Agriculture developed about 10, years ago in multiple locations throughout the world, providing grains such as wheat , rice and maize and potatoes ; and originating staples such as bread and pasta dough  , and tortillas. Farming also provided milk and dairy products, and sharply increased the availability of meats and the diversity of vegetables.
Around BC the Vedic texts made mention of scientific research on nutrition. The Bible's Book of Daniel recounts first recorded nutritional experiment. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king's fine foods and wine. But they objected, preferring vegetables pulses and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions. The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial. On comparison with the king's men, they appeared healthier, and were allowed to continue with their diet.
The 16th-century scientist and artist Leonardo da Vinci — compared metabolism to a burning candle. In Dr. James Lind , a physician in the British navy, performed the first attested scientific nutrition experiment, discovering that lime juice saved sailors who had been at sea for years from scurvy , a deadly and painful bleeding disorder. The discovery was ignored [ by whom? Scientists would not identify the essential vitamin C within lime juice until the s. Around Antoine Lavoisier , the "Father of Nutrition and Chemistry", discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat.
In George Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for fowl survival. In the early 19th century, the elements carbon , nitrogen , hydrogen and oxygen were recognized [ by whom?
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In the s Claude Bernard discovered that body fat can be synthesized from carbohydrate and protein, showing that the energy in blood glucose can be stored as fat or as glycogen. Adding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of Japanese sailors prevented the disease. In Eugen Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands. In , Christiaan Eijkman worked with natives of Java , who also suffered from beriberi. Eijkman observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of beriberi, but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice with the outer bran intact.
Eijkman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, demonstrating that food can cure disease. Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B. In the early 20th century Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measured caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition. In , Wilcock and Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan was necessary for the survival of rats.
He [ who? A second group of rats to which he also fed an amount of milk containing vitamins. In Stephen M. Babcock and Edwin B. Hart conducted the single-grain experiment. This experiment ran through In Casimir Funk coined the term vitamin to label a vital factor in the diet: from the words "vital" and "amine," because these unknown substances preventing scurvy, beriberi, and pellagra , were thought then to derive from ammonia. The vitamins were studied [ by whom? In Elmer McCollum discovered the first vitamins, fat-soluble vitamin A and water-soluble vitamin B in ; later identified as a complex of several water-soluble vitamins and named vitamin C as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy.
Lafayette Mendel and Thomas Osborne — also performed pioneering work on vitamins A and B. In Sir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency, because he could cure it in dogs with cod-liver oil. Also in , H. Evans and L. Bishop discovered vitamin E as essential for rat pregnancy, and originally called it "food factor X" until In Hart discovered that iron absorption requires trace amounts of copper.
In he synthesized it, and in won a Nobel Prize for his efforts. In the s William Cumming Rose identified essential amino acids , necessary protein components which the body cannot synthesize. In Eric Underwood and Hedley Marston independently discovered the necessity of cobalt. In Eugene Floyd Dubois showed that work and school performance relate to caloric intake. In Erhard Fernholz discovered the chemical structure of vitamin E. It was synthesised by Paul Karrer — From rationing in the United Kingdom — during and after World War II — took place according to nutritional principles drawn up by Elsie Widdowson and others.
In the U. Department of Agriculture introduced the Food Guide Pyramid. In a Natural Justice study showed a relation between nutrition and violent behavior. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For nutrition science not specific to humans, see Nutrition. Main article: Nutrient. Main article: Carbohydrate. This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.
April Main article: Dietary fiber.
Further information: Protein nutrient , Protein quality , and Amino acid score. Main article: Mineral nutrient. Main article: Vitamin. Main article: Malnutrition. See also: Nootropic. Main article: Child malnutrition. Main article: Undernutrition. Main articles: Overnutrition , Obesity , and Overweight. Further information: Underweight , Food security , and Epidemiology of malnutrition. Main article: Nutrition Education. Main article: Sports nutrition. Main article: Nutrition and pregnancy. Nutrition portal Food portal. Essential Nutrition Actions: www. Improving maternal, newborn, infant and young child health and nutrition.
Retrieved March 31, Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition 2. Geneva [u. Biochemistry 5th ed. San Francisco: W. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry 4th ed. New York, New York: W. Freeman and Company. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Epub Jan 5. Healthy eating. Archived from the original on Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Kathleen Mahan; Janice L. Raymond; Sylvia Escott-Stump Krausw's Food and the Nutrition Care Process 13th ed.
Louis: Elsevier. Corbridge Amsterdam: Elsevier. Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 8 October European Heart Journal. The World Bank Research Observer.
Journal of American College Health. Biological Psychology. February Journal of Public Economics. Chronicle of Higher Education. Liberal Education. Related to improvement of nutritional characteristics, sensory properties, and convenience, there are some processing technologies that are used in manufacturing of food products. These procedures aim to increase the physicochemical accessibility of micronutrients, decrease the content of antinutrients, such as phytates, or increase the content of compounds that improve bioavailability Hotz and Gibson Millet and some other coarse grains are usually dehulled and subjected to different treatments before consumption to improve their sensory and edible quality Liu and others This is mainly due to millet grains that are small compared to other cereals.
But it was observed that the hydrothermal treatment of millet hardened the endosperm texture and enabled its decortication. The decorticated millet could be cooked as discrete grains similar to rice to obtain soft edible texture within 5 min, which was not possible before. The pasting and the dough properties and also some of the functional characteristics of the product indicated its versatility for diversified food uses Shobana and Malleshi However, decortication of hydrothermally processed finger millet caused significant changes in the nutrient contents Dharmaraj and Malleshi The decortication characteristics and nutritional composition iron, zinc, phytates, lipids, fibers, and starch of decorticated grains were measured.
The results showed that decortication had numerous effects on grain composition, but no significant differences were observed between the 2 traditional methods of decortication Hama and others Furthermore, decortication was found to have no effect on the protein and fat content of millets; however, it significantly decreased the content of crude fiber, dietary fiber, minerals, total phenols content, and antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the applicability of millets as functional food was decreased Lestienne and others ; Bagdia and others The reduction in some nutrients minerals, fibers, and antioxidants and antinutrients phytates, tannin could be attributed to the fact that they are mainly located in the peripheral parts of the grains pericarp and aleurone layer ; therefore, removing of the pericarp during decortication leads to reduce their contents Hama and others Now we have come to the fact that although decortication of millet grains was found to reduce some nutrient contents such as fiber and minerals, but usually they are decorticated before consumption to improve their edible and sensory properties and to increase the appearance of their food products.
Therefore, there is a need for innovative decortication technology that can be used to decorticate large amounts of grains in a short time at commercial scale compared with the traditional decortication methods. Millet grains are usually milled by a nonmotorized grain mill that cranks by hand or another nonelectric method, especially in rural areas for household uses. However, a manual grain mill that has been attached to a gas or electric motor by a pulley system can also be used.
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Effects of milling on nutritional contents of millet grains and their milling fractions have been studied by a number of researchers. In one study, milling of pearl millet grains was found to reflect a change in gross chemical composition. However, baking did not cause a significant change in nutrient content of raw pearl millet flour. In addition, milling and heat treatment during chapati an unleavened bread making lowered polyphenols and phytic acid and improved the protein digestibility and starch digestibility to a significant extent Chowdhury and Punia The results showed that nutrient content of semirefined flour was comparable to whole flour, except for the fat content 1.
Due to partial separation of the bran fraction, semirefined flour was low in antinutrients that improved its mineral bioaccessibility making it nutritionally superior. In addition, steaming the millet at elevated pressure and temperature increased the milling yield, and steaming beyond the threshold level showed a detrimental effect on the yield of head grains Dharmaraj and others WFM had the highest levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids, 4.
Therefore, removing of the bran fraction by sieving, which is known rich in nutrients, such as fiber, minerals, and antioxidants, leads to decrease the nutritive value and potential health benefits of grains, thus using whole grains flour in human nutrition is suggested more beneficial in health promotion. In conclusion, and as mentioned for decortication, milling and sieving of millet grains is mostly carried out manually; therefore, there is a need for convenient and motorized milling technology for millet grains to provide a large amount of flour to ensure a consistent source for industrial food uses at commercial scale to help in promoting their utilization.
In addition, optimization of milling conditions for providing high yield of millet flours with high nutrient composition and quality should be performed by future research. Germination or malting of cereal grains may result in some biochemical modifications and produce malt with improved nutritional quality that can be used in various traditional recipes. It has been found that germination of proso millet grains increased the free amino acids and total sugars and decreased the dry weight and starch content.
Increases in lysine, tryptophan, and nonprotein nitrogen were also noticed Parameswaran and Sadasivam The improvement in protein digestibility after germination, soaking, debranning, and dry heating can be attributed to the reduction of antinutrients such as phytic acid, tannins, and polyphenols, which are known to interact with proteins to form complexes Hassan and others However, crude protein and fat contents were decreased in foxtail millet after germination.
This decrease in the protein and fat contents can be attributed to loss of low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds during soaking and rinsing of the millet grains and hydrolysis of lipid and oxidation of fatty acids during germination Choudhury and others Also, the changes in nutrient contents of grains after germination can be attributed to the utilization by growing sprouts Hooda and Jood It has also been found that the in vitro extractability and bioaccessibility of minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc were increased in finger millet and pearl millet by germination; however, the antinutritional factors such as phytic acid were decreased Mamiro and others ; Suma and Urooj b ; Krishnan and others Furthermore, the relative in vitro solubility of iron was doubled by the germination of pearl millet grains Eyzaguirre and others In addition, finger millet can be incorporated as a source of dietary fiber both in the native and malted forms, in the preparation of various health foods without altering the dough characteristics or the quality of the end product Rao and others Effect of germination and fermentation of pearl millet on proximate, chemical, and sensory properties of instant fura a Nigerian cereal food was examined.
Germination and probiotic fermentation caused significant improvement in the contents of thiamine, niacin, total lysine, protein fractions, sugars, soluble dietary fiber, and in vitro availability of Ca, Fe, and Zn of food blends Arora and others Increased mineral availability during germination may be due to increased phytase activity, which resulted in decreased content of phytate in sprouts. Antinutrients like polyphenols and saponins are also known to hinder the availability of minerals, which are catabolized during germination leading to improvement in mineral availability Grewal and Jood Furthermore, germination of foxtail millet for 3 d resulted in flour with a high concentration of minerals Coulibaly and Chen Therefore, germination of millet grains can be used as a technique or in combination with other processing treatments to prepare malt rich in nutrients that can be used for the preparation of several healthy and nutritional food products such as infant formula, complementary food products, and composite flours or food blends.
Due to the importance in food preservation, fermentation is widely used throughout Africa where modern food preservation methods are still not common. It helps to preserve many food products, provides a wide variety of flavors, and significantly improves the nutritional properties of the raw material.
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Fermented foods are also produced and consumed worldwide in terms of their importance for human food Mugocha and others ; Gotcheva and others The chemical compositions of millet grains and their food products were found to be modified by fermentation. Therefore, millet grains are used to produce different kinds of traditional fermented foods in developing countries in Africa and Asia. Fermentation is one of the processes that decrease the levels of antinutrients in food grains and increase the protein availability, in vitro protein digestibility IVPD , and nutritive value.
It has been indicated that fermentation of processed pearl millet grains caused significant reduction in antinutritional factors, which was accompanied by significant improvement in the IVPD Hassan and others This improvement in the IVPD caused by fermentation could be attributed to the partial degradation of complex storage proteins to more simple and soluble products Chavan and others It has also been found that the chemical components, with the exception of starch, were reduced when the millet grain was fermented into ogi , a naturally fermented cereal product in Nigeria.
However, availability of starch and protein for digestion was higher in ogi than in the grain. In addition, lysine, tryptophan, and vitamin B2 contents were increased, while vitamin A and flavaonoid contents and paste viscosity were reduced by the conversion of grain into ogi Akingbala and others Fermentation of pearl millet caused appreciable changes in the chemical composition moisture, ash, fiber, protein, and fat contents , but markedly reduced the mineral contents Na, K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn Ahmed and others Enhanced flavonoids were also observed in all samples after 16 h of fermentation Gupta and Nagar However, fermentation of finger millet resulted in a smaller or insignificant effect on the in vitro extractability of minerals Mamiro and others Fermentation was also found to cause significant reduction in trypsin and amylase inhibitor activities and the phytic acid content.
Various microbial types were used for fermentation of millet grains and their food products. It was found that combination of Lactobacilli and yeast was more effective in increasing the protein as well as starch digestibility as compared to pure culture fermentation Sharma and Kapoor This increase in the protein digestibility could be attributed to the degradation of tannins, polyphenols, and phytic acid by microbial enzymes Hassan and others However, the changes in starch content and digestibility in the fermented product may be attributed to amylolytic action of microorganisms in the fermenting mixture Arora and others Commercial cultures can also be successfully used to produce a composite fermented beverage from finger millet and skim milk Mugocha and others However, natural fermentation was also found to cause a significant reduction in total polyphenols and phytic acid content of pearl millet Elyas and others The enhanced proteolytic activity during fermentation is generally associated with improved protein digestibility, which increases amino nitrogen by partial breakdown of proteins to peptides and amino acids ElHag and others Dehulled and cooked grains of 5 millet varieties kodo, finger, proso, foxtail, and pearl were subjected to in vitro enzymatic digestion and microbial fermentation under physiological conditions in order to determine the bioaccessibility of their phenolic compounds.
It was demonstrated that phenolic compounds of processed millets were bioaccessible and colonic fermentation released the phenolics bound to the insoluble fiber in the grain Chandrasekara and Shahidi In another study, the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis, desalting, and debittering on the functional properties of defatted foxtail millet protein hydrolysates was examined.
The functional properties studied exhibited good qualities that make them acceptable for use in such applications as hypoallergenic infant formulas, sports nutrition, and functional foods Kamara and others ; Kamara and others However, enzymatic treatment was also reported as an option to modify the attributes of finger millet flour FMF dough related to processing and product development Raghu and Bhattacharya Based on the literature, it can be concluded that fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis are promising techniques that can be used as single or in combination with other techniques to prepare fermented food products with high nutritive value from millet grains.
However, the application of these techniques for the preparation of millet food products on a commercial scale is limited and most of the applications are carried out at the household level for the preparation of some traditional foods or at laboratory scale. It was observed that flattening the grains to the desired shape and moisture content were critical factors for obtaining millet with maximum expansion ratio. However, it has been found that crude fat and crude fiber contents of popped foxtail millet were significantly lower than raw millet, while the carbohydrate and energy values were significantly higher.
This is mainly because fat and fiber contents are higher in outer coat of grains, thus more affected by processing compared with nutrients located in inner layer Choudhury and others Soaking of grains is a popular food preparation technique used for reducing antinutritional compounds such as phytic acid to improve bioavailability of minerals. The degradation and leaching of phytates, phytase activity, and iron and zinc concentrations have been studied after soaking of whole seeds, dehulled seeds, and flours of millet. The results indicated that dehulling and milling before soaking facilitated the leaching of phytates and phytases in aqueous medium, and hence, phytate degradation.
However, cooking of flours with water used for soaking did not increase phytate degradation Lestienne and others Zinc in vitro solubility tended to increase on cooking with kanwa alkaline rock salt , but decreased in cooked fermented flour Eyzaguirre and others The reduction in minerals content of pearl millet may be attributed to leaching out of these minerals into the soaking medium. Also, irradiation alone for the whole or dehulled seeds had no effect on the protein digestibility but slightly improved the quality attributes of both cultivars. Therefore, soaking and cooking of millet grains can be used as pretreatments under optimized conditions to reduce the antinutrition contents in millet grains to enhance nutrient bioavailability and nutritional quality of millet food products.
Processing and converting millet for use in traditional meals is common in many developing countries in Africa and Asia. In Nigeria, kunu is a very nutritious beverage that can supply most of the nutrient requirements by the body. Also, from the analysis, it was seen that kunu from millet gives the highest nourishment to the body; it has more nutritive value and is a good source of energy because of the high amount of protein, normal total solids, moderate pH, and acidity.
Millet does have a high amount of calcium that helps in healthy bone strength and strong teeth Adebayo and others In Saudi Arabia, pearl millet is grown in the south—west region of Jazan and used by locals to prepare fermented bread known as lohoh Osman In the northern area of China, foxtail millet has been widely used as a nourishing gruel or soup for pregnant and nursing women, and has been applied as food therapy Li The grains of Japanese barnyard millet are a traditional food in the cold districts of Japan, especially in the Tohoku district where it is considered an important crop because of its ability to be stored for a long time as a food, as well as a seed with extended germination ability Watanabe The type of sweetener affects the cereal color, flavor, and crispness when in milk.
Honey appears to have an effect of maintaining cereal crispness after addition of milk, and using a combination of sweeteners may be beneficial Ferriola and Stone Based on starch and analysis, lajia noodles noodles were found remaining from late Neolithic China were propositioned to be made of foxtail millet and proso millet flours by repeatedly stretching the dough Lu and others Conversion of millet grains to fura , a common millet food in the West African region and one of the major sources of nutrients in the region, has been studied with respect to its nutrient and flavanol contents and its storage properties.
The results showed that flavanol content of the grain decreased during conversion to fura by about Vitamin B2 content was also decreased during transformation of grain to meal, flour, and fura by Furthermore, upma , a popular breakfast of southern India, traditionally made from wheat, was prepared using pearl millet semolina. It has also suggested that being a high energy However, they can be converted into liquid or semiliquid food products, such as peer and porridge and other traditional household foods.
Therefore, there is a need for innovative processing technologies to convert millet grains into liquid foods such as drinks of high nutritional quality and safety that can be consumed by large populations in rural and urban areas. All indigenous and displaced families receive the maximum benefit regardless of number of children 42 42 Departamento Administrativo para la Prosperidad Social. Agosto, Enrollment into the program is always open for displaced families but for other groups is only during specific enrollment periods 42 42 Departamento Administrativo para la Prosperidad Social. July 1, In , MFA began working in coordination with the early childhood development government initiative known as De Cero a Siempre 44 44 Gobierno de Colombia.
De Cero a Siempre. Agosto How Effective are Conditional Cash Transfers? Evidence from Colombia. Briefing note No. Infants exposed to the program ended up being taller than non-beneficiary children, with a 0. In all three countries, the programs began as small-scale projects with a strong and clear vision, mission, and design and were quickly scaled up due in part to strong political commitment, good focalization of the target population, and their ability to show short-term positive antipoverty, education, and health and nutrition outcomes.
The combination of these factors may explain their political resilience, including their implementation at scale and sustainability 4 4 Skoufias E, McClafferty B. Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance? Glob Food Sec.
The impact of conditional cash transfers on health outcomes and use of health services in low and middle income countries.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. The Impact of conditional Cash transfers on child health in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review.
International Journal of Public Health. This realist review is likely to have generated results more useful to policy-makers than those from previous studies. This has been accomplished through complex intersectoral coordination based on clear operational principles and processes overseen by transparent governance structures that include the participation of civil society. The strength of this system has allowed for strong decentralization of implementation decisions as well as in-depth analyses of process indicators and program impacts from the national to the municipal level, supporting the hypothesis that proper monitoring and evaluation can affect program governance 4 4 Skoufias E, McClafferty B.
The Colombian CCT demonstrated the feasibility of implementing the social protection strategy, even in areas with internally displaced populations. The fact that CCTs have spread rapidly across Latin America and continue to show similar education, health, and nutrition benefits in very diverse contexts indicates that the CCT model is extremely relevant and replicable as a social protection system.
The pioneering Mexican CCT generated important know-how on intersectoral program coordination at the national level. The robust, quasi-experimental evaluation component of the Mexican program, included since its inception, has allowed for relatively quick documentation of the health and nutrition impacts and thus very likely contributed to its political resilience. However, none of the 17 reviewed research studies were able to disentangle the proportion of health and nutrition benefits that can be attributed to the different benefits and conditions of the CCTs.
This might be a useful question to consider in future research to 1 help determine program costs per sector e. These results strongly support the notion that well-designed CCTs that are launched with strong and sustained political support and include transparent policies and adequate monetary, health, and education resources are effective at improving the health and nutrition outcomes of young children in Latin America.
However, a small sample was chosen by design, using very specific inclusion criteria, to ensure that the CCTs that were studied were the most mature and stable in the region and would thus generate data that would be most useful to policy-makers. Analysis of the CCT framework developed in Latin America and now benefiting the rest of the world clearly illustrates that social protection models that are conceptually sound and address social determinants of health can have a positive impact on education, health, and nutrition outcomes among the poorest families in the region.
A key future challenge is how to reform these programs in the region so that, together with more equitable economic policies, they can help families escape not only extreme poverty, but any kind of poverty, in order to lead healthy and productive lives, as called for in the post Sustainable Development Goals. The authors thank Luis Galicia Cano for his insights and support with the development of this manuscript.
Free nutritional supplement for children under 5 years old, and for pregnant and lactating women;. Monthly cash scholarships paid bimonthly for each child attending 3 rd grade—12 th grade. Access to a basic health package of 27 preventive care actions for the family that includes: Monitoring health and nutritional status through regular growth and nutritional status assessment; Nutritional care of pregnant and lactating women;. Reproductive health; Infectious disease management and prevention; Prevention and control of chronic diseases; Health and Nutrition education classes.
Support from more than 15 Salidas Productivas programs to initiate small business projects. Independent of household size and composition. Total monthly cash benefits depend on household size, number of children under 18 living in the household, pregnancy or nursing status of the women.
Based on:. Mothers with children months to support nursing or other infant feeding mode if mother not present. Children between birth and 60 months get immunizations, attend regular well baby care, and grow monitoring appointments; nutritional supplement for children 6—23 months, and for older children 24—60 months old if undernourished. Pregnant women attend all medical appointments for prenatal care, get nutritional supplements and attend health and nutrition classes.
Lactating women attend all medical appointments for post-partum care, get nutritional supplement and attend health and nutrition classes. Pregnant and lactating women attend all prenatal and monitoring of their health and baby health care visits. Municipalities implement the program through a local coordinator responsible for program monitoring and implementation at the local level and organization of social control councils.
It works in coordination with other childhood and youth initiatives, with the food security network, productive inclusion strategies from the labor department and housing programs from public services. MDS uses the Decentralized Management Index to monitor the quality of the program implementation at the state and municipal level.
Computerized management information system; interconnects local and state networks to the national central system; information system used by enrolment centers. Data entered at the local level is transferred to the central database managed by the Caixa , where it is consolidated into the national database. The Caixa verifies the information and for new enrolments produces a unique identification number. Control communities matched to treatment community based on population size, socio economic index, location and infrastructure. Children between years-old being Dose-response effect.
The longer the children had been exposed to the program the higher the health benefit. Household possessions, household characteristics and materials, and household services related to water access and sanitation. Maternal report of weekly frequency of consumption at one year follow-up. Four or more days of weekly consumption was considered high supplement consumption. One year of exposure to program linked with higher Hb levels Lower levels of anemia were found among the children receiving the intervention for one years when compared with those children not yet receiving intervention.
Difficult to assess the impact of the supplement on nutritional status since some control families also received the supplement, and the bioavailability of the iron in the supplement was low. Program exposure intensity based on the number of months between the date of receiving the first cash transfer and the birth date. Households matched using a household propensity score, and baseline maternal height, child sex, gender, weight and height.
This association was not found among months old children. Multivariable models used to compare morbidity change overtime of children between 0—23 months and 24—59 months controlled for confounding factors at the individual, household and community level. The program reduce the prevalence of diarrhea by 5. This effect is higher among children between 0—23 months 7. Program reduced prevalence of acute respiratory infection 3.
Mortality data from municipalities datasets from administrative, census and vital statistics data from Program effective in reducing both IMR and NMR among municipalities with high rates before the program began, and among municipalities with higher levels of illiteracy, and less access to electricity; less effective in areas with poor household sanitation. Positive increase in weight-for-age Z-score 0. Positive increase in height-for-age Z-score 0. Significant socioeconomic characteristics differences between NFB and BF groups -beneficiaries with worse socio-economic conditions.
No significant differences were found among groups for hemoglobin levels or anthropometric Z-scores. Surveys collected data on environmental, socio-economic, and household sanitation characteristics, and child health, food intake and anthropometric measurements. BFP participants and non participants had a low consumption of fruits and non-starchy vegetables. Anthropometric data collected after 6 month of the program launching of all children under 7 years old. A total of beneficiary children and children under 3 yrs. Beneficiaries may have misinterpreted program eligibility criteria believing that children had to be malnourished to remain in program.
Effect of consolidated BFP coverage was highest for under-5 mortality resulting from malnutrition RR 0. Data collected on 1, children: BFP beneficiaries and non beneficiary from a random sample of households living in a slum community in the city of Salvador. Abrir menu. ABSTRACT Objective To 1 describe the benefits, conditions, coverage, funding, goals, governance, and structure of well-established conditional cash transfer programs CCTs in Latin America and 2 identify their health and nutritional impacts among children under 5 years old.
Methods A realist review was conducted.