Physical Examination of the Elbow. Physical Examination of the Wrist and Hand. Examination of Gait. Physical Examination of the Hip and Pelvis. Physical Examination of the Knee.
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Physical Examination of the Foot and Ankle. Physical Examination of the Lumbar Spine.
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General examination of the spine
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Topics from this paper. Citations Publications citing this paper. A biomechanical comparison between a baseball pitch and a first serve in tennis Monika Keller. Elbow injuries and fractures. Any deformity is at the highest risk of progression during maximum skeletal growth velocity.
3 Physical Examination of the Thoracic Spine
This occurs 6 months prior to and 6 months after menarche in a female. In boys, it is more difficult to correlate with an event. Thus, maturity is judged indirectly by pubic hair development and growth measures. Figure A Estimation of sagittal curvature and kyphotic angulation grossly by having the patient bend forward and evaluating the thoracic kyphosis. B Thoracic kyphosis evaluation. C Thoracic kyphosis with apex approximately at T8. Besides inspecting for a curvature, shoulder height should be measured Fig. The plumb line is measured by hanging a weight on a string from the C7 spinous process.
This line should pass through the center of the gluteal fold. Deviation to the right or left is measured in centimeters and recorded as coronal decompensation in either direction. Figure A Evaluation of shoulder heights. The level should be placed across the shoulder at the top of the scapula.
Notice the right shoulder elevation in this patient. B Plumb line dropped from the C7 vertebra prominens should fall in the gluteal cleft for perfect spinal balance. Measures should be made on how many centimeters to the right or left the plumb line falls from the C7 vertebrae as a measure of coronal imbalance. Figure Measurement of spinal flexibility with three-point bending to estimate the correctability of the scoliotic curvature.
Figure Measurement of curve correctability unweighting the spine by lifting the patient from under the axilla. This is the equivalent of a traction maneuver to see how much correction is obtained with the traction. The prominence is measured by a scoliometer Fig.
Spine Examination – OSCE Guide
It is usually reported as number of centimeters of elevation. Figure Using a scoliometer to measure the angle of prominence. This is reported in degrees comparing the elevated side to the nonelevated side. Figure Using a level to estimate the centimeters of rib hump elevation.
[PDF] Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities - Semantic Scholar
Viewing the forward bend from the side helps with thoracic kyphosis evaluation Fig. The examiner should look for rounding of the thoracic spine implying kyphosis. Correctability or flexibility of thoracic kyphosis is tested by having the patient extend the thoracic spine Fig.