In The Decay of Lying , he declares that life imitates art far more than art imitates life. The remarkable increase in London fog during the last ten years was, according to Wilde, entirely due to impressionist paintings. Since art offers new ways of perception, it can disclose new aspects of reality.
As Wilde elaborates in The Decay of Lying :. Nature is no great mother who has borne us. She is our creation. It is in our brain that she quickens to life. Things are because we see them, and what we see, and how we see it, depend on the Arts that have influenced us. To look at a thing is very different from seeing a thing. One does not see anything until one sees beauty. Then, and then only, does it come into existence.
At present people see fogs, not because there are fogs, but because poets and painters have taught them the mysterious loveliness of such effects. There may have been fogs for centuries in London. I dare say there were. But no one saw them, and so we do not know anything about them. Once Wilde has pointed out that the relationship between art and life is not the hierarchical order of 'life above art' as postulated by realism, the authority of realism loses the stability of meaning upon which it is based.
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Wilde's aestheticism clashed with this mimetic and moralistic view of literature. In his individual style conceptionally dominate realism and morals. After theoretical understanding the concept of style we could logically start analyzing some lexical expressive means and stylistic devices used by Oscar Wilde in his plays. This verb intensifies the genetic function and makes aphorisms and paradoxes humorous.
It makes also the ironical definition of phenomena of life. I myself would say that it had merely been detected. People are either charming or tedious. Give him a mask, and he will tell you the truth. For instance there are a lot of statements on temptation and selfishness:. Details are always vulgar . In these examples we can see the parallel constructions widely used by Oscar Wilde, which emphasize the semantic essence of lexical expression.
They serve a perfect means of creating the clear-cut syntax of epigrams and paradoxes. The author raises a question, but doesn't answer it directly as obvious. Rhetorical questions are used to provoke, emphasize or argue. The majority of epigrams contain many allusions to mythology: the contrast with the sobriety and practical sense of Roman proverbs seems to give it force and meaning. To conclude, I shall give examples of aphorisms in The Picture of Dorian Gray which correspond with Dollimore's pairs of inverted oppositions:. It is the world's original sin.
I have borrowed the following scheme of paradoxes contradictions from Dollimore  and have added a number of oppositions to it:. In Wilde's paradoxes, the left term turns up as the superior term, while an essentialist approach to life prefers the right notions. Irony , in which the contextual evaluative meaning of a word is directly opposite to its dictionary meaning, does not exist outside the context.
I always pass on good advice. It is the only thing to do with it. In fact, Lord Goring, the speaker of this phrase, is a serious person, who knows that a good advice may be very useful. Pun paronomasia, a play on words is the next stylistic device used by Oscar Wilde in his plays. For Oscar Wilde pun is one of the most effective means used for creating wit, brilliancy and colourfulness of his dialogues for criticism of bourgeois morality. These examples show that the play on words has a great influence on the reader.
The speech of the hero becomes more vivid and interesting. In this example the pun is realized in the remark of the second person. The first meaning is figurative and the second is direct. As a rule, when two meanings of the word are played upon, one of them is direct; the other is figurative, which can be illustrated by some of the above mentioned examples.
Thus irony and pun help Oscar Wilde to show that majority of his heroes are the typical representatives of the bourgeois society: thoughtless, frivolous, greedy, envious, mercenary people. These stylistic devices convey the vivid sense of reality in the picture of the th century English upper-class society. Simile is one more stylistic device very often used by Wilde in his plays. It is the intensification of someone feature of the concept in question is realized in a device.
Of the two concepts brought together in the Simile — one characterized Mabel Chiltern , and the other characterizing Statuette — the feature intensified will be more inherent in the latter than in the former. Moreover, the object characterized, is seen in quite a new and unexpected light, because the author as it were, imposes this feature on it. So, simile is another stylistic device frequently used by Oscar Wilde in his plays. It shows the individual viewpoint of the author on different objects, actions, and phenomena. The literary similes in his plays gain especially wonderful character as they make the text more expressive and more interesting.
The properties of an object may be viewed from different angles. Accordingly, similes may be based on the effective lexical means - adjective-attributes, adverbs-modifiers, verb-predicates , superlative degree etc. Epithet is also a frequently used stylistic device by Oscar Wilde. In his plays Oscar Wilde used very colorful epithets, which sometimes help him to show the difference between pretence and reality.
His epithets are based on different sources, such as nature, art, history, literature, mythology, everyday life, man, etc. They give emphasis and rhythm to the text. It was the imagination that set remorse to dog the feet of sin. It was the imagination that made each crime bear its misshapen brood. Only true lovers could drink out of this cup, for if false lips touched it, it grew grey and dull and cloudy.
The examples above shows that Oscar Wilde may be really called a master of colorful and vivid epithets. In order to depict the degree of the love of his character Wilde resorts to the use of these hyperboles. So one of the most important function of hyperbole is the emotional expressiveness. In other hyperboles Oscar Wilde uses the exaggeration of the quantitative aspect. Metaphor is one of the most frequently used stylistic devices by Oscar Wilde. Realities are better. What harm is there in a kiss?
The metaphorical effect of this sentence is based on the personal feelings of Mrs. Her sad experience of life sounds in this phrase. When she was young, she had a great love. At the same time the author reflects his own point of view. The author does not convince the reader to make the resulting points, but he makes him indirectly judge the heroes and clear the situation.
They produce a dynamic character of the plot and show that Wilde is a man of genius of vivid fantastic images. Every day for three hours he rattled on the roof of the castle till he broke most of the slates, and then he ran round and round the garden as fast as he could go. But there is no red rose in my garden, so I shall sit lonely, and she will pass me by.
He was a very selfish Giant. Oscar Wilde does not pay much attention to metonymy. But his metonymies have a great stylistic potential. Here the author means the people who love in the world. Among lexical expressive means Oscar Wilde very often used lexical repetition when the speaker is under the stress of strong emotion and shows the state of mind of the speaker:. From the moment I met you I loved you, loved you blindly, adoringly, madly! So lexical repetition is a powerful means of emphasis, it adds rhythm and balance to the utterance.
Antithesis is always sense-motivated; and it depends on the context. How weak bad men are! The Bible images , the conceptions of Christianity are presented in several allusions . Glaucon and Adeimantus present the myth of Gyges' ring, by which Gyges made himself invisible.
They ask Socrates, if one came into possession of such a ring, why should he act justly? Socrates replies that even if no one can see one's physical appearance, the soul is disfigured by the evils one commits. This disfigured the antithesis of beautiful and corrupt soul is imbalanced and disordered, and in itself undesirable regardless of other advantages of acting unjustly.
Dorian Gray's portrait is the means by which other individuals, such as Dorian's friend Basil, may see Dorian's distorted soul. Historical words : Latinisms - the face of Antinoi, the Athenaeum, velarium, the mortuary cloth and etc. They are presented in the following proportion See diagram 1. With the help of them Oscar Wilde, who was a talented writer, can make us feel the way he wants.
We can find metaphors, repetition, chiasmus, antithesis and many others. These expressive means help the author to create his individual elegant, humorous and challenging style realizing Wilde's mimetic and moralistic view of literature.
With the help of these stylistic devices Wilde reflects his own viewpoints on the society of his time, his opinions about life, love and friendship, men and women. Paradoxes and epigrams create the individuality of Oscar Wilde and made him worldwide famous for many brilliant and the wittiest of them. This device allowed Wilde to reveal incongruity of the world around him and to show the viciousness of the upper-class society.
Pun was another effective mean used for creating wit, brilliancy and colourfulness of O. Wilde uses a great amount of epithets in his plays. They are based on different sources, such as nature, art, history, literature, mythology, everyday life, man, etc. Wilde may be also called a master of colorful and vivid epithets. The charm of O. They produce a dynamic character of the plot and show that Wilde is a man of genius. Simile is another interesting stylistic device used by Oscar Wilde in his plays.
Hyperbole is also frequently used by Oscar Wilde. Hyperbole is like a magnifying glass; it helps to observe in details his plays and style. As a brief conclusion we can say that Oscar Wilde resorts to the use of a great number of stylistic devices in his works.
We came to the conclusion that for Oscar Wilde language was the most important way for expression of his thoughts and feelings. The total quantity of the given examples - Paradoxes and epigrams. One of the most characteristic and essential features of epigrams and paradoxes is their shortness and conciseness, which emphasize the semantic essence of lexical expression.
Hyperbole overstatement is used for intensifying one certain property of the object. Metaphor is also one of the most frequently used stylistic devices by Oscar Wilde. Lexical repetition is emphatic device and it shows the state of mind of the speaker. It adds rhythm and balance to the utterance. Lord Henry can be seen to represent the Devil, leading Dorian into an unholy pact by manipulating his innocence and insecurity. These means help the author to express in his creativity his idealist ideas in an aesthetic or symbolist style, gorgeous and poetic, full of allusions and reminiscence and jewelled words the purple patch, as it is so aptly called.
The absolute majority of SD volume paradoxes and epigrams. Brown R. Lenneberg E. A study of language and cognition. Harris F. Oscar Wilde: His Life and Confessions. New York: Waverley Press reprint. Kukharenko V. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. M: Higher School publishing house, Lawler, Donald L. New York: Garland, Sammells N. Siegel S. Access: www. Wilde O. Fairy Tales.
Those who find ugly meanings in beautiful things are corrupt without being charming. For these there is hope. A man who moralizes is usually a hypocrite, and a woman who moralises is invariably plain.
Тема: Stylistic potential Oscar Wilde
Children begin by loving their parents; as they grow older they judge them; sometimes they forgive them. Nowadays most people die of a sort of creeping common sense, and discover when it is too late that the only things one never regrets are one's mistakes. Perhaps, after all, America never has been discovered. The advantage of the emotions is that they lead us astray, and the advantage of science is that it is not emotional.
Resist it, and your soul grows sick with longing for the things it has forbidden to itself. The only thing that sustains one through life is the consciousness of the immense inferiority of everybody else, and this is a feeling that I have always cultivated. It is absurd to divide people into good and bad. At twilight, nature is not without loveliness, though perhaps its chief use is to illustrate quotations from the poets.
Every portrait that is painted with feeling is a portrait of the artist, not of the sitter. Man is least himself when he talks in his own person. Most people are other people. Their thoughts are someone elses opinions, their lives a mimicry, their passions a quotation. One can survive everything, nowadays, except death, and live down everything except a good reputation. The reason we all like to think so well of others is that we are all afraid for ourselves.
Selfishness is not living as one wishes to live; it is asking others to live as one wishes to live. The only thing to do with good advice is pass it on. It is never any use to oneself. There are only two kinds of people who are really fascinating: people who know absolutely everything, and people who know absolutely nothing. To disagree with three-fourths of the British public is one of the first requisites of sanity. One should absorb the color of life, but one should never remember its details.
Details are always vulgar. To give an accurate description of what has never occurred is not merely the proper occupation of the historian, but the inalienable privilege of any man of parts and culture. I admit that I think that it is better to be beautiful than to be good. But on the other hand no one is more ready than I am to acknowledge that is better to be good than to be ugly.
Now, the value of an idea has nothing to do whatsoever with the sincerity of the man who expresses it. Indeed, the probabilities are that the more insincere the man is, the more purely intellectual will the idea be, as in that case it will not be coloured by either his wants, his desires or his prejudices.
Humanity takes itself too seriously. If the caveman had known how to laugh, history would have been different. My father told me to go to bed an hour ago. It is never of any use to oneself. A man who moralizes is usually a hypocrite, and a woman who moralizes is invariably plain. Lord Darlington: Ah, nowadays we are all of us so hard up, that the only pleasant things to pay are compliments. They are the only things we can pay.
But she is really like a Tanagra statuette , and would be rather annoyed if she were told so. Twenty years of romance make a woman look like a ruin ; but twenty years of marriage make her something like a public building. Why, my dear Basil, he is a Narcissus , and you - well, of course you have an intellectual expression and all that. The style in which it was written was that curious jeweled style, vivid and obscure at once, full of argot and of archaisms, of technical expressions and of elaborate paraphrases, that characterizes the work of some of the finest artists of the French school of Symbolists.
But I tell you that the only bitter words that ever came from those sweet lips of hers were on your account, and I hate to see you next her. There were moments, indeed, at night, when, lying sleepless in his own delicately scented chamber, or in the sordid room of the little ill-famed tavern near the docks which, under an assumed name and in disguise, it was his habit to frequent, he would think of the ruin he had brought upon his soul with a pity that was all the more poignant because it was purely selfish. Actual life was chaos, but there was something terribly logical in the imagination.
In the common world of fact the wicked were not punished, nor the good rewarded. The Prince and Princess sat at the top of the Great Hall and drank out of a cup of clear crystal. Only true lovers could drink out of this cup, for if false lips touched it, it grew grey and dull and cloudy "It's quite clear that they love each other, - said the little Page, - as clear as crystal! I am glad there is some one in the world who is quite happy, - muttered a disappointed man as he gazed at the wonderful statue.
You said that you would dance with me if I brought you a red rose, - cried the Student. You will wear it to-night next your heart, and as we dance together it will tell you how I love you. Lord Illingworth: That silly Puritan girl making a scene merely because I wanted to kiss her. She the Reed has no conversation, - he the Swallow said, - and I am afraid that she is a coquette, for she is always flirting with the wind. If a man treats life artistically, his brain is his heart, - he answered, sinking into an arm-chair.
Once a beautiful flower put its head out from the grass , but when it saw the notice-board it was so sorry for the children that it slipped back into the ground again, and went off to sleep. So the Hail came. He was dressed in grey, and his breath was like ice. My own garden is my own garden, - said the Giant, - Any one can understand that, and I will allow nobody to play in it but myself.
The poor children had now nowhere to play. The Prince and Princess were leading the dance. They danced so beautifully that the tall white lilies peeped in at the window and watched them, and the great red poppies nodded their heads and beat time. She said that she would dance with me if I brought her red roses She will have no heed of me, and my heart will break.
She the Nightingale sang of the Love that is perfected by Death, of the Love that dies not in the tomb. She was stern to me, but she taught me what the world is forgetting, the difference that there is between what is right and what is wrong. Do you think seriously that women who have committed what the world calls a fault should never be forgiven? I love you — love you as I have never loved any living thing. All the married men live like bachelors , and all the bachelors like married men. Dear little Swallow, - said the Prince, - you tell me of marvelous things, but more marvelous than anything is the suffering of men and of women.
Curious thing, plain women are always jealous of their husbands, beautiful women never are! In the daytime I played with my companions in the garden, and in the evening I led the dance in the Great Hall So I lived, and so I died. Bring me the two most precious things in the city, - said God to one of His Angels ; and the Angel brought Him the leaden heart and the dead bird.
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The Republic. Where the huge velarium that Nero had stretched across the Colosseum at Rome, that Titan sail of purple on which was represented the starry sky, and Apollo driving a chariot drawn by white, gilt-reined steeds? He longed to see the curious table-napkins wrought for the Priest of the Sun, on which were displayed all the dainties and viands that could be wanted for a feast; the mortuary cloth of King Chilperic, with its three hundred golden bees. Spring , An Essay in Stylistic Analysis. A Short Guide to English Style. The Problem of Style.
Ldn, N. Spencer J. Linguistics and Style. Ldn, Lexicology of modern English. Stylistic Analysis. Analitical Reading. Seminars in Style. The Portrait of Dorian Grey.
Oscar Wilde Biography
New York. Penguin Books, Preface to Selected Prose of Oscar Wilde. Wilde in America. The Complete Plays. Oscar Wilde from Purgatory. Canberra: Gutenberg Press, Oscar Wilde. The Critical Heritage L. Vintage, The Picture of Dorian Gray. The studies in individual style 1. The characteristics of the creative prose 1. L exical devices as essential part of individual style of Oscar Wilde's works 2. The characteristics of Oscar Wilde's creativity 2. Stylistic peculiarities of Oscar Wilde works 2.
In connection with this the Research Tusks of this scientific paper are: 1. To determine the types of the lexical devices and give them characteristics; 4. To explore aestheticism and philosophy of Oscar Wilde as a basis for his individual literary style and to describe the capacity of his writings; 5. To describe the essentials of individual style of Oscar Wilde works on the base of his creativity; 7. The theoretical importance of the given work will consist in the further scientific development of stylistic problematics: 1.
Typology of the lexical devices; 2. Target lexical structure of fictional discourse; 3. Phenomenon of stylistic potential of lexical devices. Scientific originality of research composed with: 1. Chapter 1. The characteristics of the creative prose Creative prose or f iction lat. Galperin distinguishes five styles in present-day English: I. Belles Lettres. Emotive prose. The Drama. Publicistic Style. Oratory and Speeches. The Essay.
Advertisements and Announcements. The Editorial. Scientific Prose.
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Official Documents . Arnold classification consists of four styles: 1. Poetic style. Scientific style. Newspaper style. Colloquial style . The person has two different systems of thinking: 1. Figurative one. These are: 1. Such influence achieved with the help of the following linguistic means: 1. The rhythmic organization of the text, 2. Phonosemantics, 3. Lexical semantics, 4. They are: 1. Archaisms , i. Anatole France, in an article on M. He dismisses these impressions as mere tastes and preferences of limited interest, whereas his concept of objective criticism aims to interest and instruct a wider audience by basing its discussion on a belief in value judgements, literary history and the hegemony of the canon.
He was to meet both of them in Paris in the early s, but his knowledge of their critical works in the s is hard to establish. Here of course the subject under discussion is fiction rather than criticism, and literary realism in particular. Nay, more, I would say that the highest Criticism, being the purest form of personal impression, is in its way more creative than creation, as it has least reference to any standard external to itself, and is, in fact, its own reason for existing, and, as the Greeks would put it, in itself and to itself, an end.
Wilde c, But Wilde takes it even further, arguing through the mouthpiece of Gilbert that criticism adds to the original work, enhancing it; the highest form of criticism transcends the individual work of art to criticize beauty itself. Gilbert states that the critic can pass from impression to analysis, if he or she chooses, and crucially here the personality of the critic enhances the interpretation, as it does with any performer.
This enables Gilbert to emphasize that all creation is inevitably subjective and that any attempt at objectivity is in fact itself subjective. The critic is he who can translate into another manner or a new material his impression of beautiful things. The highest as the lowest form of criticism is a mode of autobiography. Wilde , How are we to interpret this? Or does introduce a caveat, suggesting that subjectivity alone is insufficient to produce high criticism, and that the critic must have the right temperament? Dilettantism is not simply the combination of second-hand aestheticism and meretricious comic paradox; it is a serious philosophical position.
For Wilde, the paradox enables him to combine an idea with its opposite, to posit a truth while simultaneously subverting it and questioning its status, leaving it in a state of ambiguity. An analogy can be made with the use of the dialogic form, which enables Wilde, as Socrates, Plato, Diderot and Renan had done before him, to combine differing ideas.
Whether we call this type of criticism impressionist, artistic, aesthetic or subjective is ultimately of limited value; the significance lies in the metaphysical qualities of good criticism, which enhances the work of art by revealing to the reader something about the human condition, be it beauty, truth, hypothesis or contradiction.
Gotthart Wunberg, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, , — I, first series, iii—iv. Stefano Evangelista, London: Continuum, , 65— Peter Ackroyd, London: Penguin, Linda Dowling, London: Penguin, , — Linda Dowling, London: Penguin,