Manual A Spider’s Web: Problems in Regulatory Biology

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Peter N Witt Dr. Images Collection. View this article in Search Friendly Plain Text NOTE: This plain text article interpretation has been digitally created by OCR software to estimate the article text, to help both users and search engines find relevant article content. To read the actual article text, view or download the PDF above. Observe asymmetry and irregularities in the geometric pattern. WITT, M.

Witt 2.

A Spider’s Web - Problems in Regulatory Biology | Peter N. Witt | Springer

The Silk Glands David B. Peakall 3. Specificity of the Web Peter N. Witt 4. Altered Web Patterns Charles F. Reed and Peter N. Construction of the Web Charles F. It has been revealed that the only nerve arising from the supraesophageal mass was the optic nerve which connected with four pairs of eyes, whereas a pair of pedipalpal and four pairs of appendage nerves including abdominal nerve pairs were arisen from the subesophageal nerve mass.

Fibrous masses are highly organized into longitudinal and transverse tracts, and are only consisted of processes of neurons and the terminal ramnifications of peripheral sensory neurons. In addition, central fibrous mass of both the brain and the subesophageal mass are totally devoid of nerve cell bodies. Keywords : Spiders, Central nervous system, Microstructure, Araneus ventricosus. Diagram of the central nervous system within the cephalothorax of the orb-web spider, Araneus ventricosus. A Lateral view, B dorsal view, C front view. Ep, esophagus; N. Ab, abdominal nerve; N. Ch, cheliceral nerve; N.

E, nerve of eyes; N.


LI, N. LII, N. LIII, N. LIV, nerve of the legs; N. Pd, nerve of the pedipalp; Sb, subesophageal nerve mass; Sp, supraesophageal ganglion. The central nervous system of the spider Araneus ventricosus is filled with simple mass of nervous tissues within the cephalothorax. A, B At sagittal planes, this nerve mass can be divided into the upper supraesophageal ganglion Sp and the lower subesophageal ganglion Sb.

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C, D At frontal planes, the nerve clusters which connected with the nerves leading to various muscles of limbs L1-L4 and sensory organs are seen. E, F At transverse planes, nerve masses are fused together and forming a dorsal supraesophageal ganglion and a ventral subesophageal nerve mass. G, digestive diverticula of midgut; M, muscles; E, esophagus. A In Araneus ventricosus, the only nerves arising from the protocerebrum are the optic nerves.

B These optic nerves are composed of neuropile masses NE which arising from the dorsal part of the protocerebrum PR. C, D Among the four pairs of eyes, the neuropiles of the principle eyes PE are the most thick and abundant. DV, digestive diverticula of midgut; Sb, subesophageal nerve mass; Sp, supraesophageal ganglion. A, B The supraesophageal ganglion Sp has a quite condensed cell body compared with other parts of central nervous system, and the cells are packed in the frontal, dorsal, and lateral regions.

C, D The cell bodies of the protocerebrum are arranged in the periphery, and basically composed of two types of cells: the type-A cells TA and numerous type-B cells TB. Sb, subesophageal nerve mass. A-C The central body CB is covered by layer of lots of cell bodies on its dorsal and posterior sides.

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The central body appeared as a complex of highly condensed neurons and is comparted with supraesophageal ganglion Sp. Frontal A , sagittal B , and transverse section C.

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  • D-F The central fibrous mass of the central nervous system is consists of processes of neurons and the terminal arborizations of peripheral sensory neurons. In the supraesophageal ganglia, fibrous mass FM is highly organized into longitudinal and transverse tracts. G The upper part of the central body is covered by a numerous cell bodies of type-A cells TA. Sb, subesophageal nerve mass; Es, esophagus. A, B The subesophageal ganglion Sb lies ventrally, and is located below the esophagus. All the ganglia behind the esophagus NM are fused, and the cephalothorax is filled with nervous tissue.

    Problems in Regulatory Biology

    C, D The nerve mass of this subesophageal region is distributed underneath the supraesophageal ganglion and made up of the foremost part of the ventral nerve cord. E The subesophageal nerve mass has the feature of appendage ganglion, thus four pairs of appendage nerves L1-L4 including abdominal nerves Ab arisen from this nerve mass.

    F It has many tracts of sensory and motor neurons which composed of longitudinal large arrows and transverse tracts small arrows. A At frontal plane, the subesophageal nerve mass Sb can be divided into appendage ganglia L2-L4 and abdominal ganglia Ab. B The ventral part of subesophageal ganglion has more condensed cell bodies comparing with other parts.