Enjoyment: Lessons from Karasek 1. How can we understand enjoyment in human factor design; what components should we consider when we are designing for enjoyment? This chapter explores a theoretical model for understanding the components and nature of enjoyment, and how HCI Human Computer Interaction professionals can predict and evaluate enjoyment.
Enjoyment is a subjective experience that may be understood in relation to theories of motivation. Two distinct types of motivation to engage in an activity may be distinguished. In their study of motivation and computers in the workplace, Davis et al. It is central to the understanding of user behaviour that a complex pattern of behaviour may consist of both the extrinsically motivated tasks and intrinsically motivated activity. As an example, search behaviour on the WWW will often not follow a strict goal oriented pattern. Rather the user may soon be lured away from her search task for by an interesting piece of information that diverts her attention in a joyous short-lived oasis of distraction before she returns to her original search chore; probably only to be lured away a second time.
Even the most boring tasks may include refuges of intrinsically motivated activity, in the same way, joyous activities may involve the solving of extrinsically motivated tasks. These two kinds 1 [Blythe, Monk, Overbeeke and Wright] eds. Printed in the Netherlands. The model postulates that job satisfaction and wellbeing result not from a single aspect of the work environment, but from the joint effects of the experienced demands of the work situation, the decision latitude available to the worker, and finally the degree of social support from co-workers and management.
A good working life is not seen as the engagement in a series of well-defined tasks, achieving well-defined goals. Rather it consists of an interwoven complexity of activities in dynamic environments with several actors and conflicting interests. Jacob Nielsen has proposed that in business or work it is becoming common to cater to subjective whims and satisfaction. Traditional usability assessment does not address this aspect of work life at all, but is mainly focused on optimising task performance for the lonely worker in a static work environment. We contend that the demand-control-support model will be useful in the investigation and understanding of the enjoyable experience, because the model includes components that seem to be universal in the understanding of activities associated with wellbeing.
It should then be reasonable to expect that an adjusted version of the Karasekian model may help to understand and predict fun and enjoyment in human factors design. Literature on the theory of fun and enjoyment in support of the proposed model will be reviewed below. The concept of demands is understood as the degree of variation and challenge experienced by users of technology, and is also an important aspect of enjoyment. Products and services for enjoyment do not necessarily provide a given task to be performed, but rather a notion of "a good experience".
The central element in the optimal experience is that the activity is a goal in itself Csikszentmihalyi, According to Skelly variation is a well-known means of exploiting the element of curiosity or surprise. It has similarly been argued that a certain degree of unpredictability is important for the experience of fun Davenport et al. Thackara points out that future human factors design should take into consideration the fact that people enjoy being stimulated.
Many people use their leisure and spare times to solve hard puzzles or seek out difficult actions. As an example, computer games are often experienced as fun when they have a certain level of difficulty. This can be explained by the notion that a dynamic environment is associated with challenges that invites activity and involvement. Those users meet challenges that are stimulating and encourage creativity. The users get the opportunity to test their own skills Holmquist, Csikszentmihalyi refers to other examples of challenging demands: surgeons performing difficult operations or rock climbers struggling to scale an unclimbed mountain peak.
The opportunity to acquire mastery may promote a feeling of self- confidence and intrinsic motivation to use a particular technology. Figure 1. Its popularity may be explained by the fact that BigBrother was something new and surprising. Correspondingly, Springel proposes that the computer is becoming a device for stimulation.
Springel suggests that the growing interest in games, web- entertainment, online chat etc. As a viewer you can vote for the participants you like or dislike. You can also choose to follow the program in different media channels such as the Internet and mobile phones and you have the opportunity to e-mail and chat with the participants in the show. This trend is moving users away from being passive consumers to becoming active collaborators.
Variation may be seen as hinged on assuming a universal human interest in novelty and fascination for surprises, spontaneity, freshness and a certain degree of unpredictability. The importance of variation is congruent with the meaning of demands stated in the Karasek-model. Today we see an increasing rate in the turnover of news, trends, systems, applications and products to meet the demands of variation and something novel. The same challenges will probably be significant for the human factors designer. Unpredictability, or the element of surprise, is an important facet of variation.
There are of course different levels of unpredictability. Regarding human factor design, it is unpredictability just on the edge of security, involving no more than minor risks or possible penalties, which will be of central relevance to fun Davenport et al. Psychoanalytic theory also emphasises the importance of risk to jokes and fun Freud, Hassenzhal et al.
Designing for fun may involve the inclusion of something unexpected, an element of surprise and unrelated or opposing events.
Funology: From Usability to Enjoyment (Human-Computer Interaction Series)
Surprise and unpredictability are also well-known approaches in marketing research to gauge consumer experience. Consumer experience is often understood in terms of the discrepancies between ex ante expectations of a product and the products ex post performance.
Unpredictability and challenges may partially be in conflict with principles of traditional usability Hassenzahl et al. Making something as simple as possible may make it boring. In the Karasek model the importance of the joint effects of demands and decision latitude is addressed. Karasek stresses the importance of matching challenges with individual skills and control. Demands without the experience of control will result in a stressful and frustrating experience, rather than the experiences of joy.
Decision latitude or control without any demands will probably imply a passive and probably boring interaction. An enjoyable experience is dependent on the balance between demands and control. In consonance with the Karasek model, the concept is defined as including two aspects: the ability to use and develop skills, and the availability of decision-making authority or freedom of action. Decision latitude can also be seen in the light of engagement, a concept discussed by Brenda Laurel Laurel writes about computer fiction, games, etc.
There should be nothing to mediate the communication between the user and the system. Laurel suggests that the frequency of interaction, the range of possible alternatives available for selection at a given time and the effectiveness of the inputs influence engagement. The interface should enable the user to see the effects of her or his actions, to give a sense of agency or personal power.
Everyone knows the truly intrinsic joy attached to engagement in activities that invite the utilisation of acquired skills. Within social cognitive theory self-efficacy is the belief "in one's capabilities to organise and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments" Bandura, , p. Self-efficacy is not a measure of skill, but is closely related to the likelihood of the individual to reach the ability to use a given technology at a level of contentment.
Factors such as unwanted complexity, unrealistic tolls on the knowledge of potential users, and other comfort issues faced by the users, may be construed as self-efficacy deficits. Conversely, high self-efficacy will be correlated with the tendency of increased technology use, and also the development of skill and mastery. Dreyfus et al. As skills develop, the engaged-in activities will gradually become intrinsically satisfying. Similarly, providing the user with extended powers of decision-making may enhance the fun experienced in a user-technology interaction.
The level of decision-making authority of the user is a consequence of constraints inherent in the relation between the user and the technology. Unlike constraints on decision-making in a workplace, rules, strict routines, organisational hierarchy and repetitiveness, the constraints of the user-technology relation are a consequence of the user not seeing or understanding the possibilities represented by the technology.
Choi et al. They suggest that fun computer games are characterised by the gamers freedom and leadership in the progression of the game's story. In order to make possible the leadership of the gamer, computer-games must give hints in a manner the gamers can perceive and understand. This, of course, without giving away the complete solution to the game. Another example of user control is the opportunity of "fun design" through personalization of the technology. Nokia have served their users with products they can personalize with tremendous success. In the case of, for example, the Nokia , users can personalize their phones by using a ringing tone as an SMS alert or compose their own SMS alerts for originality.
A picture editor allows users to create and personalize picture messages for all occasions. The phone's rhythmic backlight alert accompanying a ringing tone also makes it fun to receive a call. Users can also opt for a fully personalized look by downloading profile names, logos and ringing tones.
Other personalization options include an exclusive range of changeable Xpress-on covers in new and exciting colours. These opportunities to personalize the technology give the user decision-making authority over the technology. It enables the user to influence and to create their own experience in a dialogue with the technology.
The role of personalization may also be seen in relation to another phenomena, social cohesion or social identity; that you give the user a feeling of being part of a group, which will be discussed further in section 4. Thackara states that providing the user with a sort of community is important in design for a good user experience.
Also an awareness of the conditions that support enjoyable social interaction is important in the design of systems Monk, The parallel in Karasek is social support.
Funology 2 - From Usability to Enjoyment | Mark Blythe | Springer
Karasek and Theorell define social support as "the overall levels of helpful social interaction available on the job from both co-workers and supervisors" p. Two element of this may be useful in explaining enjoyment: co-activity and social cohesion. Figure 2. Game boy Advanced: with multi-player opportunities Communication and interaction are identified as user top choices on the Internet December, Likewise, the spread and use of mobile telephones can be seen as an example of a social need.
Studies indicate that young people and adults use mobile telephones differently, where young people engage in expressive rather than informative use Ling, A Swedish field study that mapped the use of mobile telephones among youngsters, found that both the mobile phone and the information on it is often shared among users and made public in various ways.
The sharing of experiences, feelings and information is considered to be rewarding, pleasant and enjoyable. However, there may also be an element of competition or contest, which by nature is seen in relation to fun. Studies show that young people are likely to use the computer for playing games together, rather than playing in isolation Wartella et al. These findings may be explained by the social facilitation effect; it is easier, and more rewarding and motivating to do things in the presence of others, because mere presence of others is arousing Zajonc, Children play more enthusiastically if a playmate is near by, even if only engaged in parallel play 4.
Being part of groups with high levels of social cohesiveness is positively related to individual wellbeing Sonnentag, The term affiliation is related to social cohesion. Affiliation occurs because social contact is rewarding. Individually experienced rewards associated with social cohesion may be important to understand fun in human factors design.
- Personal Identity and Self-Consciousness (International Library of Philosophy)!
- Funology: From Usability to Enjoyment - iqegumybiwyf.ml;
- Occidental March.
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Condition Brand New. Description This book reflects the move in Human Computer Interaction studies from standard usability concerns towards a wider set of problems to do with fun, enjoyment, aesthetics and the experience of use. This book reflects the move in Human Computer Interaction studies from standard usability concerns towards a wider set of problems to do with fun, enjoyment, aesthetics and the experience of use.
Traditionally HCI has been concerned with work and task based applications but as digital technologies proliferate in the home fun becomes an important issue. There is an established body of knowledge and a range of techniques and methods for making products and interfaces usable, but far less is known about how to make them enjoyable.
Perhaps in the future there will be a body of knowledge and a set of techniques for assessing the pleasure of interaction that will be as thorough as those that currently assess usability. This book is a first step towards that. It brings together a range of researchers from academia and industry to provide answers. Grand Eagle Retail is the ideal place for all your shopping needs! With fast shipping, low prices, friendly service and over 1,, in stock items - you're bound to find what you want, at a price you'll love! Please view eBay estimated delivery times at the top of the listing.
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