Where Has the Politics Gone? Proceedings and Background Paper , pp. Bankruptcy Petition Hearing , 10 February. Surveillance and Intimidation in Singapore. Hong Kong Oxford University Press. Proceedings and Background Papers, pp. Authoritarian Rule and State Transformation.
Murdoch University, Asia Research Centre. Hong Kong University Press. Western Modernization and Asian Culture. Taiwan in the 21st Century. Contested Citizenship in East Asia. The Chinese State in Transition. The Chinese Legal System. East Asian Social Movements. Democratization in China, Korea and Southeast Asia? Modern Chinese Legal Reform. The Chinese Worker after Socialism. The Chinese Corporatist State. Taiwan, Humanitarianism and Global Governance. The Chinese Party-State in the 21st Century.
New Millennium South Korea. Rural Politics in Contemporary China. Local Elites in Post-Mao China. China's Provinces in Reform. Bennis Wai Yip So. To avoid a clash with the Beijing government, the party later joined the Beijing-controlled Preparatory Committee and was criticised by some pro-democracy supporters.
Independent legislator Emily Lau and other some other pro-democracy activists was dissatisfied with the relatively conservative stance of the three political parties. She demanded a more radical blueprint of having a full directly elected legislature installed in Meeting Point later abstained in the amendment moved by Emily Lau as it thought any infringement of the Basic Law would enrage the PRC government and result in instability and the dismantling of the installed political structure.
Although Meeting Point would have liked increased democracy, it did not want to antagonise Beijing unduly. The pro-business party led by Allen Lee in the Legislative Council, who formed the Liberal Party in , followed Beijing's line of opposing the Patten proposals. The party sought to resolve the Sino-Hong Kong confrontation through negotiations. The conservative Business and Professionals Federation of Hong Kong , led by tycoon Vincent Lo issued a statement in favour of "convergence" with the Basic Law and against the proposals.
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They did not want to risk damaging British business interests by antagonising Beijing. Lord Wilson joined MacLehose in a House of Lords debate on 19 May , again criticising Patten's mistake in making China feel "deliberately tricked" over political reform in Hong Kong. Cradock stood firmly against Patten and criticised him on many occasions, blaming him for damaging the planned road-map which had been endorsed by both the British and Chinese governments.
In , Cradock publicly said in an interview that "He [referring to Patten] has made himself so obnoxious to the Chinese",  and on a subsequent occasion he described Patten as the "incredible shrinking Governor". Amid the Chinese government's threats, public support for Patten's reform declined intermittently and a polarised public emerged.
Opinion surveys revealed that although the majority of the public supported the reform, public support for Chris Patten was stifled by the Chinese government's persistent threats to demolish Hong Kong's political structure in if the reforms were implemented. In February , Douglas Hurd wrote to Qian Qichen for proposing negotiation "without preconditions".
On 22 April , the two sides reached an agreement that negotiations would start in Beijing. The two sides held seventeen rounds of talk on the electoral arrangements of the District Boards and Legislative Council but failed to reach agreement. Qian replied that it was a matter of principle to China that the opinions of the Hong Kong legislature could not supersede the discussion between the two governments and that if the British did indeed put the Patten proposals to the legislature it would mean a breakdown in bilateral negotiations.
There were fourteen amendments to Patten's bill. Legislator Vincent Cheng , the board member of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation , was pressured by the chairman of the bank Sir William Purves to vote for the Liberal amendment. Emily Lau's amendment of a universal suffrage for the Legislative Council Election, supported by the United Democrats and ADPL, was also defeated by 20 to 21 votes, with the margin of one vote after four Meeting Point legislators abstained. The details of the legislative voting on the Liberal Party's amendment, Emily Lau's universal suffrage amendment, and Chris Patten's electoral bill are listed as follows, the name order is in accordance to the LegCo precedence list:.
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The pro-democracy camp experienced the largest victories in the elections following Patten's reform. District Board elections were held on 18 September under Patten's reform rules. The newly established Democratic Party won the largest block with 75 seats in 18 District Boards.
The Democratic Party won 23 of the 59 seats in the municipal elections on 9 March , combining with other democratic parties to control both the Urban Council and Regional Council. On 17 September , the pro-democracy camp won another landslide victory in the fully elected Legislative Council election. Although it was seen by some that such a body was necessary in order to prepare for the transition of sovereignty, the row over the Patten proposals enabled Beijing to issue a warning that unilateral action would result in the setting-up of a "second stove" and, when it was formed, to say it was an unfortunate product of British confrontation.
The Preparatory Committee was responsible for implementation work related to the establishment of the HKSAR, including the establishment of the Selection Committee , which in turn was responsible for the selection of the first chief executive and the members of the Provisional Legislative Council which replaced the Legislative Council elected in Despite the eventual reversal of the electoral system, Patten's reform significantly impacted the Hong Kong political landscape by polarising Hong Kong politics.
The events related to the electoral reform went on as follows:  . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. BBC News. Retrieved 25 April Yin-Wang; So, Alvin Y. Hong Kong University Press. The Other Hong Kong Report, Chinese University Press. Legislative Council of Hong Kong. Retrieved 27 April Dimbleby, Jonathan London: Little, Brown and Company. Loh, Christine Underground front. Sing, Ming Electoral reforms in Hong Kong.
Social Services. Hui Yin-fat. Hong Kong Island East. Martin Lee. United Democrats. David Li. Ngai Shiu-kit. Pang Chun-hoi. Kowloon East. Szeto Wah. Tam Yiu-chung. New Territories East. Andrew Wong. Lau Wong-fat.
Hong Kong's Tortuous Democratization: A Comparative Analysis
Architectural, Surveying and Planning. Edward Ho. Real Estate and Construction. Ronald Joseph Arculli. Martin Gilbert Barrow.
Lo Siu hing The Politics of Democratization in Hong Kong New York St Martins | Course Hero
Peggy Lam. Miriam Lau. Lau Wah-sum. Leong Che-hung. James David McGregor. Urban Council. Elsie Tu.