Soil nitrogen isotope composition. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. Elsevier, Academic Press. View abstract. Walvoord, M. Phillips, D. Stonestrom, R. Evans, P. Hartsough, B. Newman and R. A reservoir of nitrate beneath desert soils. Pages in Charlet DA editor. Nevada Environmental Issues. Kendall-Hunt Publishing Co.
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Pages in J. Belnap and O. Evans RD Physiological mechanisms influencing plant nitrogen isotope composition. Solicited review. Oecologia Nature Academic Press, San Diego. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change. Differential daytime and nighttime stomatal behavior and substantial nighttime water loss in plants from North American deserts.
New Phytologist revision in review. Soil CO2 concentrations and isotopic composition in Mojave Desert soil as affected by elevated water and N availability in prep. In addition, water plays an important role in horticultural crops, since fruits and vegetables are usually sold on a fresh weight basis and yield is predominantly determined by water content Marcelis et al. Drought stress occurs when there is not enough soil water content for successful growth or water supply replenishment Larcher, ; Lombardini, b. A decline in leaf relative water content RWC initially causes stomatal closure, which in turn leads to a decrease in the supply of CO 2 to the mesophyll cells and thus reduces leaf photosynthetic rate.
Likewise, drought stress also affects processes such as cell division and expansion, ABA synthesis and sugar accumulation, consequently reducing crop yield Marsal and Girona, ; Chartzoulakis et al.
In general, it can be said that horticultural crops require a high water supply through appropriate irrigation schedules. Nevertheless, deficit irrigation can enhance fruit quality by raising dry matter percentage and sugar content Jones and Tardieu, ; Spreer et al. Furthermore, controlled water deficit has been used as a technique to stimulate blossoming in crops such as guava or litchi, or to substitute for adequate chilling when temperate crops such as apple are grown in the tropics Chaikiattiyos et al.
Hence, regulated deficit irrigation RDI and partial rootzone drying PRD techniques have been applied to withhold water during certain periods, thus producing moderate drought stress, which in turn has improved yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency. The results of RDI experiments have been contradictory, but sometimes promising Lombardini et al.
RDI can also be used to delay flowering and harvesting time Melgar et al. Such is the case of the "forzatura", a traditional practice applied in lemon crops in Sicily, where the summer bloom is accentuated by withholding irrigation until the trees wilt Barbera et al. It is necessary, however, to determine the optimum stress level so that the dry period does not have depressing effects on tree vitality, and to understand the interactions among tree water status, crop load and fruit growth, in order to optimize yield under water deficit conditions.
For example, high yields can be obtained in peach with deficit irrigation if an appropriate management of fruit thinning is done at stage III of fruit growth. This is so because said management enhances fruit size not only due to a reduction in fruit competition, but to an improvement in tree water status as well Marsal et al. On the other hand, it is important to discuss about flooding, since plant development is affected by either too little or too much water in the root zone.
Flooding is produced by storms, over irrigation, poor drainage, high water tables and dam and river overflowing Rao and Li, As it has been previously mentioned, plants induce a series of physical, chemical and biological processes in response to stress conditions. Under flooding conditions, plants show similar symptoms to those they develop under heat or water stress. Plant responses to waterlogging include increased internal ethylene concentration, low stomatal conductance, decrease in leaf, root and shoot development, changes in osmotic potential and nutrient uptake, and reduced chlorophyll content and photosynthesis Tamura et al.
Flooding also increases the severity of certain diseases, mainly root-rotting fungi Rao and Li, , as reported by De Siva et al. The decrease of oxygen level in soils affects the bioavailability of nutrients as well as the ability of root systems to uptake and transport water and mineral nutrients Lizaso et al.
The effects of flooding duration on some horticultural crops are summarized in Tab. It can be said that knowledge about the interactions between environmental factors and plant physiology facilitates the identification of environmental changes such as lack of light, high temperatures or water deficit.
For example, the shading of horticultural crops can reduce photosynthesis rate, transpiration and stomatal density and conductance; and enhance flower abortion. Likewise, high temperatures can affect pollen viability and germination, number of flowers and number of fruits per plant. Finally, ecophysiological information is a tool that can be used in breeding programs to obtain improved cultivars, as well as in strategies of agricultural zoning, thus enhancing productivity. Abass, M. Abscisic-acid accumulation in leaves and cultured cells during heat acclimation in grapes.
HortScience 28, Ecophysiology of cacao tree. Plant Physiol. Karni, Z. Zaidman, and A. Changes of carbohydrates in pepper Capsicum annuum L. Barranco, and M. Potassium starvation increases stomatal conductance in olive trees. HortScience 41 2 , Mineral nutrient status of corn in relation to nitrate and long-term waterlogging. Plant Nutr. Stefanov, I. Yordanov, K. Kornova, and L. Comparative characteristics of growth and photosynthesis of sun and shade leaves from normal and pendulum walnut Juglans regia L.
Photosynthetica 41, Castel, and J. Acta Hort. Franco, A. Torrecillas, J. Effects of water stress and night temperature preconditioning on water relations and morphological and anatomical changes of Lotus creticus plants. Scientia Hort. Fatta del Bosco, and B. Lo Cascio. Effects of water stress on lemon summer bloom: the forzatura technique in the Sicilian citrus industry. Responses to different quantum flux densities. In: Lange, O. Nobel, C. Osmond, and H. Ziegler eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Acclimation of photosynthesis to temperature in eight cool and warm climate herbaceous C3 species: Temperature dependence of parameters of a biochemical photosynthesis model.
Photosynthesis Res. Manzano-Agugliaro, M. Effect of shading with aluminised screens on fruit production and quality in tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. Spanish J. Morales, J. DellAmico, A. Torrecillas, and J. High temperature effects on photosynthetic activity of two tomato cultivars with different heat susceptibility. Ecophysiology of papaya: A review. Seasonal and diurnal photosynthetic behaviour of fig Ficus carica L. Acta Agr.
Section B - Soil Plant Sci. Schmidt, C. Ediciones Mundi-prensa, Madrid. Menzel, and T. Floral induction in tropical fruit trees: effects of temperature and water supply. Patakas, and A. Changes in water relations, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy induced by intermittent drought in two olive cultivars. Biel, and R. Leaf photosynthesis in eight tree almond cultivars. Plant 46 4 , Regulation of growth at steady-state nitrogen nutrition in lettuce Lactuca sativa L.
Patterson, C. Rothrock, and R. Pythophthora root rot of blueberry increases with frequency of flooding. HortScience 34, Blanco, and J. Environmental and physiological regulation of photosynthesis in fruit crops. Breeding for abiotic stress tolerances in tomato. In: Ashraf, M. Harris eds. Abiotic stresses: plant resistance through breeding and molecular approaches. The Haworth Press Inc. Sangiacomo, and H. Effects of plant density in broccoli on yield and radiation use efficiency. Vegetative and reproductive plasticity of broccoli at three levels of incident photosynthetically active radiation.
Greenhouse cultivation of papaya. Colavita, and H. Fruit and spur leaf growth and quality as influenced by low irradiance levels in pear. Pontikis, and S. Effects of reduced irradiance on leaf morphology, photosynthetic capacity and fruit yield in olive Olea europaea L. Photosynthetica 45 2 , Azarenko, and J. Photosynthetic rate, flowering and yield component alteration in hazelnut in response to different light environments.
The Ecology of Photosynthetic Pathways | Learn Science at Scitable
McRoberts, J. Isebrands, and R. An optimal sampling strategy for determining CO 2 exchange rate as a function of photosynthetic flux density. Photosynthetica 21, Proctor, K. Fisher, and J. Shading affects morphology, dry-matter partitioning and photosynthetic response of greenhouse-grown 'Chardonnay' grapevines. HortScience 39, Utsunomiya, and T. High temperature effects on cherimoya fruit set, growth and development under greenhouse conditions.
Sakuratani, and N. Photosynthesis, leaf morphology, and shoot growth as affected by temperatures in cherimoya Annona cherimola Mill. Larsen, R. Bendel, G. Radamaker, J. Bassman, W. Bidlake, and A. Comparative gas exchange characteristics of potted, glasshouse-grown almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear. Macadamia physiology review: a canopy light response study and literature review.
Tsuda, and S. Effects of light intensity, CO2 concentration, and temperature on photosynthesis of Asparagus officinalis L. Ma, and D. Photosynthetic and growth responses of juvenile Chinese kale Brassica oleracea var. Light interception and utilization by orchard systems. Modelling water relations of horticultural crops: a review. Photochemical efficiency and recovery of photosystem II in grapes after exposure to sudden and gradual heat stress. Baille, and P. Influence of covering material and shading on the spectral distribution of light in greenhouses.
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Kasemsap, P. Thaler, T. Ameglio, and E. Tree Physiol. The value of human life with horticultural practices and products. Chapin and T. Plant physiological ecology. Springer, Berlin. Physiological plant ecology. Schaffer, and F. Physiological, morphological and growth responses of mango trees to flooding. Nakata, and N.
Effect of high temperature stress on the reproductive growth of strawberry cvs. Nyoho and Toyonoka. Model applications in horticulture: a review. Phosynthetic characteristics of apple spur leaves after summer pruning to improve exposure to light. Early flooding of two cultivars of tropical maize.
Nutritional responses. One-time pruning of pecan trees induced limited and short-term benefits in canopy light penetration, yield, and nut quality. HortScience 41, Chapter 4: Ecophysiology of plants in dry environments. In: P. DOdorico and A. Porporato eds.
Dryland ecohydrology. Caspari, D. Elfving, T.
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Auvil, and J. Gas exchange and water relations in Fuji apple trees grown under deficit irrigation. Photosynthetic light response and epidermal characteristics of sun and shade pecan leaves. Mata, A. Arbones, J. Solans, J. Girona, and J. Mitigation of effects of extreme drought during stage III of peach fruit development by summer pruning and fruit thinning.
Response of winter root starch concentration to severe water stress and fruit load and its subsequent effects on early peach fruit development. Medina, and R. Photosynthetic responses of three citrus species to environmental factors. Heuvenlink, and J. Modeling biomass production and yield of horticultural crops: a review. Drought, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of field-grown papaya.