Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. How could it rate less than 5 stars?! View 1 comment. Mar 15, J rated it it was amazing Recommends it for: Lovers of cars. This book was provided free via the First Reads Giveaway in exchange for an honest review. It bulges with gorgeous, gleaming photography, discoveries leaping out on every page.
How the Corvette's distinctive style evolved, how competing models adopted its look. But it's not just about the hotness factor. Interiors, engine blocks, dash clusters, just about every nitpicky thing you could ever want to know is depicted here. Concept cars too! Substantial index, and a reference for years to come. Boo This book was provided free via the First Reads Giveaway in exchange for an honest review.
Book weighs close to five pounds. Mar 22, Mr Bill rated it really liked it. I have long searched for just this book as a lover and owner of one of the most beautiful vehicles created to date. May 31, Orlando Eeckhout rated it it was amazing. The author is definitely a petrolhead and loves Corvette without losing the skill to critic something that he likes. If you love Vette's I really recommend this book. I don't see how one of the reviews on this book could be hidden as a spoiler. Is that a pun on the spoiler of one's Carvette or did I miss a plot somewhere in this book?
Angelique rated it liked it Jul 07, James T. Griffith rated it it was amazing Apr 12, David Dacosta rated it it was amazing Apr 18, Darrel S Ede rated it it was amazing Nov 13, Karan rated it it was amazing Jul 28, Mustang rated it it was amazing Nov 10, Darlene rated it really liked it Jun 18, Maria Hungerford rated it really liked it Aug 13, Josemanuelp rated it it was amazing Sep 17, Josh Hunter rated it it was amazing May 11, Kenneth Buck rated it it was amazing Apr 07, Tom rated it it was amazing May 27, The western community expanded west possibly early within the southern stream of the third migration wave with a TMRCA ca.
Yamna migration Yamna settlements spread westward into the Danube valley and to the north up the Prut River, beginning ca. A real current of immigration is noticed ca. A large settlement appeared to the west in southwestern Romania divided by the Danube River Tarnava-Rast group. Migrants pushed west, appearing west of the Iron Gates in Jabuke, but the largest number of migrants ended up in the central Carpathian basin. Another settlement appeared south of the Varna bay, in the Balkan uplands Kovachevo- Troyanovo , within the Ezero culture Anthony Their migration seems not to have been a traumatic event.
There might have been local conflicts and raids, but there are signs of interaction with contemporary societies, as well as exchange of ideas, innovations and material culture Heyd The massive Yamna migration in south-east Europe is said to have been well organized, either in loose family alliances the most likely scenario or in clans, in any case with a clear leadership and structure Heyd There were possibly more than one wave of migrations, with differences noted north and south of the Balkans, which could correspond to the different lineages expanded to the west and south.
At least one migration wave seems to have come from the north Pontic region, due to the presence of wagons or parts of wagons and stelae — characteristic of the Kemi-Oba and neighbouring South Bug - Lower Don steppe —, in burial mound cemeteries of Yamna settlements Kaiser and Winger Large stone anthropomorphic stelae seem to have first appeared in the Mikhailovka I culture in the second half of the 4th millennium. Mikhailovka I areas were replaced by the Usatovo culture, but its culture continued in the Kemi-Oba culture of Crimea. Carved stone stelae appear to have expanded in frequency and elaboration in both territories, and in part of the north Pontic steppes, after about BC Anthony Strikingly similar stone stelae appeared later in the Caucasus, Troy, and also in Central and Western Europe, and with special frequency in the Swiss Alps and in the Provence.
A maritime route for such cultural expansion has been proposed, which would justify e. Figure The expansion of Balkan Indo-European Later samples of R1b1a1a2a2-Z subclades suggest a genetic continuity of early Khvalynsk population in the pastoral groups within Volga—Ural—North Caucasian steppe: early Yamna in Ekaterinovka ca. Eastern groups — if only because of their location within Yamna — may have followed the southern stream somehow later compared to western R1b1a1a2a1-L51 lineages, possibly through the settlement of Kovachevo-Troyanovo. R1b1a1a2a2-Z lineages appear in modern populations Figure 11 as a Balkan group — mainly of R1b1a1a2a2c-Z lineages, like the sample found in Stalingrad Quarry dated ca.
The modern distribution of R1b1a1a2a2-Z subclades around the Balkans gives therefore support to the existence of a Paleo-Balkan Sprachbund or dialect continuum Kortlandt Others have proposed a later date, the beginning of the Middle Helladic culture ca. The complexity of Y-DNA haplogroups found in the modern population of Greece bears witness to the thousands of years of European and Asian interaction in the formation of its peoples. Analysis of modern Greek and Cretan lineages point to a Neolithic expansion of haplogroup R1b1a1a2-M in the region, which was found nearer to Italian than to Balkan lineages which in turn might be related to the central group , but no subclades were given in the study King et al.
Analysis of Greek-Cypriot modern populations revealed the presence of R1b1a1a2a2-Z lineages in easternmost and westernmost sides of the island, with central R1b1a1a2a2c1a-Z lineages appearing only in the east Voskarides et al. The early attestation of Mycenaean Greek in the island point to an early expansion of R1b1a1a2a2c1a-Z lineages, but the early Anatolian influence over the island precludes a precise identification of their origin. Such a contact may have happened early during the southward migration, as suggested by Anatolian loanwords found in Greek. On the controversial ethnicity and language of the Sea Peoples — and the closely related Philistine question — Woudhuizen ; Maeir, Davis, and Hitchcock ; Middleton , genetic research points to a mixture of steppe ancestry found in the Lebanese population that occurred ca.
Other Balkan languages The language ancestral to Armenian is — like Phrygian — believed to have belonged to the peoples that came from the west and overran the Hittite empire in the 12th century BC Beekes The language ancestral to Albanian, sometimes identified with Illyrian, might have also had its origin in the Balkans early during the west migration of Balkan Indo-European. In the case of Armenian, this has been explained by a history of genetic isolation from their surroundings Haber et al.
The oldest male sample found in the region is of haplogroup R1b1-L x R1b1a1a2-M , dated ca. We'll be sure to include in the revision. Thanks to the person who noticed! Bell Beaker The Bell Beaker phenomenon is defined by groups that show a common know-how in technology, especially regarding pottery, copper metallurgy Amzallag , and flint. No single unified network of know-how transmission can be reconstructed, only local or regional networks Linden The Bell Beaker phenomenon made thus the previous regional networks of Western Europe uniform with identical social codes.
Only later were these dates and the Bell Beaker migrations put together in a common paradigm, when it was noted that the expansion of beakers with lower profiles and a more complex decoration, from East Group beakers, were replaced in the Danube area by plain jars, cups and plates, and these vessels then dominated in the later developments Harrison and Heyd This structure allowed for individual and social mobility, increased communication and internal exchange of information, goods, genes, and social values.
Heyd Contacts between Bell Beaker and Corded Ware Settlement areas of both cultures, the Bell Beaker and the Corded Ware culture, especially in the common territories of Central Europe, seemed to remain separated. There are data suggesting rejection and aversion, but also some form of social discourse between the groups. With the interaction of both groups, Corded Ware burials adapted to Bell Beaker customs, and a decline in Corded Ware remains is found in shared areas. The pattern observed is of spatial separation followed by partial integration dissolution of the spatial-cultural divide , suggesting a land capture by the expanding Bell Beaker culture, and also an ethnic dimension based on cultural expressions and physical anthropology Heyd Each of them shows a different ideological resolution to these interactions in the Late Copper Age, and the creation of new social identities.
Therefore, while the regional substrate for many eastern and northern Bell Beaker groups is in many cases formed by late Corded Ware culture groups — with some pottery types persisting in later times, and with individual burials being also used by later settlers —, in western and southern Bell Beaker territory previous regional substrates do not herald the Bell Beaker groups, with newer settlements using locations different to Late Neolithic sites, and collective graves being reused or substituted by individual graves Besse Samples of north-east Iberia, dated ca.
The oldest samples from the Bell Beaker culture are two individuals from Kromsdorf dated ca. The oldest samples of R1b1a1a2a1a2-P lineages are found in Osterhofen ca. The oldest sample of haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a2b-U is found in Budapest ca. These data and the modern distribution of L21 subclades associated with the British Isles point more likely to a single successful migration of clans of R1b1a1a2a1a2c-L21 lineages into Britain. Recent research already supported a considerable degree of mobility with little difference between male and female migration in Britain Parker Pearson et al.
In k BAM file, but short, may actually belong to chromosomes 2 or 5. Additional information from Alex Williamson. Studies of ancient Indo-European hydronymy Krahe ; Krahe ; Nicolaisen have revealed a quasi-uniform name-giving system for water courses that shows Indo- European water-words and suffixes following rules of Late Proto-Indo-European word formation Adrados , pointing to an ancient wave of Late Indo-European speakers spread over Western and Central Europe before the Celtic and Germanic expansions, including the British Isles, the Italian and Iberian peninsulas.
The four certain samples of R1b1a1a2a1a2b-U lineage have been found in Bell Beaker territories from east to west Europe. The expansion of R1b1a1a2a1a-L lineages could then be linked to the first introduction of Indo-European languages in Western Europe Cassidy et al. However, the later expansion of Celtic languages, and an apparent resurgence of the probably indigenous Proto-Iberian and Proto-Basque languages — possibly the descendant of the languages of early farmers, similar to Paleo-Sardinian Terradas et al.
Two late samples from northern Iberia were found to have a small proportion of steppe ancestry, which supports the early spread of Indo-European speaking peoples into Iberia as early as the beginning of the Bronze Age Olalde et al. The only certain Indo- European language of Iberia that can be considered of a non-Celtic nature is Lusitanian which has been linked to a potential Galaico-Lusitanian group of the north-western Iberian Peninsula , and there has been some discussion on the pre-Celtic nature of the languages of Cantabri, Astures, Pellendones, Carpetani, and Vettones.
The emergence of El Argar groups was preceded by a break in Chalcolithic cultural traditions in south-east Iberia, which points to an upheaval of existing social structures or an influx of groups that cannot be distinguished from the local population at the present of genetic resolution, e. This could point to the time of resurge of groups associated with previous Neolithic cultures that might have conserved Pre- Iberian and Pre-Basque languages until historic times.
The other region where modern R1b1a1a2a1a2a-DF27 lineages peak in the modern population corresponds to the old Nordwestblock cultural region, where a non-Celtic, non-Germanic Indo-European language might have been spoken Kuhn, Hachmann, and Kossack As such, it is candidate for a late community connecting a continuum of already scattered North-West Indo-European languages ancestral to Italic, Celtic, and Germanic, and perhaps to Balto- Slavic, where words were frequently exchanged, sharing a common lexicon and certain regional isoglosses Gamkrelidze and Ivanov Nordic Bronze Age In Scandinavia, farming communities had already abandoned their subsistence strategy for the development of transhumance Jensen A migration of Bell Beaker groups to Jutland ca.
Modern population analysis supports this connection, showing that R1b1a1a2a1a1-U distribution peaks today precisely around the Netherlands. Haplogroup I2-M was formed ca. Many ancient DNA samples are found since the Palaeolithic, and two main branches seem to have divided early: I2a1b2-L lineages are found mainly in the Balkans, and I2a2a-M — distributed through central Europe — seems to have followed the expansion of Italo-Celtic and Germanic, and were therefore possibly integrated with R1b1a1a2a1a-L lineages since the Bell Beaker complex.
R1b1a1a2-M lineages are found in early Sebber Skole 8, ca. It is difficult to ascertain whether both lineages, R1b1a1a2a1a1-U and I1-M, were already mixed in northern Germany before their northward migration into Jutland, or remained separated until forming a Pre-Germanic community later. If an early mixed R1b1a1a2a1a1-U—I1-M society with a common language is to be supported, it seems to need further explanations as to the clear late differentiation into territorially- 8 Additional information xP, xA from Vince Tilroe. The irruption of Germanic peoples in central, east, and west Europe including the Roman Empire — the Barbarian Invasions from Classical sources, renamed the Migration Period since the Romantic era — suggests a R1b1a1a2a1a1-Udominated West Germanic area, and Viking migrations point to different clans belonging to R1b1a1a2a1a1-U, I1- M, and R1a1a1b1a3-Z lineages in the North Germanic area see below Figure The modern distribution of R1b1a1a2a1a1-U Figure 17 is roughly coincident with the expansion of West Germanic with the medieval Ostsiedlung, showing a west-east cline compatible with the Germanization of Slavs to the east of the Elbe.
The question of the dialectal nature of East Germanic remains a purely linguistic one, but I1-M and R1a1a1b1a3-Z lineages scattered throughout Europe seem to support the classical description of East Germanic tribes migrating from Scandinavia to the east of the Elbe, and thus its connection with the Nordic branch.
Tumulus Culture It was only after BC that large-scale mining operations and production which required specialized metallurgical and organizational know-how began in a few centres, and they reached distant regions as far as Northern Scandinavia. Central European groups from southern Germany would then in this context correspond to a community with a common West Indo-European language ancestral to Italic and Celtic Kortlandt ; Eska , whose continuous development and dialectal evolution is to be followed into the Tumulus culture ca. The European world ca. The Urnfield culture ca. In some areas there is continuity from Tumulus to Urnfield culture, with narrowing and concentration of settlements along the river valleys, but there is also wide-ranging migrations Figure Urnfield migrations south of the Pyrenees may have brought the pre-Celtic Sorothaptic language believed to be behind certain toponyms and inscriptions around the Pyrenees Coromines Scarce aDNA from late Urnfield populations from its north-eastern territories in Saxony — near the Lusatian culture —, show a mixture of lineages, which suggest genetic continuity with older cultures: R1a1a1b1a-Z lineage was found in Halberstadt ca.
Given the modern distribution of R1b1a1a2a1a2b-U lineages see below Figure 19 , its expansion is probably to be connected to the spread of the Urnfield culture and later offshoots Hallstatt and Villanovan cultures. Celtic From the early Urnfield culture expanded the Hallstatt culture ca. BC from certain core Hallstatt regions — valleys of Marne and Moselle and neighbouring Rhineland in the west, and a Moravian zone in the east — has been linked to the spread of Celtic languages Figure However, the Mainz research project of bio- archaeometric identification of mobility has not proven to date a mass migration of Celtic peoples in central Europe ca.
R1b1a1a2a1a2b-U lineages are found today Figure 19 , scattered to the north, south, and west of the Alps, reaching the southwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula, and the British Isles.
Epub Models (Revised And Updated) 2012
It seems to peak around the current borders between Italy, France, and Switzerland. The first sample of haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a2b-U found in the British Isles contemporaneous with the first sample found of haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a1-U is from Driffield Terrace ca. The expansion of I2a2a-M lineages, assumed to be already mixed with R1b1a1a2a1a2b-U lineages since at least the Tumulus culture, is found from the British isles to Anatolia, with a I2a2a1a1-M lineage concentrated in Great Britain with mutational divergence suggesting its foundation ca.
The scarcity of R1b1a1a2a1a2b-U and I2a2a-M lineages in the modern populations of the British Isles and Iberia — where Celtic languages had clearly spread by the time of the Roman invasion — appear to suggest a successful cultural diffusion of the language from warring Celtic minorities who established new chiefdoms throughout Europe. It is also possible that a previous admixture of R1b1a1a2a1a2c1-L21 and R1b1a1a2a1a2a-DF27 lineages in the expanding Celtic population further confounds the genetic change associated with the Celtic expansion. The Villanovan culture ca. However, the association of Villanovan with Italic remains controversial, since Villanovan territory is partially coincident with the later Etruscan-speaking zone, and no clear cultural break is seen between both cultures.
Nevertheless, a resurge of a previous language — akin to the example of Proto-Basque and Iberian languages see above — might explain the cultural continuity in Etruria. Genetic analysis of the modern population show a spread of R1b1a1a2a1a2b-U lineages south of the Alps, including north and central Italy, which supports the invasion of this group from the north, through the Alps. While both branches share common innovations, and it is therefore difficult today to reject a shared community by relating all differences to recent contacts, some linguists have tried to reconcile the obvious Italic nature of Latin and its morphological differences compared with Osco-Umbrian with a potential late Anatolian substratum, and have thus supported an eastern invasion through Apulia.
To further complicate the linguistic and archaeological discussion around Latin, a recent Anatolian connection has been found by examining mtDNA in modern populations of present day Tuscany Brisighelli et al. The expansion of Rome Figure 21 seems not to have been accompanied by a massive migration of peoples, and cultural diffusion is likely to have played a bigger role in the expansion of Latin.
Lacking aDNA samples to obtain admixture analysis, careful investigation of I2a2a- M lineages — found today distributed among Germanic and Italo-Celtic territories — might bring light to population movements and exchanges during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age in Europe. The expansion of R1a1a1b1a-Z lineages appears therefore to be strongly linked to the spread of the Corded Ware culture, but the original homeland of these lineages is unclear. Based only on current genetic mapping Underhill et al. Samples of R1a1a1-M and R1a1a1b-Z lineages from ancient populations and admixture analyses suggest an original spread of European hunter-gatherer ancestry eastward from the late Pit-Comb ware culture Mathieson et al.
The eastern and western peaks in R1a1a1b1a1-M lineages might support a west-east migration, as well as an east-west migration, and indeed both in different periods, which is expected to be found if Lusatian is linked to the expansion of Pre-Balto-Slavic, and later younger subclades are linked to the West Slavic expansion to the west. The Pomeranian and related West-Baltic culture of cairns ca. Under pressure from Germanic migrations to the south and east from Scandinavia and the German lowlands, represented by Oksywie 2nd c. BC — 1st c. AD and later Wielbark 1st c.
AD — 4th c. AD cultures in eastern Pomerania. The Przeworsk culture 3rd c. BC — 5th c. East of the Przeworsk zone was the Zarubinets culture 3rd c. BC — 2st c. AD , considered a part of the Przeworsk complex Mallory and Douglas , located between the upper and middle Dnieper and Pripyat rivers. Early Slavic hydronyms are found in the area, and the prototypical examples of Prague-type pottery later originated there Curta Zarubinets came to an end with the migration of its population, linked to the increasingly arid climate.
By the 3rd century western parts of Zarubinets had been integrated into the Wielbark culture, and some Zarubinets groups had moved southward into river valleys, moving closer to Sarmatian and Thracian-Celtic groups of the Don region and forming the Chernoles culture. Central late Zarubinets sites gradually turned into the Kiev culture ca. The likely Proto-Slavic original territory over layers of previous Cimmerian and Scytho- Sarmatian cultures seem to support a quite recent connection of Slavic and Indo-Iranian and more precisely Iranian peoples and their languages.
The division of historical Slavic tribes in territories and cultures in the 5th-7th centuries remains a hotly debated topic Curta Nevertheless, the expansion of the Prague- Korchak culture from its nucleus in the older Przeworsk-Zarubinets contact zone to the west — including its expansion as the Sukow-Dziedzice group to the Baltic Sea — can be identified with the West Slavic expansion, and — at least part of — the western peak of R1a1a1b1a1-M lineages in modern populations.
Indeed the Baltic populations have been found to be genetically the closest to East Slavs Kushniarevich et al. A precise analysis of Finno-Ugric and Baltic populations would be necessary to discern which R1a1a1b-Z subclades were associated with which population migrations and expansions. The expansion of the Penkov culture in the Danube seems related to the expansion of South Slavic.
Confusing accounts of the Byzantine Empire of the raids and migrations of a federation of tribes the Antes and the Sklavenes in their frontiers give a general idea of the complex interaction of different groups in the Balkans Curta , which might justify a late assimilation of the language by groups of I2a2a1b-L lineages, which are prevalent today in South Slavic territory Kushniarevich et al. Near it the Balanovo group seemed to be its metallurgical heartland Anthony In the forest-steppe zone of the middle Volga and upper Don, at the easternmost aspect of the Russian forest-zone, the last cultures descended from Corded Ware ceramic tradition, the Abashevo group, emerged ca.
Early Yamna continued in the Lower Don — North Caucasian steppe as the Catacomb culture, and in the Volga-Ural region as the Poltavka culture, where cultural continuity implies that eastern languages from the Graeco-Aryan continuum — already separated from the western Paleo-Balkan group — were spoken, i. Herders from the Poltavka culture began to move to the Ural-Tobol steppes probably about BC. Coinciding with more arid climate after ca.
The early date, only slightly later to its haplogroup formation, points to a period of population expansion, and probably also to intense early regional contacts between peoples of Abashevo and Poltavka cultures. Warring groups were strong enough to take and destroy an entire settlement, signalling an age of fully-fledged conflict, with a succession of changes in the defence systems and planning schemes of the settlements.
Both Sintashta and Potapovka were born from a time of escalating conflict and competition between rival tribal groups in the northern steppes, where raiding must have been endemic, and intensified fighting led to the invention of the light chariot Anthony The state of intense warfare was caused by a constant flow of wealth, originating from long-distance metal trade, with formation and destruction of alliances and gathering of large groups of warriors, which created a vicious circle of escalation of conflict, and created new customs, new tactics, and new weapons Pinheiro Ancient DNA samples of Sintashta, Potapovka, and later of the Srubna culture Figure 25 show a substitution of R1b1a1a2a2-Z lineages by R1a1a1b-Z lineages, and recent studies show continuity in steppe admixture in all cultures from the region, Corded Ware, Yamna, Potapovka, and Sintashta Allentoft et al.
However, cultural continuity with Poltavka is not only seen archaeologically in material and symbolic culture, but is also evident from the association of the Sintashta expansion with Andronovo, and therefore with the later expansion of Indo-Iranian peoples and their languages. The most likely explanation for the eastern expansion of Indo-Iranian by peoples with R1a1a1b2-Z93 lineage is therefore the assimilation by Sintashta-Petrovka groups of the Proto-Indo-Iranian language spoken by Poltavka herders.
The process by which this evident cultural assimilation happened, given the presupposed warring nature of their contacts, remains unclear. It is conceivable, in a region of highly fortified settlements, to think about alliances of different groups against each other, akin to the situation found in Bronze Age Europe: a minority of Abashevo chiefs and their families would dominate over certain fortified settlements and wage war against other, neighbouring tribes.
After a certain number of generations, the most successful settlements would have replaced the paternal lineages of the region, while the majority of the population in these settlements — including females, commoners and slaves — retained the original Poltavka culture. Cimmerian or Thraco-Cimmerian groups might have emerged from societies related to these western groups of Pontic-Caspian herders.
Their relationship to Scytho-Sarmatian groups later migrated from south Asia is unclear. A comprehensive description of Sintashta-Petrovka expansion eastward as part of the Andronovo horizon in Asia — coinciding with the western expansion of the Seima- Turbino phenomenon to the Forest Zone — is given by Anthony Chariots were probably invented in the steppes, improving warfare and likely playing a big role in Indo- Iranian expansion within the Andronovo horizon after ca.
After about BC pastoral economies spread across Iran and into Baluchistan, and ca. The modern distribution of R1a1a1b2-Z93 lineages Figure 30 shows a clear division between western and eastern subclades — with basal R1a1a1b2-Z93 located east of the Andronovo horizon Underhill et al. Whereas the western R1a1a1b2a1-L Its spread west of the Iranian Plateau, however, is complicated by its condition of place of transit of innumerable cultures and peoples in prehistoric and historic times — as is the case with the genetic make-up of southern Italian and Balkan peninsulas.
It has been classically proposed that the Mesolithic language of the Narva and Combed Pit Ware cultures is to be identified with a Uralic community, and dates ca. Finno-Ugric has also been shown to have developed in close contact with Proto-Indo-Iranian Kallio According to the theory presented in this paper, the R1a1a1-M population of the Combed Pit Ware culture expanded to the east, and then from the Contact Zone — mostly as R1a1a1b-Z lineages — with the Corded Ware culture to west and east Europe, so it is possible that their language was indeed Proto-Uralic.
From a linguistic point of view, the characteristic palatalization of the consonant system in Proto-Uralic is compatible with the similarly transposed velar system adopted for Late Indo-European dialects by Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian speakers, thus explaining the strongest phonetic connection between these dialectally diverse Indo-European languages. Differences in the Baltic and Slavic satemization processes might point to an early split of the North-West Indo-European dialect ancestral to both, before or during its assimilation by different Uralic-speaking communities of late Corded Ware cultures.
A potential connection with the Balkans Chalcolithic, the origin of the Corded Ware horizon, could also explain the potential satem influence found in Anatolian and Paleo-Balkan languages. A western Corded Ware substratum could also be argued to be the origin of certain common isoglosses found between Germanic and Balto-Slavic. On the special position of Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian, regarding their rather conservative nominal case system compared to other Indo-European languages, it has been argued that languages with more second language speakers lose nominal cases Bentz et al.
The study of precise isoglosses connecting these languages, and their potential relation to specific Uralic proto-languages lies beyond the scope of this paper. Discussion The core problem addressed by this paper has been the inconsistency found between the prevalent theories on migration routes and the recent research on the genetic make-up of peoples from the Pontic-Caspian steppe. The Indo-European demic diffusion model proposed here advances the theory that the expansion of Indo-European languages from the steppe was mainly linked to the expansion of peoples of haplogroup R1b1a1a2-M in Eurasia.
Consequences of the Indo-European demic diffusion model There is a long-held assumption, since the kurgan hypothesis was laid out Gimbutas , that Corded Ware herders had helped spread Indo-European languages into Europe and Asia. This assumption, continued into modern times Beekes , is not fully explained by recent archaeological research Anthony ; Anthony ; Harrison and Heyd ; Heyd , and recent findings in ancient human genetics question it on the grounds of a different path for human migration from the steppes.
The association of this language substrate with Proto-Uralic offers an elegant explanation for these developments, and is supported by linguistic, archaeological, and now also ancient genetic data. The precise pre-North-West-Indo-European linguistic landscape of Scandinavia is unknown, but the previous arrival and likely expansion of peoples of R1a1a1b-Z lineages might have brought with them Uralic languages of east Europe, which had probably in turn replaced earlier Neolithic languages Kroonen Demic diffusion, cultural diffusion, or founder effect Ethnos and language are intimately associated, and are known to be much more resistant to change than culture and social stratification, and thus changes in material culture are not to be equated to changes in language, even if ethnicity may take on new meanings Kristiansen Demic diffusion refers to a migratory model of population diffusion into an area that had been previously uninhabited by that group, possibly displacing, replacing, or intermixing with a pre-existing population Cavalli-Sforza and Minch It is theoretically the simplest and thus strongest link with ethnic and linguistic change, since it shows the predominance of a new people that displaces or absorbs the original one.
This is usually accompanied by a decline in Y-DNA variation, since certain chiefdoms and clans usually predominate in the expansion of a population. Founder effect refers to a loss of genetic variation caused by a colonization and genetic separation of a subset of the diversity present within the original population, and is different from a bottleneck, where the original population loses its prior diversity by a similar mechanism Jobling et al. It seems theoretically second to demic diffusion, in explaining the replacement of genetic make-up without replacement of language.
To resort to a founder effect to explain population changes when enough ancient DNA samples are lacking to suggest them is dangerous: the scarcity of ancient DNA samples makes the interpretation of their meaning — in relation to actual ancient areal occupation — a matter of subjective evaluation, in conjunction with archaeological finds Campbell Cultural diffusion in a strict sense opposed to demic diffusion refers to the spread of cultural traits — including ideas, technology, and language — between individuals, without a need of a migration. Multiple models have been proposed, but all offer a weaker potential explanation for linguistic change than demic diffusion or founder effect, since it implies that language spreads by way of economic or cultural e.
Given the strong ethnic connection of language, examples of such an event were probably exceptional before the creation of the first states. On the other hand, population expansion into certain territories and decline of the original population are followed in some cases by a rising of the original paternal lineages and admixture component Brandt et al.
Admixture analyses are quite useful to investigate these cases. Other potential models can only be weaker than these main three. It seems logical that weaker models should not be used lightly, and clear proof of their applicability and non- applicability of the stronger models should be given in each case. Admixture analysis Genetic admixture refers to the analysis of the gene flow between populations that had previously been relatively isolated from one another.
Since isolated populations develop linguistic differences relatively quickly, linguistic changes might be expected in a newly hybridised population Jobling et al. However, pidgin languages are quite rare, and often one language — usually that of the successful migrants — becomes the superstrate, and another the substrate. On the other hand, language and culture are unlike a genome in several different ways.
While it is possible to obtain admixture percentage of any ancestral population, ancestral language reconstruction and its identification with cultures needs the intervention of careful anthropological investigation. For admixture results to be meaningful, studied loci have to be correctly averaged and samples should be as complete as possible ; genetic drift and selection since admixture have to be taken into account e. Ancient DNA is best collected with the goal of testing specific hypotheses. Some linguists have used the biological foundations of phylogenetics to extrapolate questionable methods to linguistics, and have thus obtained questionable results Gray and Atkinson Similarly, scientists are using the available statistical means to study genetic admixture in modern human populations, extrapolating admixture mapping methods to scarce ancient human samples, and deriving simplistic, far-fetched conclusions.
This paper demonstrates the need to include wide anthropological investigation of the historical context of the samples studied, including linguistics, archaeology, and cultural anthropology, as well as careful investigation of haplogroups, to obtain plausible explanations for the complex data obtained in human biology. Given the lack of direct cultural connections between Yamna and the Corded Ware culture, this spread was explained in terms of either an incorporation of languages through centuries of interaction into Funnel Beaker cultures, or through the emulation of the language of Indo-European chiefs by Corded Ware cultures beginning ca.
It has also been found that samples from Globular Amphorae culture do not show evidence of steppe ancestry Mathieson et al. These limited results, apparently challenging archaeological interpretations previously considered established, are propagating quickly within the field of Indo-European studies. David W. Anthony has recently supported the appearance of the Corded Ware culture through the contacts of Yamna immigrants with indigenous people of the Globular Amphorae culture in southern Poland Anthony and Brown , based on their previously known contacts and early dating.
Similarly, Kristian Kristiansen has supported the dominance of Corded Ware in central Europe south and north of the Carpathians, asserting that their pottery was apparently shared later by the Bell Beaker culture Kristiansen et al. Samples from central Balkans show in fact a relative increase in steppe ancestry later, during the Bronze Age unlike west Europe and the southern Balkans.
Peoples from this eastern zone, whose samples are used to define steppe ancestry, had migrated to the north-west Pontic area at least twice, first in the formation process of the early Khvalynsk-Sredni Stog cultures, and later in the formation of the Yamna culture see above , probably creating a more mixed western genetic pool, more similar to the one found in western Yamna migrants. More recently, Estonian samples have shown a genetic component associated with Caucasus hunter-gatherers coinciding with the spread of R1a-Z, which rules out Corded Ware and Yamna as the only origin of this component Saag et al.
Supporting these conclusions, a sample of a female from Zvejnieki, dated ca. These recent samples question the validity of assuming a direct gene flow from Yamna migrants when explaining the so-called steppe ancestry found in samples from Corded Ware cultures. Extended Data Figure 2 in Haak et al. PCA did not and cannot show differences with Bell Beaker or Balkan samples, since parental populations need to be available, or else archaeological context is needed to define demographic models and potential ancestral populations, to ascertain their actual link to the so-called steppe ancestry.
No samples have been published from potentially controversial areas — like the Contact Zone, eastern Baltic and western Yamna — during the most relevant periods. Old samples closer to admixture events tend to show a higher range of variation, and could inform better of the real impact of migrations, while younger ones — depending on non-random mating processes, influenced by geographic structure or socioeconomic factors — may falsely show a relatively homogenous high or low ancestral contribution Jobling et al.
The results of the latter study have been disputed Lazaridis and Reich , and this in turn contested by the original authors based on the impact of small, low-coverage ancient samples in admixture analyses Goldberg, Gunther, et al. These journals prefer short articles, mainly based on mathematical methods preferably with reference 13 These results could not be replicated in a later study Lazaridis et al. This, together with the perceived complexity and lack of familiarity with intricately linked anthropological disciplines, has made admixture analysis quite popular among amateur geneticists, who can easily play with published open source software programs, due to their accesibility.
However, the correct use of these programs needs much more than just knowing how to apply certain commands to some data. SNP comparison This demic diffusion model relies on the comparison of ancient and modern Y-DNA SNPs, by observing how patrilineal lineages are replaced in certain areas that belonged to certain archaeological cultures. While analysis of whole genomes may be biased, whether by chance drift or by selection Jobling et al. Examination of SNPs of the Y-chromosome of ancient individuals one by one seems more suited to the scarcity of aDNA samples available, and the quality of its recovery, since defects in the STR sequencing are frequent, and thus only certain SNP markers may be obtained, with less information — and higher subclades — obtained from the samples.
While it seems a good starting point for that purpose, it relies on the survival of modern populations related to such ancient population movements, and as such it could miss initially successful lineages that are now extinct, and that could have given an earlier date if they had been included in TMRCA calculations. Ancient and modern mtDNA distribution analyses — although they can help more clearly determine migration paths Brandt et al. Potential language relationships have been used to illustrate the Indo-European demic diffusion model. Many long-term linguistic relationships beyond Middle Indo-European remain hypothetical at best — when not completely discarded with the current data —, and it is not the intention of this paper to support or dismiss such connections.
Such relationships — like Indo-European dialectalisation — must be proven by linguistic research, and archaeology and genetics can only add precision to such studies. While the theory here presented seems rational and scientifically sound, there are many alternative explanations that could have been made of the same data: these have been omitted for the sake of simplicity.
Conclusion Careful cross-disciplinary investigation of ancient DNA samples recently published supports a demic diffusion model for the expansion of Indo-European-speaking peoples directly into central and western Europe through the Bell Beaker culture, challenging previous archaeological and linguistic theories based on the expansion through the Corded Ware culture.
Potential consequences of this new model in archaeological and linguistic investigation have been outlined in this paper, among them the development of a stable framework of time and space for Indo-European dialectal classification, allowing for a more precise dating of Indo-European branches and their splits and expansions, and why and how they might have occurred. I have benefitted from the continuous work of Jean Manco, who keeps an ordered and updated list of the SNPs of most ancient DNA samples obtained to date at ancestraljourneys.
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