The results, shown in Figure 6 , are consistent with the claims made by G2 and G3 about the demotivating nature of the activities that they were asked to do as students. There is a clear contrast in Figure 6. This situation is even more surprising as it is chronologically plausible that the participants of G2 and G3 could have been the students of the G1 teachers. Thus, G1 mentions the use of general educational resources, such as posters, books, etc. As for the didactic resources for grammar teaching, Figure 7 shows that general educational resources are highlighted by all groups at the expense of resources that are specifically suited to the teaching and learning of grammar these are only mentioned by G2 and G3.
This study offers interesting results for the area of teacher cognition from a perspective that is under-explored in the literature, namely the teaching of L1 grammar.
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More specifically, it is important to explore the four force lines that emerge from the results: self-perception of grammar knowledge; knowledge of the changes in the guidelines for grammar teaching; the instrumental perspective of grammar teaching; and role of experiences in grammar learning as students. These gaps have to be filled so that teachers can effectively promote the development of linguistic and metalinguistic awareness amongst their students. This contrast is obvious on different levels, and is not restricted to a simple knowledge of the Syllabus Reis at al.
On the contrary, it involves a whole series of knowledges, correlations between areas of knowledge and reflections about practice, which enable access to the reconceptualization of academic and didactic knowledge. This is an area that requires further investigation. The belief, shared equally by all, that grammar teaching improves linguistic performance, leading to an instrumental view of grammar teaching, does not in most cases result from knowledge of research into linguistic awareness; that is, the teachers do not know how that relationship is established or how to promote it, though they consider it to be the objective of grammar teaching.
Finally, as regards their grammar learning experiences as students, the pre-service teachers paint a picture that is very similar to what a traditional approach to grammar teaching would be, considering it not only uninteresting but also unable to promote learning in this domain. However, those experiences do not produce unidirectional effects.
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While they do not destroy their interest in grammar, this initial learning may constitute an obstacle to later learning. These results allow us to understand better the way that in-service and pre-service elementary teachers think about grammar and how they teach it, constituting a fundamental starting point for helping them examine, become aware of and modify their actions in this domain.
The results could contribute to improving the initial and ongoing training of teachers, as they show the need to:. Improve content knowledge about grammar, providing both sets of teachers with consistent up-to-date knowledge about language which will boost their confidence in the classroom;. Develop pedagogical content knowledge skills, creating situations for the analysis and discussion of beliefs relating to grammar teaching, which lead to grounded planning and sustained experimentation with new teaching strategies, using carefully selected materials;.
Forge effective links between training institutions and educational contexts for example, exploring the situations offered by professional traineeships , favouring the creation of connections between content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, fostering debate and joint planning between experienced and novice teachers.
System, Teacher language awareness and the professional knowledge base of the L2 teacher. Language Awareness, 12 2 : Teacher knowledge: What is it? How do we uncover it? What are its implications for schooling? Teaching and Teacher Education, BORG, Simon. Tesol Quarterly, 32 1 : Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research into what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching, Assessment in Education, 11 3 : The Nebraska Educator, 1: Personal practical knowledge and the modes of knowing; relevance for teaching and learning.
Learning the ways of knowing. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. The knower and the known: the nature of knowledge in research of teaching. Review of Research in Education, Beliefs and practices towards teaching and learning grammar: A multicase study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, LIU, Siping. Pedagogical content knowledge: A case study of ESL teacher educator. English Language Teaching, 6 7 : Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, Conceptions of teaching. Adidt Education Quarterly, 42 4 : The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach.
Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. The reflective practitioner.
How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books Inc. Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, The impact of teacher education. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing. Handbook of research on mathematics leaching and learning. It was used a qualitative approach, a case study, focused on group work, comprising students of the 9th grade, in a public Portuguese school. The results show that students have different perceptions regarding the teaching and learning of grammar, although they all recognize its importance for the development of language and communication skills.
The students point out some advantages of the method of cooperative learning, such as the easiness of learning grammar and the improvement of their academic results on Portuguese language. They also refer a more positive attitude towards learning grammar, together with the development of linguistic and social skills. Allwright, D. Exploratory practice: re-thinking practitioner research in language teaching.
Language Teaching Research 7 2 , Balkcom, S. Cooperative learning. Benjamin, A. Teaching Grammar: What really works. USA: Taylors and Francis. Fathman, A. Cooperative language learning in school contexts. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13 2 , Freire, P. Pedagogia da autonomia. Hymes, D. On Communicative Competence In J.
Pride and J. Holmes eds. Selected Readings, Part 2. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Johnson, D. Learning together and alone: cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning 5th ed. The methods teachers use in the grammar classroom.
Teaching and learning aids used by teachers in class. How textbooks and supplementary books were used in class. After this step, the researcher met with the teachers and students from the 4 JHS schools at Nkwantanang cluster of schools participating in the study and briefed each group on the intended observation exercise. They all agreed to work with the researcher. She spent 4 weeks in the JHS classrooms to observe and gather information on the areas mentioned.
Data analysis was based on the class tests conducted. Analysis of variance was adopted to assess whether the observed differences saw in the class tests were statistically significant. Table 1. Anova of scores of class tests. To test the hypothesis that students taught grammar inductively will perform better than those who will be taught grammar deductively, The researcher selected a total of 72 students and grouped them into two groups of 36 students in a group, namely experimental group pre exp , and for control group.
Pre- tests were administered to members of both groups before the intervention. The intervention involved both groups but with different method of teaching. Test scores for pre- test and post test of the control and experimental groups were obtained and an analysis of variance was run to ascertain that mean differences in scores were significant to support the claim or otherwise that inductive method of teaching is better than the deductive method of teaching.
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The description of the significance is seen table 1. On this table, F of 5. This implies that the two groups had different means. Test of Hypotheses. Null hypothesis: Examination scores of students taught with inductive method is the same as examination scores of students taught with deductive method. Alternate hypothesis: There is difference in examination scores of students taught with inductive method and that of those taught with deductive method.
From table 1, it can be seen that the Frequency calculated 5. This means that we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate and conclude that there is difference in mean scores. A post hoc test is therefore performed to compare differences in mean scores and see which ones are statistically significant. This test look for evidence that you can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the research intervention used has an effect.
Cohen To have a proof to the use of the effectiveness of an intervention, multiple comparison is used to compare the means. Multiple comparison is a method used to investigate differences between pairs of population means or, more generally, between subsets of population means using sample data.
Once an Analysis of Variance ANOVA test is completed, the researcher may still need to understand the subgroup differences among the differences in scores of experimental and control groups. The subgroup differences are called "pairwise" differences. ANOVA does not provide tests for pairwise differences. Hence, the researcher needs to test pairwise differences, follow-up tests called post hoc tests are required Mc.
Table 2. The mean difference is significant at the 0. From table 1, significant F- value indicated that there are differences in the means but the values did not indicate where exactly the differences were. Mean difference: It gives the differences in means of control and the experimental pre- test and post- test.
Standard error: Is the difference between two means of the control and experimental group scores. Sig-significance: The sig level indicates whether the variable is or is not significant. Confidence level: It states how accurate the estimate of mean is likely to show. From current research, the multiple comparisons between the two groups are shown in Table 2.
From this table, it is obvious that the differences in mean between Pre con and Pre exp and difference between Pre - exp and Post con are statistically significant at 0. To explain further, the table 2 indicates that there are differences in the mean score for the pre experimental and post experimental which is — 1. This means that the mean score for post—exp inductive is higher than post-control deductive.
From the significance found, the researcher can conclude based on the findings that inductive method of teaching of grammar impacted positively on the test scores of the students. First Class Observation. The topic the teacher treated was Nouns common and proper nouns. Her objective was, at end of the lesson, students would be able to use common and proper nouns effectively in their essays. The teacher wrote nouns on the chalkboard and asked students to pronounce the topic several times. After that, she asked the students for definitions of the topic. The teacher went ahead to explain the rules of common and proper nouns.
Later, she asked the students to give examples and all examples given were written on the board for discussion. The teacher at this point explained the structures herself but did not allow the students to fish out for information themselves. After all explanations had been given, she asked the class whether the explanations were clear. As usual they all responded "Yes madam," but some were giggling and laughing. Concerning this particular lesson, the teacher did a lot of talking but there was less work for the students to do.
The researcher observed that students really understood the lesson. All answers given were correct but because the students did not have enough practice, students are likely to forget what they have learnt. Second Class Observation. The lesson notes structure was the same as the first school observed. There were no TLM to aid learning. The next thing he did was to review previous knowledge by taking the students through regular and irregular nouns and verbs. Students gave more examples for regular and irregular nouns.
Students now looked at the rules and formed their sentences. This exercise was an oral work. The findings were that teacher knew about his subject matter but how to impact to the students was a problem. Another issue was that the teacher was in haste to finish within the stipulated time. Finally, the teacher depended on the good students for answers to all questions asked.
The weaker ones were in class alright but they were not concentrating. The teacher had to say keep quiet several times before they were quiet. Third Observation. The teacher wrote her topic, "Conditional sentences" on the chalkboard and asked for the definition. The students were not giving right answers so the teacher asked them to open their textbooks and read definition from the books. With this exercise, the researcher observed that a lot of students did not take part because the textbooks were not enough.
The teacher copied the definition 69 from the textbook on the board. From there, examples were given by the teacher and students were asked to read all examples in the textbook. The teacher selected good readers to read. Finally, students were asked to do exercises in the textbook into their grammar exercise books. Fourth Observation. Topic treated was subject-verb agreement.
The teacher wrote the topic on the board and asked students to repeat after her. She then gave an explanation of subject-verb agreement. She wrote her own examples on the board and asked students to identify the subjects and the verbs. After this, she told them that a singular subject goes with a singular verb and a plural subject goes with a plural verb. Teacher invited students to write examples of subject verb agreement on the board. Later all students read the sentences. After the teacher had taken them through the discussion, she started a sentence and asked them to complete it in their grammar books Findings of this lesson were that:.
The method of teaching used was deductive teaching approach. Summary of Findings and Discussion. Findings and Discussion on Study 1. To support or reject the hypothesis that students introduced to the inductive teaching approach would perform better than those taken through the deductive method, four tests were conducted. Two tests were conducted for each group, that is, control and experimental groups. All tests were graded over The results of all test recorded showed differences in the pretest and the post tests, as shown in table 2.
It is obvious that the differences in mean between Pre-control and Pre-experimental and difference between Pre experimental and Post — control are statistically significant at the 0. To explain further, it indicates that there are differences in the mean score for the pre experimental and post experimental is —1. This means that the mean score for post—exp inductive is higher than the post-control deductive. The researcher therefore concludes that inductive method of teaching grammar impacted positively on the test scores of the students. This is indicative that the inductive method is a better approach to teaching grammar.
From the findings of this study, when teachers teach grammar in a real life situation, students can acquire the language more naturally. These factors can never be ruled out. For the effective teaching of grammar in our basic schools, there is the need to consider all the above factors discussed and equip the teachers with the necessary resources and capacity to improve the teaching of grammar. Findings and Discussion on Study 2. For an effective lesson delivery at the JHS level, teachers need well planned lesson notes, and teaching and learning materials TLM.
On this note, the researcher took a look at the lesson plan for each of the lessons taught. Also, from all the lessons observed, there were no TLM to help the students understand the structure being taught. Researcher observed lesson in four different schools. Educational Importance of Inductive Teaching of Grammar. The aim of this study as stated earlier was to find out the impact of inductive teaching and learning of grammar in the selected basic schools.
The findings based on this research, indicated the effectiveness of the inductive teaching method. Hence, there is the need for teachers and policy makers to popularize the importance and promote the use of the inductive teaching in Ghanaian schools. Below are some of the importance of using the inductive teaching approach:. Inductive teaching is learner — centred and help promote effective learning.
It helps learners fish out information themselves. It has the guarantee to motivate students to learn the structures they are introduced to. It helps students to learn from the known to the unknown and this really helps students to understand structures by blending the old and the new knowledge. The grammar structures are learnt in real life situations and this situational learning encourages students to use the language in a real life situation. It also encourages teachers to give correct input when the need arises. It helps teachers to avoid long definitions they make students memorise.
Based on the findings of the research, the researcher proposed the following recommendations to help improve the teaching of grammar in the basic schools. It is obvious from the findings that there was a lot to be done in the schools with regards to teaching of grammar at the JHS level. In order to help solve the perceived problem, the following suggestions are recommended. The recommendations were put under four areas, recommendation for students, teachers of English language, Ministry of Education and textbook writers. Recommendation for Students. One important issue is that students should desist from teasing their colleagues anytime they make mistakes in class and out of class.
The researcher recommends that students are encouraged to read a lot because this will also help them identify how grammar structures are used. Also, being with the students for almost 4 weeks, the researcher saw that students nicked-named with errors they made in school. The researcher realised that some students were not comfortable with these names so anytime they were answering a question in class and the friends mention such names, they fumble in their responses.
They try to avoid errors. This behaviour really retards progress so students should stop teasing their colleagues so that they can learn the English structure freely. Teachers should encourage their students to retell the stories in movies they watch. These are powerful tools which enhance and develop interest in learning at the JHS level. To add to the above points, teachers should create conducive atmosphere which will motivate learners to learn grammar.
Teachers should be discouraged from reading grammar textbooks in class. Instead they should take pupils through a lot of activities to make grammar lessons interesting. This activity should help students solve their grammatical problems. Recommendation for the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education should work hand in hand with the training colleges because the researcher observed that the procedures teachers used in their various schools, are different from what teacher- trainees are taught in college. Since colleges of education have a role to play in improving teaching and learning in our schools, inductive teaching awareness of grammar should be created to help the trainee- teachers to come out with the requisite skills to teach grammar effectively.
Recommendations for Writers. Grammar lessons should be incorporated in composition lessons because setting grammar questions in isolation would not help students to use the structures learnt effectively. Also, textbook writers should involve enough activities in their textbook and stop defining every aspect of grammar.
In order for the student to have a variety of textbooks, it is recommended that libraries should be opened in all schools. In the language classroom it is expected that students are to acquire knowledge and apply it without difficulty but in the case of grammar, knowledge acquired is not being applied effectively. The mistakes some students make in their oral language and written essays attest to this fact.
There is the need to handle teaching and learning of grammar in such a way that students will be able to acquire the knowledge and use it effectively. For instance, when we teach a pupil how to weave a basket, we expect the child to produce baskets but not to give the principles governing how a basket is made.
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For the teaching of grammar too, what teachers expect is learners will be able to use the structures effectively. Students do not need principles governing the Language but they need to apply whichever structures they learn. To add to this, findings from the study indicated that students lack practice. Practising grammar structures learnt is very important and helps one to grasp the structure easily.
If students need practice to grasp the grammatical structures then teachers have a great task in the language classroom. Teachers must also discourage attitudes like, teasing their learners when they make grammatical error. Again, teachers should try their best to minimize apprehensions learners have towards learning of grammar.