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A recommended "system" of death investigation is presented and students will, as a primary objective, conduct an "actual" death investigation from start to finish. This course examines the intersection of drugs and crime in U. This course utilizes the social constructionist perspective as it pertains to both legal and illegal drugs. Through the use of the constructionist perspective, this class will explore how believed truths and realities about drugs are often socially created, how the laws and the control of drugs has been constructed and maintained, how culture and history influence perceptions of drugs and crime, and how societal norms, values and ideas concerning drugs are created and perpetuated.

Faculty-led courses abroad. Introduction to Peace and Social Justice teaches an interdisciplinary approach to understanding peace -- as more than the absence of war. It explores mulitple ways to create the conditions where social justice can flourish from global to local levels. This course introduces students to the ways in which sociologists use theory and research to study human group behavior and the processes by which people build, maintain, and change their institutional arrangements and relationships with one another.

The course will focus on five areas of inquiry: social structure, interaction, and change; inequality and diversity; family and health; crime, criminal justice. This course examines various theoretical explanations of contemporary social problems such as crime, drug use, poverty, discrimination and environmental pollution. The impact of social problems on different groups in society and the role of social movements, government, and social policy are considered. It introduces students to theories and research that explain social forces affecting family commitments, and familiarizes them with varying social and cultural patterns of family formation.

Science Fiction offers a unique view of contemporary culture and society, making penetrating observations about the relationship between the individual and society, gaining insights into social structure, culture, values, social conflict, social change and social problems. Through novels and film, the course stimulates discussion, critical and analytical thinking. This course provides an overview of the sociological study of hate and prejudice using a variety of perspectives. Substantive topics include the nature of prejudice and stereotyping, hate crime, and hate groups.

The course will end with an exploration and evaluation of methods for combating hate and its social manifestations. This course examines relationships between racial minorities and the majority group in the United States in their socio-historical contexts. Early histories of relations between minorities and the majority as well as present relations will be addressed. Questions raised include whether American society should attempt to minimize differences between minorities and the majority, whether to blend or maintain group identities, and how we should address existing barriers and inequalities.

Relationships and differences among minority groups will also be examined. This course provides lower level undergraduate students with systematic sociological understanding of the historical and current experiences of African American people. An introduction to the field of criminology through examination of theories and patterns of criminal behavior, the operation of the criminal justice system, and the politics of crime control policy. The course examines the intersection of Asia and United States through peoples who migrated from Asia.

It reviews issues of race and ethnicity and provides an overview in Asian cultures so that students can understand Asian American diversity and Asian cultures of orgin. It examines the diverse experiences of the various Asian peoples who have migrated to the U. Introduction to basic statistical methods and their utility in sociology including statistical concepts, frequency distribution, measures of central tendency and variability, correlation analysis, OLS regression analysis, and including the logic of hypothesis testing.

In addition, introduction to basic operations of SPSS statistical software in social data analysis. This course examines the sociocultural aspects of health and illness, the patient-practitioner relationship, the socialization of health practitioners, the social organization of health care services, and the role of ethics in medical decision-making. It analyzes the problems and inequities in our present system of health care delivery in the United States, with particular emphasis on the sexism, racism, and classism in policy and practice.

It analyzes alternative models of health care delivery, and discusses modifications in policy and practice necessary to bring about change. Sociology of Disability is an examination of the social construction of disability, including its historical and cross-cultural variations, institutional and organizational contexts, and interactional and emotional dimensions.

Particular attention is given to the experience of living with various biomedical conditions and the ways in which the social status of disability is related to other forms of social inequality and difference. This course examines the economic and political structures that have induced natural environmental degradation throughout the world and highlights the impact of collective social actors mobilizing to influence the process of environmental policy formation in order to address environmental and technological risks.

This course examines the impact of natural events from a sociological perspective, including hurricanes and earthquakes in which a relatively self-sufficient community undergoes severe physical destruction and incurs in financial loses and the loss of community. Agency and governmental response to disaster emergencies will also be considered. Sociology of News and the Mass Media examines the emergence of news organizations and the mass media as specialized subsystems within modern society and explores the interrelations between them and other social institutions and their impact on modern culture.

An examination of the causes and consequences of social movements and collective behavior, including such phenomena as riots; fads; panic; trade unions; reform, revolutionary, and liberation movements; utopian communities. This course reviews the relationship between the social institutions of family and workplace.


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It examines how they interact with each other, and how key social factors such as gender, class, job type and culture affect that interaction. This course will sociologically analyze racial and ethnic patterns in American films. We will discuss how decision-makers shape the public imagination. We will examine how race intersects with other identities in ways that lead to specific trends in Hollywood. We will highlight the relationship between media, culture and the economy.


  • A Sociological Understanding of Deviance, Social Control, and Crime?
  • Institutes of Roman Law-160 A D.
  • Scotland and the Abolition of Black Slavery, 1756-1838;
  • Conflict Theory!
  • Constructing Nationhood in Modern East Asia.
  • A Sociological Understanding of Deviance, Social Control, and Crime;
  • See a Problem?.

This course will analyze gender as a process and as a social institution. It will examine how we can experience gender in ways that maintain existing gender relations or in ways that challenge them. This course will examine forms of masculinity, femininity, sexuality, and family in contemporary Japan, and their historical development. Students will learn how gender, sexuality, and family are historically and socially constructed, how they are recreated through social interaction, how power inequalities are embedded in gender and family relations, how these inequalities impact individuals and vice versa.

This course investigates social stratification: socioeconomic status SES , the U. A study of the function and forms of religious groups in primitive and contemporary societies as well as theoretical examination of religion as a basic social institution. Offered jointly with Religious Studies.

An examination of the process and results of human interaction with an emphasis on attitudes and attitude change, society and personality, inter-group relations and processes of socialization. An analysis of the impact of social cleavages and cohesions on the operation of political institutions; the composition and behavior of power elites; the social bases of political power; and the social functions of electoral behavior.

Offered jointly with Political Science. This course is an overview of post-Mao Chinese society. It focuses on the institutional, demographic, cultural, economic, and political transformation in China since Included are changes in rural and urban social life, mass migration, changing family and gender relations, social and economic inequalities, ethnic and regional diversity, and rising social tensions.

A study of the development of world population and the social significance of different population sizes and growth rates; emphasis on the social determinants of fertility, mortality and migration. An introduction to the interdependence of law and society through an analysis of legal concepts and organization from a sociological view.

A study of the incidence of delinquency, theories and findings regarding causation, and the policies designed for treatment and prevention of delinquency. This course will provide an in-depth look at homicide and other violent crimes as a social and legal category and at the social psychological variables that affect them. Various types of criminal violence will be examined in American society and in a global context. Forensic issues will be addressed along with political and social issues.

This course examines crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupation, with a focus on corporate and governmental deviance. Students will learn about historical and comtemporary cases of white-collar crime, sociological explanations of white-collar crime, and the politics of regulatory law and presidential scandals. This course will examine Terrorism as a weapon of power, a forensic issue, and a social phenomenon.

Types of Terror, types of groups and governments involved in terrror, and the people who become terrorists will be examined. Theories of political policy, group dynamics, and individual predilections will be evaluated so that terrorism can be understood and combated. A sociological analysis of the development and behavior of the police, lawyers, prosecutors and judiciary in society and their role in social control. This course offers an overview of Restorative Justice including a consideration of definitions, cultural roots, theoretical orgins, key principles, models and practices, global conflicts and peaceful resolutions, controversial issues, and future directions.

The course also provides a critical assessment of the potential of Restorative Justice as well as its limitations. This course examines the intersection of drugs and crime in society through the social constructionist perspective. It explores how believed truths and realities about drugs are often socially created, how laws and drug control has been constructed and maintained, how culture and history influence drugs and crime perceptions, and how norms, values and ideas concerning drugs are created and perpetuated.

The critical analysis of probation, parole, halfway houses, jails and prisons. Their origins in and possible function for the larger society will also be examined. Field trip is required.

The Mythology of Modern Law (Sociology of Law and Crime) - PDF Free Download

This course examines the frequency and nature of female offending and female victimization; the frequently blurred boundaries of female victimization and criminalization; and the role of criminal law, police, and courts in the processing of female victims and offenders. An examination of the growth and role of organizations in society with specific attention to American society.

A survey course designed to critically examine the sociological theories of change. Also examines contemporary empirical developments and their relevance for social policy. Illustrations will be drawn from work done in the developing countries. This course will examine the origins, implementation, and legacies of the Nazi Holocaust against the Jews. It is intended to help students gain an appreciation of the importance of the Holocaust to the Jewish experience, while understanding that other groups also were victimized.

Offered jointly with religious studies. An examination of the circumstances under which racial and ethnic groups receive privileged or disadvantaged social locations. Particular consideration is given to theories of racial and ethnic inequality and the processes that form the structures of differential and unequal relations in society. A cross-national comparison of social construction of race and ethnicity will provide additional context of understanding patterns and theories of race and ethnic relations.

This course will survey the historical development of the Afro-American Family from Africa to modern times.

The Mythology of Modern Law

Significant events e. Other important social and economic forces will be illuminated to assess their impact. The latest body of literature models, paradigms, hypotheses, and statistical findings will be critically examined to enhance understanding of modern day Black Family premarital and marital relations, adaptive patterns, and dislocations.

Offered jointly with Afro-American Studies. This course offers an in-depth investigation of contemporary racial-ethnic issues through experiential learning. This idea came from common law , and the earliest conception of a criminal act involved events of such major significance that the "State" had to usurp the usual functions of the civil tribunals, and direct a special law or privilegium against the perpetrator. All the earliest English criminal trials involved wholly extraordinary and arbitrary courts without any settled law to apply, whereas the civil delictual law operated in a highly developed and consistent manner except where a king wanted to raise money by selling a new form of writ.

The development of the idea that the "State" dispenses justice in a court only emerges in parallel with or after the emergence of the concept of sovereignty. In continental Europe, Roman law persisted, but with a stronger influence from the Christian Church. The people decided the cases usually with largest freeholders dominating. This system later gradually developed into a system with a royal judge nominating a number of the most esteemed men of the parish as his board, fulfilling the function of "the people" of yore.

From the Hellenic system onwards, the policy rationale for requiring the payment of monetary compensation for wrongs committed has involved the avoidance of feuding between clans and families. On the other hand, the institution of oaths also played down the threat of feudal warfare. Both in archaic Greece and in medieval Scandinavia , an accused person walked free if he could get a sufficient number of male relatives to swear him not guilty.

Compare the United Nations Security Council , in which the veto power of the permanent members ensures that the organization does not become involved in crises where it could not enforce its decisions. These means of restraining private feuds did not always work, and sometimes prevented the fulfillment of justice. But in the earliest times the "state" did not always provide an independent policing force. Thus criminal law grew out of what 21st-century lawyers would call torts; and, in real terms, many acts and omissions classified as crimes actually overlap with civil-law concepts.

The development of sociological thought from the 19th century onwards prompted some fresh views on crime and criminality, and fostered the beginnings of criminology as a study of crime in society. In the 20th century Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish made a study of criminalization as a coercive method of state control. Researchers and commentators have classified crimes into the following categories, in addition to those above:.

One can categorise crimes depending on the related punishment, with sentencing tariffs prescribed in line with the perceived seriousness of the offence. Thus fines and noncustodial sentences may address the crimes seen as least serious, with lengthy imprisonment or in some jurisdictions capital punishment reserved for the most serious. Under the common law of England, crimes were classified as either treason , felony or misdemeanour , with treason sometimes being included with the felonies.

This system was based on the perceived seriousness of the offence. It is still used in the United States but the distinction between felony and misdemeanour is abolished in England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The following classes of offence are based on mode of trial :. In common law countries, crimes may be categorised into common law offences and statutory offences. In the US, Australia and Canada in particular , they are divided into federal crimes and under state crimes.

These are further categorized as violent or property crimes. All other crimes count come under Part II. For convenience, such lists usually include infractions although, in the U. Compare tortfeasance. Booking arrests require detention for a time-frame ranging 1 to 24 hours.

There are several national and International organizations offering studies and statistics about global and local crime activity, such as United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime , the United States of America Overseas Security Advisory Council OSAC safety report or national reports generated by the law-enforcement authorities of EU state member reported to the Europol.

In England and Wales, as well as in Hong Kong, the term "offence" means the same thing as, and is interchangeable with, the term " crime ", [11] They are further split into:. Many different causes and correlates of crime have been proposed with varying degree of empirical support. They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence research and effects of gun politics.

Emotional state both chronic and current have a tremendous impact on individual thought processes and, as a result, can be linked to criminal activities.

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The positive psychology concept of Broaden and Build posits that cognitive functioning expands when an individual is in a good-feeling emotional state and contracts as emotional state declines. The narrowed thought-action repertoires can result in the only paths perceptible to an individual being ones they would never use if they saw an alternative, but if they can't conceive of the alternatives that carry less risk they will choose one that they can see.

Criminals who commit even the most horrendous of crimes, such as mass murders, did not see another solution. Crimes defined by treaty as crimes against international law include:. From the point of view of state-centric law, extraordinary procedures usually international courts may prosecute such crimes. Different religious traditions may promote distinct norms of behaviour, and these in turn may clash or harmonise with the perceived interests of a state. Socially accepted or imposed religious morality has influenced secular jurisdictions on issues that may otherwise concern only an individual's conscience.

Activities sometimes criminalized on religious grounds include for example alcohol consumption prohibition , abortion and stem-cell research. In various historical and present-day societies, institutionalized religions have established systems of earthly justice that punish crimes against the divine will and against specific devotional, organizational and other rules under specific codes, such as Roman Catholic canon law.

In the military sphere, authorities can prosecute both regular crimes and specific acts such as mutiny or desertion under martial-law codes that either supplant or extend civil codes in times of for example war. Many constitutions contain provisions to curtail freedoms and criminalize otherwise tolerated behaviors under a state of emergency in the event of war, natural disaster or civil unrest. Undesired activities at such times may include assembly in the streets, violation of curfew , or possession of firearms. Two common types of employee crime exist: embezzlement and wage theft.


  1. Reading: Conflict Theory and Deviance.
  2. Seismic Analysis of Structures.
  3. The Postcolonial Jane Austen.
  4. The complexity and anonymity of computer systems may help criminal employees camouflage their operations. The victims of the most costly scams include banks, brokerage houses, insurance companies, and other large financial institutions. In a survey it was found that as many as one-third of low wage male foreign workers in Singapore, or about ,, were affected by wage theft from partial to full denial of pay. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Crime disambiguation.

    1.1 – Introduction

    For other uses, see Criminal disambiguation. For the film, see Offender film. Types of crime. Chicago school Classical school Conflict criminology Critical criminology Environmental criminology Feminist school Integrative criminology Italian school Left realism Marxist criminology Neo-classical school Positivist school Postmodernist school Right realism. Index Journals Organizations People. Main article: Criminalization. Main article: Causes and correlates of crime.

    Main article: International criminal law. Main article: Religious law. See also: Category:Crimes in religion. Main article: Occupational crime. Crime portal. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Martin Oxford Dictionary of Law 7 ed. BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 10 June Frazier , Cal.

    In this case, the California Court of Appeal explained: "Despite the physical ability to commit vicious and violent acts, dogs do not possess the legal ability to commit crimes. Archived from the original on Retrieved Yogis, Q. The moral standards August Revus - OpenEdition Journals.

    The Law Code of Manu. New York: Oxford UP. Positive Emotions broaden the scope of attention and though-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, — Human Evil: The myth of pure evil and the true causes of violence.

    The Idea of Sociology of Law and its Relation to Law and to Sociology

    Association, M. Shaver Eds. Third Ed. Voice of Russia. Archived from the original on 28 July Retrieved July 2, Desert News National. Archived from the original on 2 July Retrieved July 1, Uniform Crime Reports. Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Online Citizen. Archived from the original on 14 October Articles Related to Crime. Note: Crimes vary by jurisdiction. Not all types are listed here. Drug possession Public order Breach of the peace. Tax evasion Espionage Treason High treason. Bribery Misprision of felony Obstruction Perjury Malfeasance in office.

    International criminal law. Crimes against international law. International courts in order of foundation. Command responsibility Superior orders Joint criminal enterprise Law of war Universal jurisdiction Non-combatant. Law portal Crime portal. Contract theory Critical legal studies Comparative law Feminist Fundamental theory of canon law Law and economics Legal formalism History International legal theory Principle of legality Rule of law Sociology.

    Category Index Outline. Criminal procedure investigation. Criminal justice portal Crime portal Law portal. Criminal defenses Criminal law Evidence Legal abuse.