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Chinese or Tamil if this is the wish of a sufficient number of parents and if teachers are available. Such facilities are not provided for the Aslian languages on the mainland or the various Austronesian languages in Sabah and Sarawak. Iban is given some attention in Sarawak, but efforts to give Kadazan-Dusun some status shattered on the failure to agree on a standard dialect Prof.

Asmah Haji Omar, p. Two developments hampered full implementation of the National Education System. The result was a mushrooming of private colleges providing education in English and leading to certificates for study at the British, Australian and American universities to which they were affiliated.

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At the same time the Malaysian government started to issue ambiguous signals regarding the status of Malay. Government officials including the Prime Minister were criticized for using English in public speeches, even if no foreigners were in the audience. As a result, the efforts to make Malay the only language of instruction including at tertiary level were no longer wholeheartedly pursued.

Especially in the fields of science and technology, English education has remained the norm at tertiary level, with the obvious effect that students who followed secondary education at Malay language schools are at a serious disadvantage. So far, the status of Malay as a national symbol remains undisputed.

However, as an official language to be used in official communication including education and government it has to compete with English, much more so than is the case in Indonesia. Since centuries before the European presence in the archipelago the Brunei sultanate had been an important centre in Southeast Asian trade. Its political power once reached as far as Manila and for a long time extended over the whole of northern Borneo.

A variant of classical Malay was presumably the language of the court. The puak Brunei were numerically and politically the dominant group in this multi-ethnic country. Their mother tongue — Brunei Malay — is a distinct variety of Malay and considerably different from the court language and the current national language. In the course of the nineteenth century Brunei lost control of Sabah and Sarawak and was reduced to its present size.

It became a British protectorate from until its independence in However, Malay never ceased to be used in government albeit alongside English , and in the constitution of it was declared the official language of the country. After independence the Bruneian Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka was established. It is the sister organization and a close copy of the Malaysian Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka and the Indonesian Pusat Bahasa , with a similar task: the propagation and corpus planning of standard Malay. This standard Malay is very similar to the Malaysian standard, only differing from it in pronunciation and in its lexical influence from the local Brunei Malay.

In developing a standard language Brunei cooperates with Malaysia and Indonesia. Meanwhile the role of the local Malay variety, Brunei Malay, is also growing within the linguistic ecology of the country — to the detriment of the six indigenous minority languages of the country, five of which are non-Malayic Martin and Poedjosoedarmo Today it is generally accepted as the national lingua franca and it is increasingly used by Bruneians of other ethnic backgrounds.

This is the Bruneian manifestation of the globally observable reduction of the domains in which minority languages are a proper vehicle of communication. Until the end of the s the minority languages were officially qualified as Malay dialects, which released the government from the obligation of paying special attention to them. Only since the last decade has the understanding gained ground that these languages are not Malay, and beginnings have been made to describe them cf. The combined effects of the status of Malay both Brunei Malay and the standard variety and of educational policy are such that transmission of the minority languages to new generations is no longer guaranteed.

Before education had been identical with Islamic religious schooling, with an emphasis on Arabic and with Malay as the language of instruction. After this Malay education continued to expand and in the first secular Malay-medium school was established. Other schools followed.

Only in was English introduced into the curriculum of these schools. Meanwhile English-medium schools had been established after the discovery of oil in , which required increased communication with the outside world. These schools were private schools, organized by non-sectarian Christian missionaries. It was not until that the first government English school was opened. Until both types of education coexisted, but in order to achieve equal opportunities for all citizens, both types of education were combined after independence Within this new system of bilingual education, Malay is the medium of instruction in the first three grades of primary education.

The philosophy behind this model of additive bilingualism is that Malay, being the emblem of national culture and identity, is the first language of all citizens. However, the Malay which is supposed to be used at school as the medium of instruction and which is an obligatory subject at all levels of primary and secondary education is the standard variety, which is not the first language of any Bruneian.

In practice, therefore, it is Brunei Malay which often replaces standard Malay as a medium of instruction, also in regions where a minority language is spoken. Among the 15—20 indigenous Austronesian and non-Austronesian languages currently spoken in East Timor, Austronesian Tetum is the most widespread. Presumably it was already the major language of inter-ethnic communication when the Portuguese made Dili their stronghold in the area.

In any case the language was adopted by the Roman Catholic Church as the vehicle for the faith. Consequently it also became the language of contact between the Portuguese and the local population. Portuguese remained confined to the more formal domains. Yet the first four centuries of Portuguese presence in the area were not characterized by any consciously planned changes in the linguistic ecology. Only in the s did Portugal change its policy: it now became the explicit objective to turn all East Timorese into Catholic, Portuguese-speaking citizens cf.

Hajek Since the s the use of Tetum and other regional languages had been forbidden in schools. Portuguese had to be the language of education, while also in church the role of Portuguese had become more important than before. In the Portuguese withdrew from East Timor. In order to smooth the integration of East Timor into the Indonesian Republic the use and knowledge of Indonesian had to be fostered as fast and as much as possible. From to Indonesian was used throughout the educational system introduced by the Indonesians, which ranged from kindergarten to university.

As a result several generations of students received their complete education in Indonesian, and although schooling may not have been successful everywhere because of the unstable political situation, the role and knowledge of Portuguese obviously lessened. However, refugees in Portugal and Australia and the guerrilla movement did not partake in this language shift, and continued to use Portuguese and English in their international public dealings, and Tetum and Portuguese internally.

Not less importantly, the church did not shift to Indonesian either, in spite of Indonesian pressure. Instead, Tetum became the language of the Roman Catholic religion, with the grudging consent of the Indonesians: after all, a Tetum-speaking Catholic was less of a security risk than an Indonesian-speaking atheist alias communist. One of the results of this church policy was the translation of the gospels into Tetum Terik.

After the destructive withdrawal of the Indonesian forces from East Timor in the linguistic ecology of the country changed again. For most East Timorese, Indonesian was no longer a neutral language — if it ever was. It was associated with military oppression and terror and is now officially the language of a foreign power. As such, Indonesian was disqualified as a possible national and official language for East Timor. On 11 December the new National Assembly adopted Portuguese and Tetum as the official languages of the new country. The practical implementations of these decisions have to be awaited.

Portuguese is ready for use: it is a standardized, modern language, in which teaching materials and other publications are — in principle — readily available. Most educated people older than 40—45 still know it quite well. Strong support is given from Portugal and Portuguese-speaking countries, financially and through expertise. The shift from Indonesian to Portuguese within the education system, however, can only be gradual. As regards the status of Tetum much work still has to be done.

A standard spelling with some deviations from the most widespread practice until recently has already been accepted. In any case, the future of the status of Tetum will depend on the progress and effectiveness of these corpus-planning activities. During the United Nations interim government some pressure has been exerted to assign a more central place to English after independence. To what extent Indonesian will continue to have a role in education as a subject is still uncertain.

East Timorese leaders realize that provisions have to be made for indigenous languages other than Tetum Ramos Horta, p.

For the moment, however, priority will be given to the development and standardization of Tetum. When the first Europeans arrived in the Philippines the majority of its estimated half million inhabitants lived in small territorial units, each originally belonging to a single kinship group. Only in the Sulu archipelago and in the adjacent areas of Mindanao had Islam made inroads and sultanates come into existence. From there Islam spread northward, to reach the Manila area by The first reported interference in local affairs by Europeans was the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan at Cebu in , who claimed the island for Spain.

In the Spanish established themselves permanently on Cebu.


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They shifted their centre of administrative, military, commercial and religious activity to Manila in Much executive and legislative power was assigned to the Jesuits and to the friars of the Augustinian, Dominican and Franciscan orders, all recruited from Spain or of Spanish descent. Most conspicuous among the lasting results of their activities were the conversion of the majority of the population to Catholicism and the establishment of a system of large land estates.

From the very beginning the orders had the sole responsibility for education. Even after , when the Spanish government established free public primary education, the friars kept the supervision of the educational system on all levels, whereas the Jesuits remained responsible for the teacher-training colleges.

An impressive number of publications in and on the major local languages had already appeared in the earliest decades of Spanish rule, most of them in or on Tagalog Llamzon Only a very few Filipinos had been allowed to enter Spanish schools. In its initial stages the emphasis was on assimilation and emancipation, one of its programs being the extension of Spanish teaching to a wider base of the population. When the movement took a populist turn and its aims shifted towards independence, Tagalog became its first language. The geographical core of the movement was the Tagalog-speaking greater Manila area, and although the leaders of the revolution expressed notions of a national unit embracing all inhabitants of the Philippines, its actual scope remained limited.

With the outbreak of the Spanish—American war April the revolt against Spain also spread to non-Tagalog areas, and on 12 June the Act of Independence was proclaimed, in Spanish. At the Constitutional Assembly convening in Malolos, September representatives with non-Tagalog backgrounds were present.

Spanish also remained prominent in the educational program of the new republic, whereas no mention was made of any of the local languages. However, the defeat of the Spanish meant the beginning of the Anglicization of the Philippines. Most important among these were the separation of church and state, representative bodies and mass education. Theoretically, the medium of instruction in schools and universities was supposed to be a local language.

In practice it was English. Meanwhile the old elite adjusted to the new situation: they kept their economic power and dominated political life. Since many of them were Spanish-educated, Spanish remained an official language alongside English. English soon became the most important if not the only language to be used in official domains, with the exception of the law, where Spanish could not be ousted so easily.

At the same time, the larger local languages were used in printing and in the press. Most of the publications were in Tagalog, however. And it was Tagalog which was proposed by some nationalists as the most suitable candidate for a national language. However, the question was sensitive from the start. Bisayan, on the other hand, was the mother tongue of about twice as many speakers, and with its plantations and exports, the Bisayan homeland contributed significantly to the Philippine economy.

One year later the National Language Institute was established, which was responsible for the selection, standardization and elaboration of this common national language. Arguing that it was the best-studied Philippine language with the richest literature, the Institute recommended Tagalog as the most suitable base for the national language. In Tagalog would be introduced as a subject in the fifth and sixth grades of elementary schools as well as in normal schools, if teachers were available.

At the end of the Commonwealth period July Tagalog would be an official language like English and Spanish, and it would gradually replace English as medium of instruction. The authority of president Quezon had saved Tagalog for the time being, but it was accepted with bitterness by the Bisayans, if indeed they accepted it at all. Shortly after the Japanese conquest, however, Tagalog and Japanese were proclaimed official languages. For the time being the use of English was still allowed as a medium of instruction, to be replaced eventually by the local vernaculars.

The production of schoolbooks in Tagalog was stimulated. Because of the war, however, the results outside the greater Manila area were limited. After the war, Tagalog began to be taught as a subject at all levels of education. However, the efforts to disseminate the language were somewhat traditional: the accent shifted from proficiency training to training in grammatical knowledge, and the same teaching methods were applied to both Tagalogs and non-Tagalogs.

After the official name became Pilipino. For speakers of other regional languages, however, and foremost the Bisayans, this epithet remained a thin disguise. Meanwhile the continued standardization and elaboration efforts of the Institute of National Language previously the National Language Institute gave rise to fierce clashes between purists and liberals.

In the early s this even amounted to — unsuccessful — lawsuits against members of the Institute and high government officials in which the use of puristic Tagalog in the national language was challenged. In spite of these obstructions Pilipino gained ground. There was an increase in Pilipino publications, and the role of Pilipino in education, as a subject as well as a language of instruction, became more prominent Bonifacio When towards the end of the s the students revolted against American military and cultural imperialism, it was the common Manila variety of Tagalog which became the vehicle and symbol of their struggle.

Among the non-Tagalog elder generations, however, Pilipino continued to be felt as an implicit takeover bid by the Tagalogs. When in preparations were started for a convention to revise the American-based constitution, anti-Tagalog resentments flared up again and were vigorously voiced. As a result, Tagalog-based Pilipino was in fact rejected as the national language. In the constitution of it was stated that for the time being English and Pilipino would be the official languages, but steps would be taken to develop a new common national language based on all Philippine languages, to be known as Filipino.

The function of this new language was clear: a symbol of national unity. But it was less clear what it would look like, and how it should be propagated and disseminated. In the Aquino Constitution of the section on language asserts that [t]he national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction.

In President Aquino declared Filipino to be used as the medium of instruction at all levels of education and as the language of official communication in government. The decree itself was in English and had obviously bypassed the Congress. The latter had not yet passed the bill on the Commission on Filipino language, which was to be assigned the task of developing Filipino. In Cebu province the governor refused to implement the decree and insisted instead that Cebuano, the major variety of Bisayan, be used as a language of education.

The future of Filipino is uncertain. As long as it remains non-existent it functions as a symbol of national unity. But as soon as it is given content it becomes divisive rather than uniting. Meanwhile Pilipino whether or not considered to be Filipino continues to be taught at schools all over the country. Knowledge of it is in fact undeniably increasing, which is also the result of increased mobility, ongoing urbanization and the influence of the film industry and mass media. The polyglossic situation has not changed: the local vernaculars have kept their function within the family, as auxiliary languages alongside English and Pilipino in the lower grades of state schools, and as the daily language in rural areas.

In the urbanized centres and in interethnic communication, Tagalog-based Pilipino has remained the major medium. In business, industry, higher education and in private schools English continues to be the main language. The linguistic situation of Madagascar is markedly different from that of other countries discussed in this chapter. Madagascar has the unique characteristic of being practically monolingual, i. There was once an allegedly Arabic-speaking settlement in the southeast, and there is a small community of Bantu-speaking Comorans in the northwest. Furthermore, there are some Indian, Pakistani, Chinese and French immigrants and expatriates.

By and large, however, the country may be said to be linguistically homogeneous. Yet ecologically and economically it is not, and this is ultimately the reason why the development of the national language shows similarities with the Philippine case. Bellah, Robert N. Brownlee, John S. Leiden and Boston: Brill. Princeton University Press. Westport: Praeger. Tokyo: Kamogawa Shuppan. Tokyo: Keizaikai, McVeigh, Brian , Nationalisms of Japan.

Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. Edited by Currin V. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Opladen: C. London and New York: Routledge. Tokyo: Tentensha. Oxford: Polity. Tamogami Toshio , Tamogami Shinkoku-gun. Tokyo: Sankei Shinbun Shuppansha.

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Tokyo: Asuka Shinsha. Watanabe Teiji , Yudaya wa Nihon ni nani o shita ka. See here last accessed 10 May Accessible in English translation here. The same holds true for another ultranationalist party founded in , the Japan Restorationist Party, which also strongly advocated revisionist views on history, but dissolved in due to a lack of success. See, for example, the textbook Arita Kazumasa et al. See here. Although Masumi was urged to resign from the municipal assembly Japan Times, 3 December , he is still a member of the assembly last accessed on 10 May Although he is not an LDP member, he shares the same ideological outlook as the government party.

It is estimated that around 50 million Yen were spent by Tamogami on karaoke, nightclub visits and golfing. Asahi Shinbun, 2 May Translation of Japanese text. He is author of Politics, Memory and Public Opinion , He co-edited with J. He is also co-author of Impressions of an Imperial Envoy. October 15, History as the core of nationalism If the coverage given in daily newspapers, weekly and monthly journals, and books dealing with questions of nationalism in modern Japan is anything to go by, contemporary interest in historical issues is buoyant.

And further: The Manchurian Incident [], the China Incident [] and the Greater East Asian War … were a fight for survival between the colored races and the white race. This collection of essays foregrounds the work of filmmakers in theorizing and comparing postcolonial conditions, recasting debates in both cinema and postcolonial studies. Postcolonial cinema is presented, not as a rigid category, but as an optic through which to address questions of postcolonial historiography, geography, subjectivity, and epistemology.

Contributors deeply engage the tense asymmetries bequeathed to the contemporary world by the multiple,diverse, and overlapping histories of European, Soviet, U. Contributors include: Jude G. This volume explores the relationship between literature and translation from three perspectives: the creative dimensions of the translation process; the way texts circulate between languages; and the way texts are received in translation by new audiences. The distinctiveness of the volume lies in the fact that it considers these fundamental aspects of literary translation together and in terms of their interconnections.

Contributors examine a wide variety of texts, including world classics, poetry, genre fiction, transnational literature, and life writing from around the world. Both theoretical and empirical issues are covered, with some contributors approaching the topic as practitioners of literary translation, and others writing from within the academy.

The past decade has seen a profound shift in our collective understanding of the digital network. What was once understood to be a transcendent virtual reality is now experienced as a ubiquitous grid of data that we move through and interact with every day, raising new questions about the social, locative, embodied, and object-oriented nature of our experience in the networked world.

Jones examines this shift in our relationship to digital technology and the ways that it has affected humanities scholarship and the academy more broadly. Based on the premise that the network is now everywhere rather than merely "out there," Jones links together seemingly disparate cultural events—the essential features of popular social media, the rise of motion-control gaming and mobile platforms, the controversy over the "gamification" of everyday life, the spatial turn, fabrication and 3D printing, and electronic publishing—and argues that cultural responses to changes in technology provide an essential context for understanding the emergence of the digital humanities as a new field of study in this millennium.

Emphasizing the role of travel and migration in the performance and transformation of identity, this volume addresses representations of travel, mobility, and migration in 19th—21st-century travel writing, literature, and media texts. In so doing, the book analyses the role of the various cultural, ethnic, gender, and national encounters pertinent to narratives of travel and migration in transforming and problematizing the identities of both the travelers and "travelees" enacting in the borderzones between cultures. While the individual essays by scholars from a wide range of countries deal with a variety of case studies from various historical, spatial, and cultural locations, they share a strong central interest in the ways in which the narratives of travel contribute to the imagining of ethnic encounters and how they have acted as sites of transformation and transculturation from the early nineteenth century to the present day.

In addition to discussing textual representations of travel and migration, the volume also addresses the ways in which cultural texts themselves travel and are reconstructed in various cultural settings. The analyses are particularly attentive to the issues of globalization and migration, which provide a general frame for interpretation. What distinguishes the volume from existing books is its concern with travel and migration as ways of forging transcultural identities that are able to subvert existing categorizations and binary models of identity formation.

In so doing, it pays particular attention to the performance of identity in various spaces of cultural encounter, ranging from North America to the East of Europe, putting particular emphasis on the representation of intercultural and ethnic encounters. Representing the best of international life writing scholarship, this collection reveals extraordinary stories of remarkable lives. These wide-ranging accounts span the Americas, Britain, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and the Pacific over a period of more than two centuries.

Showing fascinating connections between people, places and historical eras, they unfold against the backdrop of events and social movements of global significance that have influenced the world in which we live today. Many of the authors document and celebrate lives that have been lost, hidden or neglected. They are reconstituted from the archives, restored through testimony and reimagined through art. The effects of colonialism, war and conflict on individual lives can be seen throughout the book alongside themes of transnational connection, displacement and exile, migration of individuals, families and peoples, and recovery and recuperation through memory and writing, creativity and performance.

A Companion to Diaspora and Transnationalism offers a ground-breaking combined discussion of the concepts of diaspora and transnationalism. Newly commissioned essays by leading scholars provide interdisciplinary perspectives that link together the concepts in new and important ways. The book is proof of the far-reaching power of analysis and critique that a historically informed philosophy can have on our current reality.

Indeed, with this work Rockmore masterfully fulfills the Hegelian claim that philosophy is the rational comprehension of our historical world. Rockmore frames the events of going to the religious roots of G. Bush's view of terrorism and discussing Lewis's and Huntington's appraisals of the clash of civilizations, but he also invites us to reflect on the implications of the war on terror in our globalized world. Huntington and B. Lewis, whom he cogently criticizes have done. It is sure to help stimulate debate, so badly needed today, about just where "we," the global entity of which we are all a part, are headed.

Definition

McBride, Arthur G. In order to do so, Rockmore develops what he calls "a model of historical knowledge in which human beings are the actors of human history Rockmore argues that "economic globalism and Islamic terror are dialectical opposites" - an opposition bringing about "a new social construction" the implications of which are only faintly understood by its principal agents. Rockmore explodes the myth that this conflict is all about religion and culture while at the same time showing that religion and culture form the backdrop for understanding how the protagonists in this drama justify their respective actions.

Most importantly, this exceptionally well-written and well researched book underscores the primary contradiction between global capitalism, whose propagation has become America's chief national security interest - more traditional Muslim economies. In sum, this is a must-read for anyone interested in the religious, cultural, political, and economic causes underlying America's on-going military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Furthermore, Rockmore's book is relatively short and avoids technical jargon in the discussion of philosophical issues, which also makes it appropriate for the educated lay public. Cinema and Language Loss provides the first sustained exploration of the relationship between linguistic displacement and visuality in the filmic realm, examining in depth both its formal expressions and theoretical implications.

The dynamics of this shift are particularly evident in the works of many displaced filmmakers, which often manifest a conflicted interaction between language and vision, and through this question the signifying potential, and the perceptual ambiguities, of cinema itself. With contributions from scholars with experience of cultural life and the work of education in various regions, countries and locales - from francophone Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East to Hawaii, Jamaica, South Korea and Japan - Cultural Studies of Transnationalism ranges across literary, film, dance, theatrical and translation studies to explore the socially material and institutional factors that not only shape transnational developments in culture broadly understood, but also frame the academic and professional spaces in which we reflect on these.

This book offers an incisive and ambitious critique of Asian Diaspora culture, looking specifically at literature and visual popular culture. The chapters discuss a wealth of topics, including Asianness, Orientalism, and Asian American identity, drawing on a variety of pop culture sources from The Matrix Trilogy to Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon.

This book forms an analysis of the new idea of Asian Diaspora that cuts across area, ethnicity, and nation, incorporating itself into the contemporary global culture whilst retaining a distinct Asian flavor. Covering the mediums of literature, film, and visual cultures, this book will be of immense interest to scholars and students of Asian studies and literature, ethnic studies, cultural studies, and film.

In recent years, schools have started introducing more inclusive syllabi emphasizing the works and ideas of previously overlooked or underrepresented writers. Readers of all ages can now explore the rich contributions of writers from around the world. These writers have various backgrounds, and unlike most writers from the U. Encyclopedia of World Writers: to the Present covers the most important writers outside of the U. More than insightful, A-to-Z entries profile novelists, poets, dramatists, and short-story writers whose works are anthologized in textbooks or assigned in high school English classes.

Entries range in length from to 1, words each and include a biographical sketch, synopses of major works, and a brief bibliography. Dozens of entries are new to this edition and many existing entries have been updated and significantly expanded with new "Critical Analysis" sections. Fifty Key Thinkers on Globalization is an outstanding guide to often-encountered thinkers whose ideas have shaped, defined and influenced this new and rapidly growing field.

The authors clearly and lucidly survey the life, work and impact of fifty of the most important theorists of globalization including:. Fully cross-referenced throughout, this remarkable reference guide is essential reading for students of politics and international relations, economics, sociology, history, anthropology and literary studies. The Bildungsroman, or "novel of formation," has long led a paradoxical life within literary studies, having been construed both as a peculiarly German genre, a marker of that country's cultural difference from Western Europe, and as a universal expression of modernity.

In Formative Fictions, Tobias Boes argues that the dual status of the Bildungsroman renders this novelistic form an elegant way to negotiate the diverging critical discourses surrounding national and world literature. Since the late eighteenth century, authors have employed the story of a protagonist's journey into maturity as a powerful tool with which to facilitate the creation of national communities among their readers. Such attempts always stumble over what Boes calls "cosmopolitan remainders," identity claims that resist nationalism's aim for closure in the normative regime of the nation-state.

These cosmopolitan remainders are responsible for the curiously hesitant endings of so many novels of formation. Asian American literature is one of the most recent forms of ethnic literature and is already becoming one of the most prominent, given the large number of writers, the growing ethnic population from the region, the general receptivity of this body of work, and the quality of the authors.

In recent decades, there has been an exponential growth in their output and much Asian American literature has now achieved new levels of popular success and critical acclaim. Nurtured by rich and long literary traditions from the vast continent of Asia, this literature is poised between the ancient and the modern, between the East and West, and between the oral and the written.

First, its history is traced year by year from to the present, in a chronology, and the introduction provides a good overview. The most important section is the dictionary, with over substantial and cross-referenced entries on authors, books, and genres as well as more general ones describing the historical background, cultural features, techniques and major theatres and clubs.

More reading can be found through an extensive bibliography with general works and those on specific authors. This book examines the ways in which contemporary British and British postcolonial writers in the after-empire era draw connections between magic defined here as Renaissance Hermetic philosophy and science. Writers such as Tom Stoppard, Zadie Smith, and Margaret Atwood critique both imperial science, or science used in service to empire, and what Renk calls "imperical science," a distortion of rational science which denies that reality is holistic and claims that nature can and should be conquered.

In warning of the dangers of imperical science, these writers restore the connection between magic and science as they examine major shifts in scientific thinking across the centuries. Overall, these writers forge a new discourse that merges science with the arts and emphasizes a holistic philosophy, a view shared by both Hermetic philosophy and recent scientific theories, such as chaos or complexity theory. Mobility at Large explores a unique trajectory of travel writing.

Instead of focussing on best-selling travel texts by Paul Theroux, Bill Bryson, Michael Palin, Alain de Botton and others, this book examines a strand of innovative contemporary travel writing wherein the authors experiment with form, content and the politics of representation. In this, innovative travel texts by a range of writers — from Michael Ondaatje and Caryl Phillips to Daphne Marlatt and Sam Miller — transform the genre by inscribing travel, migration, mobility and displacement within a variety of experimental textual strategies to work through questions of movement and the politics of personal identity in relation to the complex interlocutions of space, place and subjectivity.

As a result, Mobility at Large challenges those critics who dismiss the genre as inherently conservative and inextricably bound up in a colonial, Eurocentric tradition. The book also documents a long and rich tradition of travel writing that existed well beyond the influence of Europe.

Over the past two decades interest in travel has developed significantly. Critical engagement with imperialism, postcolonialism, diasporas, ethnography and cultural anthropology has led to increasingly sophisticated readings of the travel writing genre and a growing acknowledgement of its complex history. Postcolonial Eyes is the first study of its kind to identify a specifically Sub-Saharan African lineage within the broader tradition of travel writing. This book responds to the need to explore the multitude of interconnected factors causing displacements that compel people to move within their homelands or traverse various borders in the contemporary world that is characterised by extensive and rapid movements of people.

It addresses this need by bringing together historical and contemporary accounts and critical examinations of the displaced, by articulating the commonalities in their lived experiences. It accomplishes the task of charting a new path in displacement studies by offering a number of studies from interdisciplinary and diverse methodological approaches comprising ethnographic and qualitative research and literary interpretations to emphasise that although the forms and conditions of mobility are highly divergent, individual experiences of displacement and placelessness offer a critical challenge to the artificial categorisations of people's movements.

Each chapter adds insights into the different configurations of displacement and placement, and offers fresh interpretations of migration and dislocation in today's rapidly changing world. The contributors critically examine a variety of displacement processes and experiences in the context of war, tourism, neoliberal policies of development, and the impact of various agro-forestry policies.

They focus on a range of countries, enabling a thorough comparative analysis in terms of scope and range of examples and methods of analysis. This book makes an original contribution to the growing body of literature on displacement, and will appeal to a wide readership including advanced undergraduates, and graduate students and professors in disciplines such as human geography, development studies, sociology and anthropology, regional studies and comparative impact assessment. Combining original historical research with literary analysis, Adam Barrows takes a provocative look at the creation of world standard time in and rethinks the significance of this remarkable moment in modernism for both the processes of imperialism and for modern literature.

As representatives from twenty-four nations argued over adopting the Prime Meridian, and thereby measuring time in relation to Greenwich, England, writers began experimenting with new ways of representing human temporality. Barrows finds this experimentation in works as varied as Victorian adventure novels, high modernist texts, and South Asian novels—including the work of James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, H. Demonstrating the investment of modernist writing in the problems of geopolitics and in the public discourse of time, Barrows argues that it is possible, and productive, to rethink the politics of modernism through the politics of time.

Theatre and Performance in the Asia-Pacific is an analysis of the theatrical imaginative as it manifests in theatre and performance in Australia, Indonesia, Japan and Singapore. The sites encompass marked differences in language, performance, history and politics, and variations in the solidity and volatility of their imagined worlds. Recognizing these differences, the book explores contrasts in each nation as it identifies with the region and the cultural interconnections that support a regional identity.

While the four nations demonstrate degrees of ambivalence and connection to the Asia-Pacific as a region, the project argues that relations to modernity and globalization are less nation-specific. The project articulates a regional configuration of modernity which is multiple, contradictory but nonetheless regional. Each nation has in common the imperative to reconcile with and adapt to European modernity in a way that renders global modernity multiple rather than singular. Interest in the issues of translation continues to grow, and is reflected in this collection of essays by specialists in both literature and translation studies, all of whom have experience of translating literary texts themselves.

The essays include both diverse theoretical approaches and practical case studies, and a wide range of topics are covered, including the history of translation in Scotland, the problems of translating Chinese poetry into English, renaissance theories of translation, George Eliot's translations, and Eastern European perceptions of English Romantic literature. This book offers a critical study and analysis of American fiction at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Varvogli draws on current theories of travel globalization and post-national studies, and proposes a dynamic model that will enable scholars to approach contemporary American fiction and assess recent changes and continuities.

Novels by Amy Tan, Garrison Keillor, Jonathan Safran Foer and Dave Eggers are examined in the context of travel and globalization, and works by Chang-rae Lee, Ethan Canin, Dinaw Mengestu and Jhumpa Lahiri are used as examples of the changing face of the American immigrant novel, and the changing meaning of national belonging. Thoroughly revised and updated, The Globalization Reader, Fourth Edition offers a provocative assessment of globalization by reviewing the current debates and ongoing research on the topic, providing readers with the most comprehensive introduction to globalization available today.

Has material civilization spun out of control, becoming too fast for our own well-being and that of the planet? This book confronts these anxieties and examines the changing rhythms and temporal organization of everyday life. How do people handle hurriedness, burn-out and stress? Are slower forms of consumption viable? In case studies covering the United States, Asia and Europe, international experts follow routines and rhythms, their emotional and political dynamics and show how they are anchored in material culture and everyday practice.

Running themes of the book are questions of coordination and disruption; cycles and seasons; and the interplay between power and freedom, and between material and natural forces. The result is a volume that brings studies of practice, temporality and material culture together to open up a new intellectual agenda. World Literature in Theory provides a definitive exploration of the pressing questions facing those studying world literature today. This book examines the explicit effects of global connectivity on local culture and society in post-reform mainland China.

Asking questions such as:. Jiaming Sun uses an original micro-level relational approach to analyse how different types of individual global connections may make a difference and constitute certain outcomes of local transformation, the outcome being that global connections are capable of facilitating local transformation across different spatial, economic, and cultural settings. The modern city is a space that can simultaneously represent the principles of its homeland alongside its own unique blend of the cultures that intermingle within its city limits.

These are two significant axes of contemporary culture and identity that were previously disregarded by a critical tradition built around the importance of space and place in Canadian writing. Dealing with oppositional discourses as multiculturalism, postcolonialism, feminism, diaspora, and environmentalism this book is an essential reference for any scholar with an interest in these areas.

Rodeheaver analyze the nature, types, and causes of contemporary global terrorism. The book redefines modern terrorism in a novel more comprehensive manner compared to the previous literature. It examines counter-state and state terrorism, with an emphasis on the latter in light of its scale, persistence, and intensity as well as its relative neglect in the literature.

The book identifies and predicts the general cause of most modern terrorism in anti-modernity as the adverse reaction to and reversal of liberal-democratic, secular, rationalistic, and globalized, modernity. In essence, it discovers and predicts anti-liberalism in the form of conservatism as the main source and force of modern terrorism. World Cinema through Global Genres introduces the complex forces of global filmmaking using the popular concept of film genre.

The cluster-based organization allows students to acquire a clear understanding of core issues that apply to all films around the world. Anime Wong is a memory book of performances, most of which were produced collaboratively, reflecting questions of gender, identity, Orientalism, and racial politics. Waldron, Rob Friedman. Scholarship of literature and the environment demonstrates myriad understandings of nature and culture. While some work in the field results in approaches that belong in the realm of cultural studies, other scholars have expanded the boundaries of ecocriticism to connect the practice more explicitly to disciplines such as the biological sciences, human geography, or philosophy.

Even so, the field of ecocriticism has yet to clearly articulate its interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary nature. Waldron and Robert Friedman have assembled a collection of essays that study the interconnections between literature and the environment to theorize literary ecology. The disciplinary perspectives in these essays allow readers to comprehend places and environments and to represent, express, or strive for that comprehension through literature. Investigating texts for the complex interconnections they represent, Toward a Literary Ecology suggests what such texts might teach us about the interconnections of our own world.

This volume also offers a means of analyzing representations of people in places within the realm of an historical, cultural, and geographically bounded yet diverse American literature. Intended for students of literature and ecology, this collection will also appeal to scholars of geography, cultural studies, philosophy, biology, history, anthropology, and other related disciplines. The Routledge Companion to Anglophone Caribbean Literature offers a comprehensive, critically engaging overview of this increasingly significant body of work.

This volume is an essential text that brings together sixty-nine entries from scholars across three generations of Caribbean literary studies, ranging from foundational critical voices to emergent scholars in the field.

Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia

The volume's reach of subject and clarity of writing provide an excellent resource and springboard to further research for those working in literature and cultural studies, postcolonial and diaspora studies as well as Caribbean studies, history and geography. Many African diasporic novelists and poets allude to or cite archival documents in their writings, foregrounding the elements of archival research and data in their literary texts, and revising the material remnants of the archive. This book reads black historical novels and poetry in an interdisciplinary context, to examine the multiple archives that have produced our historical consciousness.

In the history of African diaspora literature, black writers and intellectuals have led the way for an analysis of the archive, querying dominant archives and revising the ways black people have been represented in the legal and hegemonic discourses of the west. Their work in genres as diverse as autobiography, essay, bibliography, poetry, and the novel attests to the centrality of this critique in black intellectual culture.

Through literary engagement with the archives of the slave trader, colonizer, and courtroom, creative writers teach us to read the archives of history anew, probing between the documents for stories left untold, questions left unanswered, and freedoms enacted against all odds. Opening new perspectives on Atlantic history and culture, Walters generates a dialogue between what was and what might have been. Ultimately, Walters argues that references to archival documents in black historical literature introduce a new methodology for studying both the archive and literature itself, engaging in a transnational and interdisciplinary reading that exposes the instability of the archive's truth claim and highlights rebellious possibility.

Johnson, Patricia Moran. The female body, with its history as an object of social control, expectation, and manipulation, is central to understanding the gendered construction of shame. Through the study of 20th-century literary texts, The Female Face of Shame explores the nexus of femininity, female sexuality, the female body, and shame.

It demonstrates how shame structures relationships and shapes women's identities. Examining works by women authors from around the world, these essays provide an interdisciplinary and transnational perspective on the representations, theories, and powerful articulations of women's shame. Manalansan IV, Anita Mannur. Chop suey. The deep associations Asians in the United States have with food have become ingrained in the American popular imagination.

So much so that contentious notions of ethnic authenticity and authority are marked by and argued around images and ideas of food. Eating Asian America: A Food Studies Reader collects burgeoning new scholarship in Asian American Studies that centers the study of foodways and culinary practices in our understanding of the racialized underpinnings of Asian Americanness. It does so by bringing together twenty scholars from across the disciplinary spectrum to inaugurate a new turn in food studies: the refusal to yield to a superficial multiculturalism that naively celebrates difference and reconciliation through the pleasures of food and eating.

By focusing on multi-sited struggles across various spaces and times, the contributors to this anthology bring into focus the potent forces of class, racial, ethnic, sexual and gender inequalities that pervade and persist in the production of Asian American culinary and alimentary practices, ideas, and images.

This is the first collection to consider the fraught itineraries of Asian American immigrant histories and how they are inscribed in the production and dissemination of ideas about Asian American foodways. If the advancement toward the administered world is nearing completion, if spectacularised societies, industrialised cultures, and reified consciousness have taken control, then, Adorno and Art shows how radical and revolutionary Adorno's aesthetic theory of art's double character remains, and how complex, imaginative and oppositional, forms of art offer, perhaps, the best hope for overcoming damaged life.

The caricatures of Adorno, his politics and his aesthetics, are well known errors of judgement - widely repeated both by the academy and by the Left. Adorno's aesthetics has been accused of failing to keep pace with progressive artistic practices and for being socio-politically aloof. Despite the persistence of these caricatures, this book shows how significant images and themes in Adorno's theory remain relevant to the current situation of art, aesthetics and politics.

The Adorno on show in this volume was no bourgeois mandarin, no arrogant aesthete, no esoteric mystic, no melancholy pessimist, and no academic expert holed up in the proverbial ivory tower. Provides a single-volume introduction to the important connection of Frankfurt School thought and modernist culture. Tyrus Miller's book offers readers a focused introduction to the Frankfurt School's important attempts to relate the social, political, and philosophical conditions of modernity to innovations in twentieth-century art, literature, and culture.

The book pursues this interaction of modernity and modernist aesthetics in a two-sided, dialectical approach. Not only, Miller suggests, can the Frankfurt School's penetrating critical analyses of the phenomena of modernity help us develop more nuanced, historically informed and contextually sensitive analyses of modernist culture; but also, modernist culture provides a field of problems, examples, and practices that intimately affected the formation of the Frankfurt School's theoretical ideas.

The individual chapters, which include detailed discussions of Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse as well as a survey of later Frankfurt School influenced thinkers, discuss the ideas of a given figure with an emphasis on particular artistic media or contexts: Benjamin with lyric poetry and architecture as urban art forms; Adorno with music; Marcuse with the liberationist art performances and happenings of the s.

Thomas Pynchon, perhaps the most important living American author, is famed for his lengthy, complex and erudite fictions. Given these characteristics, an examination of the philosophical dimensions of Pynchon's works is long overdue. In Pynchon and Philosophy, Martin Paul Eve comprehensively and clearly redresses this balance, mapping Pynchon's interactions with the philosophy, ethics and politics of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Michel Foucault and Theodor W. Adorno, resulting in a fresh approach to these seminal novels. Pynchon and Philosophy is based on the notion that Pynchon's brand of postmodern literature mocks theoretical frameworks.

On these grounds, Pynchon has been accused of being an anti-rationalist, a postmodern nihilist figure who revels in the collapse of logic.