Springer Publishing Company is delighted to make this book available again. Hildegard Peplau's year career in nursing left an indelible stamp on the profession of nursing, and on the lives of the mentally ill in this country. She wore many hats -- founder of modern psychiatric nursing, innovative educator, advocate for the mentally ill, proponent of advanced education for nurses, Executive Director and then President of the American Nurses Association, and prolific author.
Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Originally published in by a towering figure in nursing history, this book stresses the then novel theory of interpersonal relations as it was relevant to the work of nurses. Her framework suggested that interaction phenomena that occur during patient-nurse relationships have qualitative impact on patient outcomes.
While the past four decades have seen a substantial expansion in the use and understanding of interpersonal theory, such as cognitive development and general systems theory, this classic book remains a useful foundation for all nurses as so much subsequent work used this work as its starting point.
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Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! A Definition of Nursing; 2. This definitely helps nurses and healthcare providers develop more therapeutic interventions in the clinical setting. Through these, Hildegard E. Nursing can be viewed as an interpersonal process because it involves interaction between two or more individuals with a common goal.
In nursing, this common goal provides the incentive for the therapeutic process in which the nurse and patient respect each other as individuals, both of them learning and growing as a result of the interaction. An individual learns when she or he selects stimuli in the environment and then reacts to these stimuli.
Interpersonal Relations In Nursing: A Conceptual Frame Of Reference For Psychodynamic Nursing
It gave emphasis on the give-and-take of nurse-client relationships that was seen by many as revolutionary. The nursing model identifies four sequential phases in the interpersonal relationship: orientation , identification , exploitation , and resolution. It also includes seven nursing roles: Stranger role, Resource role, Teaching role, Counseling role, Surrogate role, Active leadership and Technical expert role. Hildegard E. The theory explains the purpose of nursing is to help others identify their felt difficulties and that nurses should apply principles of human relations to the problems that arise at all levels of experience.
It involves interaction between two or more individuals with a common goal. The attainment of this goal, or any goal, is achieved through a series of steps following a sequential pattern. Four Phases of the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship :. The orientation phase is directed by the nurse and involves engaging the client in treatment, providing explanations and information, and answering questions.
The identification phase begins when the client works interdependently with the nurse, expresses feelings, and begins to feel stronger.
In the resolution phase, the client no longer needs professional services and gives up dependent behavior. The relationship ends.
Stranger: offering the client the same acceptance and courtesy that the nurse would to any stranger. Resource person: providing specific answers to questions within a larger context.
Counselor: promoting experiences leading to health for the client such as expression of feelings. Technical Expert: providing physical care for the patient and operates equipment. Peplau also believed that the nurse could take on many other roles but these were not defined in detail. Anxiety was defined as the initial response to a psychic threat. There are four levels of anxiety described below. Mild anxiety is a positive state of heightened awareness and sharpened senses, allowing the person to learn new behaviors and solve problems.
The person can take in all available stimuli perceptual field. Moderate anxiety involves a decreased perceptual field focus on immediate task only ; the person can learn a new behavior or solve problems only with assistance. Another person can redirect the person to the task. Severe anxiety involves feelings of dread and terror. The person cannot be redirected to a task; he or she focuses only on scattered details and has physiologic symptoms of tachycardia, diaphoresis, and chest pain.
Panic anxiety can involve loss of rational thought, delusions, hallucinations, and complete physical immobility and muteness. The person may bolt and run aimlessly, often exposing himself or herself to injury. Both use observation communication and recording as basic tools utilized by nursing. The idea of a nurse-client interaction is limited with those individuals incapable of conversing, specifically those who are unconscious.
But it is not limited in those set of individuals. It can be applied to any person capable and has the will to communicate. The phases of the therapeutic nurse-client are highly comparable to the nursing process making it vastly applicable. Assessment coincides with the orientation phase; nursing diagnosis and planning with the identification phase; implementation as to the exploitation phase; and lastly, evaluation with the resolution phase.
Its phases provide simplicity regarding the natural progression of the nurse-patient relationship , which leads to adaptability in any nurse-patient interaction, thus providing generalizability. Though Peplau stressed the nurse-client relationship as the foundation of nursing practice, health promotion , and maintenance were less emphasized. However, the idea of nurse-client cooperation is found narrow with those individuals who are unfit and powerless in conversing, specifically those who are unconscious and paralyzed.