Manual The Campaigns of Alexander (Revised & Enlarged Edition Edition)

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Note 1, for Diod. Note 3, for Diod. Page For Onares read Omares. Note for Zeph. Note for Paradise Lost, viii. We learn from Suidas that Dion Cassius wrote a biography of Arrian ; but this work is not extant. Flavius Arrianus was born near the end of the first century of the Christian era, at Nicomedia, the capital of Bithynia. During the stay of the emperor Hadrian at Athens, a. He accompanied his patron to Rome, where he received the Roman citizenship.

In consequence of this, he assumed the name of Flavins. Antoninus Pius. Here, according to Photius, he was appointed priest to Demeter and Persephone. He died in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. The earlier literary efforts of Arrian were philosophical. After the expulsion of the philosophers from Rome, by Domitian, Epictetus delivered his lectures at Nicopolis, in Epirus, where it is probable that Arrian was his pupil.

These lectures were published by Arrian, under the title of Discourses of Epictetus, in eight books, the first four only of which have come down to us. He tells us himself in the introduction to this work, that he strove as far as possible to preserve the very words of his teacher as mementoes of his method of reasoning and diction.

Gellius xix. He also compiled The Enchiridion of Epictetus, an abstract of the philosophy of Epictetus, which is still extant. This manual of the Stoic moral philosophy was very popular, both among Pagans and Christians, for many centuries. Of this only a few fragments survive. Another lost work of Arrian on the life and death of Epictetus is mentioned by Simplicius in the beginning of his Commentary on the Enchiridion.

Besides editing these philosophical works, Arrian ' Cf. Lucian Alexander, 2. I Life and Writings of Arrian. This is one of the most authentic and accurate of historical works. Though inspired with admiration for his hero, the author evinces impartiality and freedom from hero-worship. He exhibits great literary acuteness in the choice of his authorities and in sifting evidence.

The two chief sources from which he drew his narrative were the histories written by Ptolemyj son of LaguSj and Arjs- tobulus, son of Aristobulus, both of whom were officers in Alexander's army. The work named Indica, is a description of India, and was usually united in manuscripts with the Ana- "basis, as an eighth book.

Though it may be looked upon as a supplement to the Anabasis, Arrian often refers in the one work to the other. The latter untrustworthy book Arrian wished to supplant ' See Anabasis, i. Photius mentions among Arrian's historical- works : — The Events after Alexander, in ten books, which gives the history of Alexander's successors. Photius cod. Biffuynica in eight books, a work often quoted by Eustathius in his commentaries to the Iliad and to Dionysius Periegetes.

In regard to the contents of this book, Photius cod. Parthica, in seventeen books. See Photius , cod. History of the Alani. See Photius cod. Only fragments of this and the Parthica remain. Besides the large works, we learn from Photius cod. Lucian Alex. This naval expedition was executed by him as Governor of Cappadocia. The Alani, or, Albani of the East, a tribe related to the Massagetae, were threatening to invade his province, and he made this voyage with a view of fortifying the most important strategic points; on the coast.

From section 26 of the Periplus we find that this voyage must have taken place about the year or A. Two other geographical works, The Periplus of the Bed Sea and The Periplus of the Euxine, formerly ascribed to Arrian, are proved to belong to a later date. A work on Tactics, composed a. In many parts this book agrees nearly verbally with the larger work of Aelian on the same subject ; but; Leo Tactions vii.

An Array of Battle against the Alani, is a fragment discovered in the seventeenth century in the Description of his Battles with the Alani, who invaded his province, probably a. A small work by Arrian on the Chase, forms a supplement to Xenophon's book on the same subject. It is entitled Gynegeticus of Arrian or the second Xenophon the Athenian. Blancardus, Amsterdam, ; J.

Gronovius, Leyden, ; G. Eaphelius, Amsterdam, ; A. Borkeck, Lemgovia, ; P. Schmieder, Leipzig, ; Tauchnitz edition, Leipzig, ; J. Ellendt, Konigsberg, ; C. Abicht, Leipzig, Ptolemy's mother, Aisinoe, had been a concubine of Philip of Maeedon, for which reason it was generally believed that Ptolemy was the ofispring of that king. Ptolemy was one of the earliest friends of Alexander before his accession to, the throne, and accompanied him throughout his campaigns, being one of his most skilful generals and most intimate friends.

On the division of the empire after Alexander's death, Ptolemy obtained the kingdom of Egypt, which he transmitted to his descendants. After a distinguished reign of thirty-eight years, he abdicated the throne to his youngest son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. He survived this event two years, and died B. He was a liberal patron of literature and the arts, and wrote a history of the wars of Alexander, which is one of the chief authorities on which Arrian composed his narrative. For his beneficence, see Aelian Varia Ilistoria, xiii. Neither of these histories has sur- vived, but they served Arrian as the groundwork for the composition of his own narrative.

Lucian in his treatise, Quomodo historia sit conscribenda, ch. Plutarch based bis Life of Alexander chiefly on the work of this writer. We learn from Lucian [Macrobioi, c. Different authors have given different accounts of Alexander's life; and there is no one about whom more have written, or more at variance with each other. But in my opinion the narratives of Ptolemy and Aristobulus are more worthy of credit than the rest; Aristobulus, because he served under king Alexander in his expedition, and Ptolemy, not only because he accompanied Alexander in his expedition, but also because he was himself a king afterwards, and falsification of facts would have been more disgraceful to him than to any other man.

Moreover, they are both more worthy of credit, because they compiled their histories after Alexander's death,, when neither com- pulsion was used nor reward offered them to write anything different from what really occurred. Some statements made by other writers I have incorporated in my narrative, because they seemed to me worthy of mention and not altogether improbable ; but I have given them merely as reports of Alexander's proceedings. Death op Philip and Accession of Alexandbe. He was murdered by a young noble named Pausanias, who stabbed him at the festival which he was holding to celebrate the marriage of his daughter with Alexander, king of Epirus.

It was Buspeoted that both Olympias and her son Alexander were implicated in the plot. At the time of his assassination Philip was just about to start on an expedition against Persia, which his son afterwards so successfully carried out. The Attic writers adopted this method of determining dates. See Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities. In his youth he was placed under the tuition of Aristotle, who acquired very great mfluence over his mind and character, and retained it until his pupil was spoiled by his un- paralleled successes.

See AeUan Varia Historia, xii. Such was his ability, that at the age of 16 he was entrusted with the govern- ment of Macedonia by his father, when he marched against Byzan- tium. At the age of 18 by his skill and courage he greatly assiated Philip in gaining the battle of Chaeronea. When Philip was mur- dered, Alexander ascended the throne, and after putting down re- bellion at home, he advanced into Greece to secure the power which his father had acquired.

See Diod. Alexander's Wars with the Thracians. The Athenians also attempted to bring about some political change ; but they were so alarmed at the very approach of Alexander, that they conceded to him even more ample public honours than those which had been bestowed upon Philip. However, at the approach of spring b. Cities out of Peloponnesus, as well as within it, must have been included ; unless we suppose that the resolution of the Amphictyonio assembly, which had been previously passed, was held to comprehend all the extra-Peloponnesian cities, which seems not probable.

Setting out then from Amphipolis, he invaded the land of the people who were called independent Thracians,i keeping the city of Philippi and mount Orbelus on the left. Here, along the defiles up the ascent to the mountain, he was met by. They had collected their waggons, and placed them in front of them, not only using them as a rampart from which they might defend themselves, in case they should be forced back, but also intending to let them loose upon the phalanx of the Macedonians, where the mountain was most precipitous, if they tried to ascend.

But Alexander formed a plan by which he might cross the mountain with the least danger possible ; and since he was resolved to run all risks, knowing that there were no means of passing elsewhere, he ordered the heavy- armed soldiers, as soon as the waggons began to rush down the declivity, to open their ranks, and directed that those whom the road was sufficiently wide to permit 1 We learn from TImcydides, ii. The defiles mentioned by Arrian are probably what was afterwards called Porta Trajani.

Vergil Georg. AIt"xander's Wars with the Thracians. And it turned out just as Alexander had conjectured and exhorted. For some of the men made gaps in the phalanx, and others locked their shields together. The waggons rolled over the shields without doing much injury, not a single man being killed under them. Then the Macedonians regained their courage, inasmuch as the waggons, which they had excessively dreaded, had inflicted no damage upon them. Then the archers shot at the Thracians who sallied forward, and repulsed them; and the phalanx, coming to close fighting, easily drove away from their position men who were light-armed and badly equipped barbarians.

The con- sequence was, they no longer waited to receive Alexander marching against them from the left, but casting away their arms they fled down the mountain as each man best could. About 1, of them were killed ; but only a few were taken prisoners on account of their swiftness of foot and acquaintance with the country. However, all the women who were accompanying them were captured, as were also their children and all their booty. They served in the Macedonian army chiefly as cavalry and light infantry.

Battle with the Tktballians. Alexandee sent the booty away southward to the cities on the seashore,! But he himself crossed the summit, and advancing through the Haemus into the land of the Triballians, he arrived at the river Lyginus. Syrmus, king of the Triballians, hearing of Alexander's expedition long before, had sent the women and children of the nation on in advance to the Ister, ordering them to pass over into one of the islands in that i-iver, the name of which was Peuce.

Syrmus himself likewise, accompanied by his train, had fled for refuge to the same place. But the main body of the Triballians fled back to the river, from which Alexander had started the day before. When he heard of their starting, he wheeled round again, and, marphing against them, surprised them just ' Perhaps Neapolis and Eion, which were the harbours of Philippi and Amphipolis.

His father was Farmenio, the most experienced of Alexander's generals. This river flows from the same mountains as the Nestus and the Hebrus, an uninhabited and extensive range, joining on to Ehodope. It is uncertain which river is the Lyginus ; but perhaps it was another name for the Osoius.

It cannot be the Pence of Strabo vii, 8. Apollonius Ehodim iv. Battle with the Triballians. And those who were surprised drew themselves up in battle array in a woody glen along the bank of the river. Alexander drew out his phalanx into a deep column, and led it on in person. He also ordered the archers and slingers to run forward and discharge arrow's and stones at the barbarians, hoping to provoke them by this to come out of the woody glen into the ground unencumbered with trees.

When they were within reach of the missiles, and were struck by them, they rushed out against the archers, who were undefended by shields, with the purpose of fighting them hand-to- hand. But when Alexander had drawn them thus out of the woody glen, he ordered Philotas to take the cavalry which came from upper Macedonia, and to charge their right wing, where they had advanced furthest in their sally. And indeed as long as there was only skirmishing on both sides, the Triballians did not get the worst of it ; but as soon as the phalanx in dense array attacked them with vigour, and the cavalry fell upon them in various quarters, no longer merely striking them with the javelin, bat pushing them with their very horses, then at length they turned and fled through the.

Three thousand were slain in the flight ; few of them were taken prisoners, both because there was a dense wood in front of the river, and the approach of night deprived the Macedonians of certainty in their pur- suit. Ptolemy says, that of the Macedonians themselves eleven horsemen and about forty foot soldiers were killed. Sopolis is also mentioned iv. Alexandek at the Danube and in the Codntey of the Getae, On the third day after the battle, Alexander reached the river Ister, which is the largest of all the rivers ia Europe, traverses a very great tract of country, and separates very warlike nations.

These names were originally, given to all the people of the North and West of Europe ; and it was not till Caesar's time that the Bomans made any distinction between Celts and Germans. The name of Celts was then confined to the people north of the Pyrenees and west of the Bhine.

Ammianus xv. The Quadi were a race dwelling in the south-east of Germany. They are generally mentioned with the Marcomanni, and were formidable enemies of the Bomans, especially in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, when Arrian wrote. This nation dis- appears from history about the end of the fourth century. In conjunction with the Quadi, they were very formidable to the Bomans until Commodus purchased peace from them. The name denotes "border men. They were conquered by the Goths in the fifth century. Herodotus iv. Subsequent writers understood by Sarmatia the east part of Poland, the south of Bussia.

Filling these with archers and heavy-armed troops, he sailed to the island to which the Triballians and Thracians had fled for refuge. He tried to force a landing; but the barbarians came to meet him at the brink of the river, where the ships were making the assault. But these were only few in number, and the army in them small. The shores of the island, also, were in most places too steep and precipitous for landing, and the current of the river alongside it, being, as it were, shut up into a narrow channel by the nearness of the banks, was rapid and exceedingly difficult to stem.

Alexander therefore led back his ships, and determined to cross the Ister and march against the Getae, who dwelt on the othe? They subsequently migrated north of this river, and were driven further west by the Sarmatians. They were very formidable to the Eomans in the reigns of Augustus and Domitian. Dacia was conquered by Trajan ; but ultimately aban- doned by Aurelian, who made the Danube the boundary of the Roman Empire.

About the Getae holding the doctrine of immortality, see Herodotus iv. Horace Garm. His supposition that they came from Asia is doubtless correct. He gives ample information about this race in the fourth book of his History. At the present time it has only three mouths. Ovid Tristia, iv. At the same time a strong desire seized him to advance beyond the Ister. He therefore went on board the fleet himself. He also filled with hay the hides which served them as tent-covermgs, and collected from the country around all the boats made from single trunks of trees.

Of these there was a great abundance, because the people who dwell near the Ister use them for fishing in the river, sometimes also for journeying to each other for traffic up the river ; and most of them carry on piracy with' them. Having collected as many of these as he could, upon them he conveyed across as many of his soldiers as was possible in such a fashion. Those who crossed with Alexander amounted in nilmber to 1, cavalry and 4, infantry. Alexander Desteots the City op the Getae. Thet crossed over by night to a spot where the corn stood high ; and in this way they reached the bank more secretly.

The Getae did not even sustain the first charge of the cavalry ; for Alexander's audacity ' The saiissa, or more correctly sarisa, was a spear peculiar to the Macedonians. It was from fourteen to sixteen feet long. See Grote's Greece, vol. The Ambassadors of the Celts. Terrible to them also was the closely-looked order of the phalanx, and violent the charge of the cavalry. They carried off as many of their women and children as their horses could carry, and betook themselves into the steppes, in a direction which led as far as possible from the river.

Alexander took the city and all the booty which the Getae left behind. There ambassadors came to him from Syrmus, king of the Triballians, and from the other independent nations dwelling near the Ister. Some even arrived from the ' The parasang was a Persian measure, containing thirty stades, nearly three and three-quarter English imles. It is still used by the Persians, who call it ferieng.

See Herodotus vi. After Alexander's death Meleager resisted the claim of Perdiecas to the regency, and was associated with him in the office. He was, however, soon afterwards put to death by the order of his rival. See vi. See Curtius, iv. C 18 The Anabasis of Alexander. Celts who dwelt near the Ionian gulf. All the envoys said that they had come to seek Alexander's friendship. To all of them he gave pledges of amity, and received pledges from them in return. He then asked the Celts what thing in the world caused them special alarm,.

But the answer of the Celts turned out quite contrary to his expectation ; for, as they dwelt so far away from Alexan- der, inhabiting districts difBcult of access, and as they saw he was about to set out in another direction, they said they were afraid that the sky would some time or other fall down upon them. These men also he sent back, calling them friends, and ranking them as allies, , making the remark that the Celts were braggarts. Revolt op Clitus and Glaucias. Aelian [Varia Eistoria, xii. Ethics, iii.

In historical times they inhabited the country on the northern border of Macedonia. They were long troublesome to Macedonia, but were subdued by Philip the father of Alexander, who, however, allowed them to retain their own chiefs. The Agrianians were the chief tribe of Paeonians, from whom Philip and Alexander formed a valuable body of light-armed troops.

He accordingly resolved to commence his march without delay. But Langarus, king of the Agrianians, who, in the lifetime of Philip, had been an open and avowed friend of Alexander, and had gone on an embassy to him in his private capacity, at that time also came to him with the finest and best armed of the- shield-bearing troops, which he kept as a body-guard. When this man heard that Alexander was inquiring who the Autariatians were, and what was the number of their men, he said that he need take no account of them, since they were the least warlike of the tribes of that district ; and that he would himself make an inroad into their land, so that they might have too much occupation about their own affairs to attack others.


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Thus the Autariatians were indeed occupied with their own affairs. Langarus was rewarded by Alexander with the greatest honours, and received from him the giEts which were considered most valuable in the eyes of the king of the Macedonians. Clitus had been subdued by Philip in B. He took the child into his own family and brought him up with his own children.

He not only refused to surrender Pyrrhus to Cassander, but marched into Epirus and placed the hoy, when twelve years of age, upon the throne, leaving him imder the care of guardians, B. See AthencBUS, p. She was given in marriage to her cousin Amyntas, who had a preferable claim to the Macedonian throne as the 20 The Anabasis of Alexander. But Olitus held the moun- tains which encircled the city, and commanded it from their height; moreover, they were covered with dense thickets. His intention was to fall upon the Macedonians from all sides, if they assaulted the city. But Glauoias, king of the Taulantians, had not yet joined him.

Alexander, however, led his forces towards the city ; and the enemy, after sacrificing three boys, an equal number of girls, and three black rams, sallied forth for the purpose of receiving the Macedonians in a hand-to-hand conflict. On this day he shut them up in the city, and encamp- ing near the wall, he resolved to intercept them by a circumvallation ; but on the next day Glaucias, king of son of Philip's elder brother, Ferdiccas. This Amyntas was put to death by Alexander soon after his accession.

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Cyna was put to death by Alcetas, at the order of Ferdiccas, the regent after Alexander's death. See Diodorus, xix. On its site stands the modern village of Neokhori, or Tenikiuy. Philip and Alexander were born here. It is now called Tsoherna. The locality is described in Livy, xxxi.

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Revolt of Clitus and Glaudas. Theiij indeed, Alexander gave up the hope of capturing the city with his present force, since many warHke troops had fled for refuge into it, and Glaucias with his large army would be likely to follow him up closely if he assailed the wall. But he sent Philotas on a foraging expedition, with the beasts of burden from the camp and a sufficient body of cavalry to serve as a guard.

When Glaucias heard of the expedition of Philotas he marched out to meet him, and seized the mountains which surrounded the plain, from which Philotas intended to procure forage. The rest of the army he left behind near the city, to prevent the citizens from hasten- ing forth to form a junction with Glaucias as they would have done , if all the Macedonian army had withdrawn. Directly Glaucias perceived that Alexander was advanc- ing, he evacuated the mountains, and Philotas and his forces returned to the camp in safety.

But Clitus and Glaucias still imagined that they had caught Alexander in a disadvantageous position ; for they were occupying the mountains, which commanded the plain by their height, with a large body of cavalry, javelin-throwers, and slingers, besides a considerable number of heavy - armed infantry. They were hoplites intended for close combat, but more lightly armed and more fit for rapid evolutions than the phalanx. Like the Greeks, they fought with the one-handed pike and shield. They occupied an intermediate position between the heavy infantry of the phalanx, and the peltasts and other light troops.

The ground also through which Alexander had to march was evidently narrow and covered with woodj on one side it was hemmed in by a river, and on the other there was a very lofty and craggy mountaiuj so that there would not be room for the army to pass, even if only four shield- bearers marched abreast.

Defeat or Olitus and Glaucias. Then Alexander drew up his army in such a way that the depth of the phalanx was men ; and stationing cavalry on each wing, he ordered them to preserve silence, in order to receive the word of command quickly. Accordingly he gave the signal to the heavy-armed infantry in the first place to hold their spears erect, and then to couch them at the concerted sign ; at one time to incline their spears to the right, closely locked together, and at another time towards the left.

He then set the phalanx itself into quick motion forward, and marched it towards the wings, now to the right, and then to the left. Consequently they did not sustain Alexander's attack, but quitted the first ridges of the mountain. Upon this, Alexander ordered the Mace- donians to raise the battle cry and make a clatter with their spears upon their shields;, and the Taulantians, being still more alarmed at the noise,, led their army back to the city with all speed. But when the enemy 'saw Alexander's advance, they quitted the hill and retreated to the mountains in both directions.

He also ordered the shield-bearing guards to cross the river, and after them the regiments of Macedonian infantry, with instructions that, as soon as they had succeeded in cross- ing, they should draw out in rank towards the left, so that the phalanx of men crossing might appear compact at once. He himself, in the vanguard, was all the time observing from the ridge the enemy's advance. They, seeing the force crossing the river, marched down the mountains to meet them, with the purpose of attack- ing Alexander's rear in its retreat.

But, as they were just drawing near, Alexander rushed forth with his own division, and the phalanx raised the battle-cry, as if about to advance through the river. When the enemy saw all the Macedonians marching against them, they turned and fled. Upon this, Alexander led the Agrian- ians and archers at full speed towards the river, and suc- ceeded in being himself the first man to cross it. But 1 The heavy cavalry, wholly or chiefly composed of Macedonians by birth, was known by the honourable name of iralpoi, Conapanions, or Brothers in Arms.

Their strength varied from to men. A separate one, the 16th He, formed the so-called agema, or royal horse-guard, at the head of which Alexander himself generally charged. See Arrian, iii. But Glaucias durst not advance within range of the missiles ; so that the Macedonians passed over in such safety, that not one of them lost his life 'in the retreat. Three days after this, Alexander discovered that Clitus and Glaucias lay carelessly encamped ; that neither were ' their sentinels on guard in military order, nor had they protected themselves with a rampart or ditch, as if they imagined he had withdrawn through fear; and that they had extended their line to a disadvantageous length.

This artillery was at once made use of by Alexander in this campaign against the Illyrians. The king is said on his death-bed to have taken the royal signet from his finger and to have given it to Perdiccas. After Alexander's death he was appointed regent ; but an alliance was formed against him by Antipater, Oraterus, and Ptolemy. He marched into Egypt against Ptolemy. Being defeated in his attempts to force the passage of the Nile, his own troops mutinied against him and slew him B.

See Diodorus, xviii. For his personal valour see AeUan Varia Historia, xii. Soon after this he died and was Bevolt of Thebes. As soon as he saw a favour- able opportunity for the attack, without waiting for all to be present, he despatched the archers and Agrianians against the foe. These, being arranged in phalanx, fell unawares with the most furious charge upon their flank, where they were likely to come into conflict with their weakest point, and slew some of them still in their beds, others being easily caught in their flight.

Accordingly, many were there captured and killed, as were many also in the disorderly and panic-stricken retreat which ensued. Not a few, moreover, were taken prisoners. Alexander kep" up the pursuit as far as the Taulantian mountains ; and as many of them as escaped, preserved their lives by throwing away their arms. Olitus first fled for refuge into the city, which, however, he set on fire, and with- drew to Glaucias, in the land of the Taulantians. Then entering the public assembly, they incited buried with all possible magnifioenoe near that river, B. Since the battle of Chaeronea, this citadel had been held by a Macedonian garrison.

Accordingly, as is usual in such cases, not knowing the facts, each man conjectured what was most pleasing to himself. When Alexander heard what was being done at Thebes, he thought it was a movement not at all to be slighted, inasmuch as he- had for a long time sus- pected the city of Athens and deemed the audacious action of the Thebans no trivial matter, if the Lacedae- monians, who had long been disaffected in their feelings to him, and the Aetolians and certain other States in the Peloponnese, who were not firm in their allegiance to him, should take part with the Thebans in their revo- lutionary efEort.

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B,evolt of Tliebes. Bat so far were they from showing any sign of wishing to come to an accommodation, that their cavalry and a large body of light-armed infantry sallied forth from the city as far as the camp, and, skirmishing with the Macedonian outposts, slew a few of their men. Alexander here- upon sent forth a party of his light-armed infantry and archers to repel their sortie; and these men repelled them with ease, just as they were approaching the very camp.

The next day he took the whole of his army and marched round towards the gate which led to Eleutherae and Attica. But not even then did he assault the wall itself, but encamped not far away from the Oadmea, in order that succour might be at hand to the Macedonians who were occupying that citadel.

For the Thebans had blockaded the Oadmea with a double stockade and were guarding it, so. But Alexander remained encamped near the 1 It seems from Plutarch, that Alexander was, really wonndecl in the head by a stone, in a battle with the lUyrians.

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He was an aooomplioe in Philip's murder, but was pardoned by his successor. He accompanied Alexander the Great into Asia, but was put to death in b. See Arrian, i. Cadmea, for lie still wiahed rather to come to friendly- terms with the Thebans than to come to a contest with them. Fall ot Thbbks. But Ptolemy, son of Lagus, tells us that Perdiccas, who had been posted in the advanced guard of the camp with his own brigade, and was not far from the enemy's stockade, did not wait for the signal from Alexander to commence the battle ; but of his own accord was the first to assault the stockade, and, having made a breach in it, fell upon the advanced guard of the Thebans.

The number varied from ten to twelve. At the time of the battle of Delium, in the Peloponnesian war, they were eleven in number, two of them being Thebans. See Grote, History of Greece, vol. But Diodorus says that Alexander ordered and arranged the assault, that the Thebans made a brave and desperate resistance for a Fall of Thebes. This general also of his own accord led on his brigade when he saw that Perdiccas had advanced within the stockade. When Alexander saw this, he led on the rest of his army, fearing that unsupported they might be intercepted by the Thebans and be in danger of destruction.

He gave instructions to the archers and Agrianians to rush within the stockade, but he still retained the guards and shield- bearing troops outside. Then indeed Perdiccas, after forcing his way within the second stockade, fell there wounded with a dart, and was carried back grievously injured to the camp, where he was with difficulty cured of his wound. However the men of Perdiccas, in com- pany with the archers sent by Alexander, fell upon the Thebans and shut them up in the hollow way leading to the temple of Heracles, and followed them in their retreat as far as the temple itself.

The Thebans, having wheeled round, again advanced from that position with a shout, and put the Macedonians to flight. Eurybotas the Cretan, the captain of the archers, fell with about seventy of his men ; but the rest fled to the Macedonian guard and the royal shield-bearing troops. Now, when Alexander saw that his own men were in flight, and that the Thebans had broken their ranks in pursuit, he attacked them with his phalanx drawn up in proper order, and drove them back within the gates. The Thebans fled in such a panic that being driven into the long time, and that not only the Boeotian allies, but the Macedonians themselves committed great slaughter of the besieged Diod.

It is probable that Ptolemy, who was Arrian's authority, wished to exonerate Alexander from the guilt of destroying Thebes. He and his brothers were accused of being accomplices in the plot of Philotas, but were acquitted. Those of the Thebans who had been drawn up opposite the temple of Amphion stood their ground for a short timej but when the Macedonians under the command of Alexander were seen to be press- ing hard upon them in various directions, their cavalry rushed through the city and sallied forth into the plain, and their infantry fled for safety as each man found it possible.

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Some were even attacked in the houses, having there turned to defend themselves from the enemy, and others were slain as they were suppli- cating the protection of the gods in the temples ; not even the women and children being spared. See Pausanias ix. Destruction of Thebes. This was felt by the Greeks to be a general calamity for it struck the rest of the Greeks with no less con- sternation than it did those who had themselves taken part in the struggle, both on account of the magnitude of the captured city and the celerity of the action, the result of which was in the highest degree contrary to the expectation both of the sufferers and the perpetrators.

See Thucydidet ii. Moreover, the defeat of the Lacedaemonians at Leuotra and Mantinea filled them with consternation rather by the unexpectedness of the disaster than because of the number of those who perished. The capture of the city of the Plataeans was not a great calamity, by reason of the small number of those who were taken in it; most of the citizens having long before escaped to Athens. But the Thebans having effected their revolt suddenly and without any previous consideration, the capture of the city being brought about in so short a time and without difficulty on the part of the captors, the slaugh- ter, being great, as was natural, from its being made by men of the same race who were glutting their revenge on them for ancient injuries, the complete enslavement of a city which excelled among those in Greece at that ' By Conon's victory at Cnidus, e.

See Xen. See Xeu. See Thuc, iii. See Thuc, v. They resolved to occupy the Cadmea with a garrison ; to raze the city to the ground; to distribute among themselves all the territory, except what was dedicated to the gods ; and to sell into slavery the women and children, and as many of the males as survived, except those who were priests or priestesses, and those who were bound to Philip or Alexander by the ties of hospi- tality or had been public agents of the Macedonians.

It 1 These persons must have forgotten that Alexander's predecessor and namesake had served in the army of Xerxes along with the Thebans. See Herodotus vii. V 34 The Andhasis of Alexander. Alexander's Dealings with Atheks. As soon as news of the calamity which had befallen the Thebans reached the other Greeks, the Arcadians, who had set out from their own land for the purpose of giving aid to the Thebans, passed sentence of death on those who had instigated them to render aid.


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  • The Bleans also received back their exiles from banishment, because they were Alexander's adherents ; and the Aetolians, each tribe for itself, sent embassies to him, begging to receive pardon, because they also had at- tempted to effect a revolution, on the receipt of the report which had been spread by the Thebans. The people came together in public assembly, and, on the motion of Demades, elected from all the citizens ten 1 Plutarch Alexander, 13 tells us that Alexander was afterwards sorry for his cruelty to the Thebans.

    He believed that he had incurred the wrath of Dionysus, the tutelary deity of Thebes, who incited him to Idll his friend OUtus, and induced his soldiers to refuse to follow tn'Tn into the interior of India. It was restored by Philip, according to Pausanias, iv. Alexander's Dealings -with Athens.

    In regard to other matters he gave the embassy a courteous reply, but wrote a letter to the people de- manding the surrender of Demosthenes and Lycurgus, as well as that of Hyperides, Polyeuctus, Chares, Chari- demus, Bphialtes, Diotimus, and Moerocles;i alleging that these men were the cause of the disaster which befell the city at Ghaeronea, and the authors of the sub- sequent offensive proceedings after Philip's death, both against himself and his father. The king did remit his wrath against them, either out of respect for the city of Athens, or from an earnest desire to start on the expedition into Asia, not wishing to leave behind him among the Greeks any cause for distrust.

    Portage Glacier , Entertainment , detail. Chromogenic color prints mounted on acid-free museum board, Yosemite , Representation, then, is not—nor can it be—neutral; it is an act—indeed the founding act—of power in our culture. Vikky Alexander is often introduced as a sleeper Pictures Generation artist, though she never seamlessly fit into that mostly male circle.

    Active in New York in the early s, Alexander appropriated commercial photography, her work blowing up cropped images of actresses and models from magazine campaigns. Further marking her apart from her peers, she came to New York fresh from university at Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, bypassing the American conceptual schools that many Pictures artists attended. He lives in Brookline, Massachusetts. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Show More.

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