Higgins, D. Rider Haggard: A Biography. Hodge, Bradley. Biblios Explorare 1. Hornung, Erik. David Lorton. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, How, Harry. January Maspero, Gaston. New Light on Ancient Egypt. London: T. Fisher Unwin, Monserrat, Dominic. Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt.
Who Was Cleopatra? | History | Smithsonian
London: Routledge, Parlati, Marilena. Harald Hendrix.
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Oxford: Routledge, Rawlinson, George. Ancient Egypt. Reeves, Nicholas. Regardie, Israel. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications, Riggs, Christina. Routledge Studies in Egyptology 2. New York, NY: Routledge, Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford UP, Silverman, David P. Josef W. Wegner, and Jennifer Houser Wegner.
Akhenaten and Tutankhamun: Revolution and Restoration. Thompson, Jason. Wonderful Things: A History of Egyptology. Torr, Cecil. Flinders Petrie. Wallis Budge, E. Egyptian Book of the Dead.
Who Was Cleopatra?
London: Kegan Paul, Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection. London: Philip Lee Warner, Weigall, Arthur. London: Thornton Butterworth, Export Citation. User Account Log in Register Help. Search Close Advanced Search Help. Show Summary Details. More options …. Open Cultural Studies. Editor-in-Chief: Miller, Toby. Open Access. Online ISSN See all formats and pricing Online. Prices are subject to change without notice. It seems that our brains have evolved to sense the world in stories.
As research uncovers more complex language skills and tool use among non-human primates and other animals, these are no longer the defining features of being human — but the storytelling brain is. As far as we know, no other creature tells stories. The development of words would have been a long process.
Stories had to wait even longer, for syntax and sentences, before they could explain past and present experience, pass on ideas, help to plan the future and, eventually, draw on symbolic thought to talk about non-physical things. We cannot know exactly when any of these events happened. But storytelling probably developed at least , years ago, when there is evidence of controlled fire used by fairly large groups of cave-dwellers, indicating an increasingly complex social organisation. In this continuous and accumulative thread of humanity, it is conceivable that elements of these early experiences and the stories they generated linger as archetypes in the depths of our psyche.
Because Story emanates from our nature, it is necessary to set her biography in the context of human development, but I want to avoid any suggestion of linear progression in storytelling.
Once we had cognitive and vocal capacity sufficient for storytelling, these skills set in motion change, diversity, mixing and sharing across cultures, times and places and, above all, accumulation: it is a continuing process. We know that by BC fables, myths, epics, and domestic tales already co-habited orally.
Background and early years of reign
These were among the first to be given permanence by early writing systems, but they were already an inheritance from many thousands of years of storytelling. The simplicity of the most meagre tale can be deceptive and is of no less value than any other. Seeing through the eyes of storytellers as far as possible will, I hope, achieve this sense of complex interweaving and diversity over time rather than any concept of progress towards a notional literary Valhalla.
Oral traditions are not only something from the past; story performance is still with us, fulfilling our insatiable desire for revelation, insight, meaning, identity, connection, wisdom and entertainment — all the gifts of Story. Obviously, there is no documentary evidence of oral storytelling before the invention of writing, although some of the earliest written stories so far found — incised on clay tablets around BC — were certainly derived from oral tales which were much older.
Nonetheless, it seemed worth including some idea of the very beginnings of storytelling, and I have approached this through traditional stories of indigenous foraging and hunting peoples who developed their cultures and tales in a similar physical environment and faced the same issues as our early ancestors. For later periods, documentary evidence of all kinds is so abundant as to be almost overwhelming.
Not only in terms of stories themselves, but also for the social and historical detail on which biographers must rely to grasp the essence of both their subjects and the ages in which they lived. That is challenge enough for a single life. For this I established a few criteria. I chose as background those developments that had great impact on society at a particular point in history and which most readers would know about — though perhaps only as vague school-time memories — and within that context, focused on events of greatest significance for Story: the invention of writing, the great migrations, the age of exploration, invention of the printing press, mass education and so on through to the digital revolution.
The stories and storytellers are a combination of those that are widely known and those that may be less so and, in particular, players that were especially influential such as the fourteenth-century storyteller Geoffrey Chaucer, who wrote in the vernacular for the first time in England, broadening access to stories and the ideas they contain, and the nineteenth-century scholar Peary Chand Mitra, who did the same in Bengal. And because Story is universal, I have, as far as possible, included stories and storytellers from all corners of the world.
A casting vote went to those who brought with them humorous anecdotes.
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