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For example, Suwannee and Simpson points, long, lanced-shaped implements worked on both sides that were used to tip spears and knives, are diagnostic of the Paleo-Indian period. Sites found thus far dating to this period in the Woodville Karst Plain, first defined by Hendry and Sproul and located in the southeastern portion of the Apalachee region, include a kill in the Wacissa River of an extinct Bison Bison antiquus with a fragment of projectile point embedded in its skull.

Another bone from this animal yielded a radiocarbon date of more than 11, years old. Other sites include the Page-Ladson site in the Aucilla River, where remains of Ice Age mammals along with Paleo-Indian and later period artifacts have been found.

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The spring itself also has yielded Suwannee, Simpson and Clovis points, along with bone pins, mastodon, deer, charred wood, tapir, giant armadillo, camel, horse and bison remains mixed with recent objects. Wakulla was probably nothing more than a sinkhole—as opposed to the major artesian spring that it is today--at this time, since water tables were much lower when these megafauna co-existed with humans in the region. For example, an extinct land tortoise [ Geochelone crassicutata ] was found on a dry ledge about 85 feet below the current water level at Little Salt Spring in Sarasota County, with a wooden stake stuck in its shell.

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The stake yielded a radiocarbon date of more than 12, years. Although it intrigues the public, the possibility that people inhabited or used caves such as Wakulla and other nearby deep tunnels is most unlikely since the conduits feeding the spring are from to feet deep and have been filled with water for the whole of human history. Archaic cultures 10,, B. During this time, the climate gradually become more humid. Sea level began rising, rapidly at first and then more slowly as glaciers melted.

By approximately 5, years ago, water tables and ecological communities were becoming similar to those of today. Increasing populations of native Floridians become more sedentary as they began exploiting smaller territories. At the beginning of the Early Archaic, it is believed that Indians switched from hand held spears to atl-atls or spear throwers to more effectively bring down game, which for the most part, were the same species as contemporary animals.

The cumulative effects of these changes led to increased regionalization as native peoples began adapting to specific local resources. Fiber-tempered pottery, which was tempered with Spanish moss or strands of fiber from palmetto, was invented near the end of the Archaic and thus ceramics became another way to identify cultures. In the Apalachee region, the people that made the first pots are known by archaeologists as the Norwood culture.

They decorated their pottery by making stick impressions on its outer surface before it was fired. Many large coastal shell middens date to this time, although some sites have been inundated by rising sea level and others have been destroyed by modern borrowing activities and development. The Woodland period B.

As this period progressed, certain styles of decoration and kinds of tempering agents of pottery vessels became more and more distinct for given regions inhabited by discrete peoples. Native Americans began burying their dead in mounds at this time, often accompanied by elaborate grave goods, some from faraway places.

Aboriginal inhabitants were obviously attracted to these bountiful resources common in estuaries along Apalachee Bay. The Deptford culture B. It was mainly a coastal occupation, although some Deptford sites are located inland in the interior valleys and other locales. The latter sites were small and found underlying more recent ones. Much of their ceramics were decorated by stamping vessel surfaces with carved wooden paddles before the pieces were fired, leaving a distinctive groove- or checked-stamped impressions on the pottery.

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Also at this time, pottery was no longer tempered with fibers, but instead with pastes such as quartz sands that were mixed with the clays. Deptford economy centered on marine resources, especially fish and shellfish. They primarily lived in the coastal hammocks, but would make forays inland to harvest nuts and berries where fruit-bearing plants were more plentiful. These people were followed by the Swift Creek culture A.

It was during this time that villages were first established in significant numbers in the interior forest and river valleys of the eastern Panhandle, although Swift Creek sites can also be found along the coast. Their ceramics were characterized by complicated stamped pottery and are commonly found in the Tallahassee red clay Hills, as delineated by Cooke.

These sites are especially prevalent in the river valley forest and other fertile locales. This suggests that gardening may have played a role in the Swift Creek economic system, although evidence supporting cultivation remains sparse. Bone and stone tools appear in greater numbers in their tool kits than during the previous Deptford period. The distribution of later Weeden Island A. These sites were concentrated around lakes Miccosukee and Iamonia.

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Pottery during the earlier phase of this culture was characterized by Swift Creek Complicated Stamped and Weeden Island plain wares. In the late Weeden Island period, Wakulla check-stamped pottery became the most prevalent decorated ceramic in non-mound settings. It developed about A.

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Such a change in subsistence had far reaching implications for native societies of the Panhandle, leading to changes that eventually evolved into the Fort Walton culture about A. Fort Walton represented the final major prehistoric period in southeastern North America known as the Mississippian The Fort Walton Culture was not only the most politically complex, but also supported the densest population of people in the state. They practiced mound building, intensive agriculture and made pottery in a variety of vessel shapes with many decorative motifs, with some of the same styles found at other Mississippian sites in the Southeast.

Dodson, April Whitaker, and E. Bense, Judith A. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Clune, John J. Stringfield Historic Pensacola. Coker, William S. Bense, pp. University of Texas Bulletin No. Ford, Lawrence C. The Hispanic American Historical Review 45 4 : Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

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Knight, Vernon J. Mistovich Walter F. Manucy, Albert C. The Florida Historical Quarterly 37 : Milanich, Jerald T. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Mistovich, Tim. George Lake, Alabama and Georgia. Putnam, Benjamin A.

Tallahassee, Florida. AGN Marina 17, ff. William L. Clements Library, Maps 6-E University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Holland Braund. Scarry, John F. The Florida Anthropologist 38 3 : Worth, John E. University of West Florida, Report of Investigations. Draft manuscript in possession of the authors.

Aboriginal Settlement in the Apalachee Region of Florida | GUE

The Talimali Band of Apalachee. Louisiana Regional Folklife Program, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 25, Retrieved September 25, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.

Home Humanities Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps Apalachee. Apalachee Updated About encyclopedia. Apalachee gale. Apalachee The Apalachee are a native people whose name was given to a Spanish mission province in northwest Florida and mistakenly given to the Appalachian Mountains.