Polymers Polymers includes plastics, nylon, Styrofoam, rubbers, PVC, and other materials that are made up of repeating units of smaller molecules. Since polymers themselves tend not to crystallize, the molecules listed here include monomers, catalysts, and reagents that are important in the synthesis of polymers. Refrigeration Refrigeration is the process by which heat is removed and transferred from one place to another.
This technology advanced considerably during the 19th century, to the point where it is now possible to liquefy atmospheric gases. The molecules mentioned here are used as or in the manufacture of refrigerants employed in freezers, air conditioning, icemakers, heat pumps, and other applications.
Some of these molecules have adverse environmental effects. For example, chlorofluorocarbons CFC's deplete of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Chloro-difluoro-methane Chloromethane Dichloro-difluoro-methane Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen fluorite Hydrofluoric acid Propane Back to top. Stuart Higgins reflects on his experience as both a scientist and a producer of the podcast Scientists not the Science. Current Issue October Matters Arising 16 September Article 09 September A very large spin-to-charge conversion arising from a combination of the Rashba effect and topologically non-trivial states is realized at the interface of strontium titanate and aluminium, with implications for the role of topology in memory and transistor designs.
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The material to be processed can be in a relatively hard and stable condition and in such forms as bar, sheet, pellet, or powder, or it can be in a soft, plastic, or puttylike form. Solid materials can be shaped either hot or cold. Processing of metals in the solid state can be divided into two major stages: first, the raw material in the form of large ingots or billets is hot-worked, usually by rolling , forging , or extrusion , into smaller shapes and sizes; second, these shapes are processed into final parts and products by one or more smaller scale hot or cold forming processes.
After the material is formed, it is usually further altered. Although removal processes are applied to most types of materials, they are most widely used on metallic materials.
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Material can be removed from a workpiece by either mechanical or nonmechanical means. There are a number of metal-cutting processes. In almost all of them, machining involves the forcing of a cutting tool against the material to be shaped. The tool, which is harder than the material to be cut, removes the unwanted material in the form of chips.
Thus, the elements of machining are a cutting device, a means for holding and positioning the workpiece, and usually a lubricant or cutting oil. There are four basic noncutting removal processes: 1 in chemical milling the metal is removed by the etching reaction of chemical solutions on the metal; although usually applied to metals, it can also be used on plastics and glass, 2 electrochemical machining uses the principle of metal plating in reverse, as the workpiece, instead of being built up by the plating process, is eaten away in a controlled manner by the action of the electrical current, 3 electrodischarge machining and grinding erodes or cuts the metal by high-energy sparks or electrical discharges, 4 laser machining cuts metallic or refractory materials with an intense beam of light from a laser.
The term as used here includes welding , brazing , soldering , and adhesive and chemical bonding. In most joining processes, a bond between two pieces of material is produced by application of one or a combination of three kinds of energy: thermal, chemical, or mechanical.
A bonding or filler material, the same as or different from the materials being joined, may or may not be used. The properties of materials can be further altered by hot or cold treatments, by mechanical operations, and by exposure to some forms of radiation. The property modification is usually brought about by a change in the microscopic structure of the material. Both heat-treating, involving temperatures above room temperature, and cold-treating, involving temperatures below room temperature, are included in this category.