory. Learning is accomplished through apprenticeship to noted medicine men. After their education, medicine men have to be ceremonially ordained for each ceremony they perform. During his training, each medicine man must acquire his own medicine bundle.

This can be done by the ritualistic gathering of a bundle from an aging medicine man or by making up a new bundle. The type of ceremony that the medicine man knows will determine. Wyman, Blessingway A discussion of Enemyway is found in the latter. Collection of a new medicine bundle is time-consuming and includes herbs, pollens, feathers, sacred mountain dirt, stones, scrub oak branches, juniper bark, cattail flags, wild rice grass, rock sage, bear grass, plants with pods, and many other grasses and tree branches. The medicine man, further, must be able to identify exactly every herb, plant, and other necessary object required in particular ceremonies.

Like a medical doctor, he is on call at all times but goes to the patient's hogan to perform the necessary ceremony. The Navajo people usually know which medicine man in their area specializes in each ceremony. The chants are followed by serving food to the spectators, and, with the medicine man's fee, the expense can be large. Navajo society is close-knit; families are organized around the mother, grandmother, and, sometimes, older sisters. A man usually lives with his wife in her mother's community. Marriages are exogamous, outside the parents' clans.

The children inherit the mother's clan, and the cousins of the clan are referred to as brothers and sisters. Because of these strong ties, a Navajo has deep obligations in helping and in participating in functions involving his kin. If a ceremony is to be performed, the patient's kin are expected to assist in it. Males are obligated to their maternal clans and it is not unusual for a husband to leave his family to help his mother's kin. Present Navajo society has had a long evolution. The first contact with foreigners occurred in the sixteenth century. From the Spanish the Dine' adopted practices that changed them from food hunters to sheep raisers.

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Besides acquiring sheep and horses from the Spanish, they discarded their buckskin clothing for the wool of the white men and learned silversmithing and the use of money beso as a medium of exchange. Intermarriage with the Spaniards produced the Nakai-di-nee clan. From the time of this Spanish intrusion, the Dine' had to adapt to an ever-changing environment. The Navajos believe that almost all cultural practices originated within the tribe, but that weaving, farming, livestock raising, and some legends were learned from the Spanish and other southwestern Indian tribes.

The Navajos are known as the most innovative of tribes, taking from other cultures what. Their flocks of sheep that must graze on vegetation so sparse that hogans are miles from each The Navajos learned silver smithing from the Spanish and became consummate artists. Above: Squaw dance in Monument Valley.

Left: The Navajos learned weaving from neighboring tribes and then surpassed them in skill. Monument Valley, From the top: Exhibit in the first Navajo fair, September , in Bluff. After a sing, a medicine man gathers up his fee, coins tossed onto a blanket by the patient's family and spectators. Potato race held during a celebration in Monument Valley. Horse racing is a favorite diversion for the Navajos. Opposite, from the top: During the Kin-nahl-dah celebration marking a girl's reaching puberty, women pour batter into a pit to bake ceremonial bread.

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Navajo women butchering a beef to serve guests at a Squaw Dance. A Monument Valley hogan. Above: A Navajo medicine man. Right: Sweat house used at sings during which a medicine man conducts ancient healing rituals. Baxter Liebler in The animals were spindly and gave no more than a pound or two of wool, hacked off with a homemade knife shaped from a tin can. But when the Navajos saw an economic advantage they took it. By , they had a million pounds of wool to trade, and by , two million. Today sheep, the wealth of the Navajos, move through all of Navajoland, watched over by excellent male and female herders of all ages.

Later when the Spanish drove sheep north into Arizona and New Mexico in , wool was used. Mastering wool dyeing by using native roots, berries, and bark, the Navajos are credited with creating the first native tapestries in the United States. The predilection for red of traders, like Don Lorenzo Hubbell, and tourists coming into the land of the Dine' on Fred Harvey buses, together with new analine dyes in bright colors, threatened the craft for a while. Navajo weavers were given pictures to reproduce and in their experimentation with the analine dyes and their hurry to sell more of their work, a period of poor-quality rugs came off the looms.

The market for Navajo rugs never waned, and weavers gave all their time to this source of income, always steady while drought and floods regularly ruined their crops. Blankets for their own use were no longer made; instead the softer wool blankets from Pendleton, Oregon, were bought at trading posts. The Southwest Museum in Los Angeles displays many rugs in traditional designs that were original to the Navajos. The designs from this area are the most complex, "the least Indian and the most like "Ruth M. Underhill, The Navajos. Neumann, "Navajo Silversmithing," El Palacio 77, no.

Saltwater, and Esther Williams. This major event in the lives of the Navajos began when Mexico gave the responsibilities for the Dine' to the United States under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in The preceding eight decades and the following two were the bloodiest in Navajo history, with wars against the Apaches, Utes, Spanish, Pueblos, and Comanches over slave raiding. Until the treaty, the Navajos governed themselves in clan units with the eldest or medicine man acting as head or chief.

There was no head chief over all the Navajos, and trouble arose when a few chiefs signed treaties with white men who thought the clan leaders were representing the whole tribe. The treaty, for example, of November 22, Raiding continued, despite the treaty, until when large forces under Kit Carson conquered the Navajos. For four terrible years they were confined in a concentration camp, their selfsufficiency and independence destroyed. The captive Dine' began their homeward journey after the Treaty of , and those who endured and survived regarded themselves with high esteem.

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Navajos, living in the western part of the Navajo country, who had escaped from the United States militia into the rugged steep canyons of the San Juan and Colorado rivers of Arizona and Utah and were able to survive untouched, also thought of themselves as heroes because of their cunning and ability to elude capture. The Treaty of ended the intense suffering of the Navajos and made them amenable to trading with whites.

By six trading posts were established on the Navajo Reservation; by , the peak in trading, ninety-five traders were licensed. The reservation trader was far different from the early itinerant trader who brought guns, liquor, and trinkets to Indian camps in return for furs.

This isolation insured the Navajos' keeping their culture free from the white man's influence; it also, until the s, gave traders great authority that was often misused, resulting in exploitation of the Dine' when selling their wool, rugs, and silver jewelry. Although 25 percent profit was the federally set limit, the isolation of the trading post gave dishonest traders the opportunity to buy and sell at their prices.

The trading post was the central meeting point for the widely scattered Navajos. For trading information, advice from the trader in business, personal, and government matters, medical help, the fearful burial of the dead, Indians rode hundreds of miles, first on horseback and later in pickup trucks. The trader continued in this role until the federal relief programs, begun in , brought an increase in white personnel and diminished somewhat his status.

A poignant novel of this period is Oliver La Farge's Laughing Boy, the story of a young Indian who was demoralized by his first contact with whites. Navajo women wearing full orange, purple, and green sateen skirts and velveteen tops, their wealth in necklaces of silver, coral, and turquoise around their necks and silver bracelets on their arms, haggled with the trader over their rugs. The pawn could remain hanging in the trading post for years. Wool and rugs were sold to cut down the price on the pawn ticket. A sample pawn ticket on a silver bracelet: Woman.

It has been a long and slow progress from the trader representing the Indians to the present tribal government begun by United States agents. The policy of the government in education and in tribal affairs was to transform Navajos into white men. The United States directed social and cultural change at every level of tribal society.

Although Navajos were given livestock and farm implements, they also were forced, in many cases, to cut their conjos long hair tied in a bun before receiving wagons, and children, frightened by separation from their families and far from their hogans, had their hair cut as soon as they arrived at school. The proud tradition of wearing conjos was destroyed with severe loss of self-esteem. At the beginning the tribal government was merely administrative in nature and carried out the programs of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Since then the Navajos have learned the intricacies of laws and bureaucracy and are now on the verge of total self-government. The various branches of the Navajo tribal government plan, control, and administer their own programs. The overriding theme is self-determination in conducting their own affairs. To accomplish these goals, there is a big push by the tribe toward education while keeping its Navajoness.

No longer working only with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Navajos today run for local school boards, county commissions, and state legislatures. The tribe communicates and works directly with the state and national governments. All in all, the Navajo, a great learner, has mastered the white man's politics. Since the Treaty of , Navajoland has been expanded many times. Westward expansion was initiated by unilateral executive order of May 17, , and took in northeastern Arizona and southeastern Utah below the San Juan River.

The order of March 10, , added the Aneth area north of the San Juan. The Paiute Strip had been classified in various ways until it was added to the reservation along the Aneth Extension by act of March 1, This exchange was for land that is presently covered by the water of Lake Powell. The United States Indian policy is slowly changing, giving Indians a voice in the policies and programs that affect them.

This makes education more meaningful and develops expertise in the handling of tribal affairs. While the future looks bright, a tremendous amount of effort is needed to improve Navajo education and to introduce industrial development to create jobs on the reservation, even though more Navajos are moving into the cities for work. In Navajoland today adults in both Indian and "American" dress and little girls wearing cotton dresses, boys in jeans still travel the dusty road to trading posts where cases of the ubiquitous soda pop bottles are stacked.

Their children ride hours on yellow school buses for their education and when of high school age attend boarding schools as far away as the Indian school in Brigham City, Utah, where they meet students from other tribes. Many never return to live on the reservation where mothers still admonish children not to kill spiders because they are friends.

It was Mrs. Spider, they say, who taught Navajo women how to spin fine threads from leaf fibers, cotton, and wool into useful articles. Coyote usually the epitome of irresponsibility told them, "Our tunnel is straight and will lead you to the dry land of the new world, but if "Franc Johnson Newcomb, Navajo Folk Tales Santa Fe, , p. And don't let them ever forget how we're supposed to live, who we are, where we came from.

The elders handed this knowledge down to them in family tepees, during tribal ceremonies, and in the everyday practice of religion and acknowledgment of their myths. They knew that once their lands had stretched as far east to what is now the city of Denver, as far west to the Great Salt Lake Desert, and from northern Colorado and northern Utah south to the New Mexico pueblos. In these lands of mountains and deserts, the Utes were assured of ample food. The White River band of In Buffalo meat was sliced thinly and dried; bones and marrow were boiled and ground into a gelatinous food; seeds were crushed into flour; and berries were dried, with part of the harvest pounded into dried meat pemmican and stored to be eaten in wintertime.

The desert Indians ingeniously gathered myriad kinds of seeds and cacti to augment the large and small animals that were their main source of food. Not all of the Ute bands, however, were so fortunate as the Utes of the Utah Lake area who had an abundance of trout available as well as berries, seeds, roots, venison, and fowl; but as with most Indian tribes, they well understood the uses of the earth.

The shelters for the largest portion of the tribe were tepees, but brush and willow houses that were easily heated by an open fire were used as well. These structures were also cool in summer. One family might build several, depending on where they chose to live during that portion of the year: one at a fishing camp in winter, another near the place where seeds were gathered in July, another for the gathering of wild berries and fruits in August and September, and yet another in the pine forests where the women could gather the nuts and men could hunt in late summer and fall.

Their myths, together with their traditions, told the Utes how they were "supposed to live.

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The Utes used their territory with systematic efficiency for the gathering of food and for the comfort of the season. Economics determined that they live in small bands of probably fewer than two hundred people, except for the large encampment at Utah Lake. This allowed them to maintain their food supply without endangering the size of herds, the grasses, or plants on which they subsisted. Long before white contact, the Ute people believed in the immortality of the soul. The Ute people believed in the pervasive power of Senawahv who fought and won over evil forces, and therefore their view of life and afterlife was essentially optimistic.

None of the religions of the people from the European continent has ever been successful in altering this view among the Ute people. The religion of the Ute people has always been highly individualistic in its application. Group rituals were not common, although two celebrations, the Bear Dance and the Sun Dance, have remained important to the present day. The religion was dominated by shamans medicine men , people possessing special powers. Persons sought through the shaman the power of the supernatural to help them gain good health, courage, ability in the hunt, and defense of the groups.

The practices of the shamans were not alike, nor were they formalized systems. Each shaman acted, sang, and used items which were different for each occasion and each manifestation of power. Some items used regularly by the shamans were eagle feathers, eagle bones, fetish bags, and certain medicinal plants. In performing their acts, especially in healing, the shamans often used songs and prayer to assist them. The practice of using shamans' services has increased in some of the Ute communities in the recent past.

The family was the center of Indian life and loyalty to it was the fabric of existence. The family included not only the immediate members as in European cultures, but extended to uncles, cousins, and maternal and paternal grandparents. Grandparents were extremely important for their judgment and for their intimate involvement in the rearing of children. Work was expected of all, with the exception of small children. Prowess in hunting and defending the people was admired in men. In women, integrity, the ability to gather foods, prepare them, and the tanning and sewing of leather for clothing were admired traits.

The woman who could feed, clothe, and shelter her family well was extended prestige. Babies were welcomed; their khans "cradle boards" were decorated with beaded flowers and rosettes in blue for girls and often butterflies and rosettes in red for boys. The aromatic smooth inner bark of cedar was shredded for use as diapers. The songs and stories of the people were the entertainment and the learning systems of the Utes.

An infinite number of stories were told, some for moral instruction, some of bravery, some illustrative of the foolish acts of men, while others were of lyrical beauty describing nature as the handiwork of God. The stories and songs provided a milieu for nearly every act: birth, reaching manhood or womanhood, going to war, marriage, or death. Each storyteller and singer of songs had his own style and variation of which he was proud. Surrounded by a large family, a plentiful earth ruled over by a beneficent God, the Ute child grew to maturity in a world where he felt himself an integral and welcome part.

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Beyond the family, leadership was shared by many people rather than a "leader" in the commonly held sense of the word. Leaders were chosen from time to time to perform duties such as to lead a war party in defense of the Ute domain, or to lead the hunt for food. The most common form of leadership was simply respect for the wisdom of the elders of the tribe who assembled and came to decisions concerning matters. Following European contact, persons who were chosen to perform certain duties for the tribe were assumed by outsiders to be chiefs or rulers.

They were not. They were respected members of the tribe performing certain functions. Women, too, were given leadership roles. Chipeta, the wife of Ouray of the Uncompahgre band, is one of the celebrated women in the history of Colorado and Utah. John Wesley Powell was impressed with chief Tsau'-wi-ats's wife and wrote in his journal: His wife, "The Bishop," as she is called, is a very garrulous old woman; she exerts a great influence, and is much revered.

She is the only Indian woman I have known to occupy a place in the council ring. The Utes received many goods of great value from the Spanish: metal points for arrows, metal cooking pots, mirrors, guns, and most important, the horse. They enjoyed an additional advantage: since the northward thrust of the Spanish empire stopped at the edge of Ute territory, they, unlike the Pueblo people, did not endure Spanish and Mexican administration.

Even though the Utes had traded at Taos and other pueblos for generations prior to the arrival of the Spanish, their wealth now grew with the Europeans' increased demand for meat and hides that were bartered at Taos. Although the Spanish drive to the north stopped at Abiquiu in the Chama Valley, its influence was felt much farther.

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These and other incursions were but momentary, however, and the integrity of Ute territory was maintained. In the s, when the Santa Fe Trail from Missouri to New Mexico was opened, some of the people who came to New Mexico were men interested in fur trapping. From Santa Fe and Taos the trappers moved northward into Ute country to gather the furs from the mountains the Utes called home. Pegleg Smith, to name a few. Elderly Utes of today recall hearing about them: ". He traded calico, beads, knives, and stuff like that to the Indians, and buckskin and furs. In the s the Missouri French fur traders working from Taos opened two trading posts in Ute country, one in the Uinta Basin and one on the Uncompahgre River in Colorado.

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