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Maucher A The strata-bound cinnabar-stibnite-scheelite deposits discussed with examples from Mediterranean region. Regional Studies and Specific Deposits. Monograph Series on Mineral Deposits. Amer Miner The methods described here may help to identify particularly vulnerable sites and thereby help to direct limited resources to where they are most needed. We acknowledge that this is only a step towards saving these important records of the past. So far, very little has been done to develop methods for mitigation of archaeological sites in the Arctic, and therefore excavation is the only solution for rescuing archaeological remains at risk.
Excavations are, however, expensive and time-consuming, and there are no designated funds or programmes for archaeological rescue excavations. Thus, we must also be realistic and acknowledge that it will be necessary to prioritise sites in order to focus limited resources on the most valuable sites. Monitoring equipment was installed in at five sites to investigate the site-specific meteorological conditions.
Test pits excavated at each site.
The collected soil bulk samples were homogenized manually stones, larger bones, and wooden fragments were first removed and triplicates were extracted and used for measurements of O 2 consumption. The triplicates were placed in vials, which were sealed using a disc of transparent plastic commercial oxygen barrier film EscalTM , a silicone gasket and a screw cap with an aperture. Between each run the vials were flushed with atmospheric air. Samples were incubated for 45 days in total. The CoupModel model was first calibrated to match 2. Subsequently, the model was tested based on measured soil temperatures and soil water contents 1 st June —31 st July from the four remaining key sites Supplementary Figs 8—10 This was done after adjusting only the meteorological input data and calibrating the thermal conductivity to site-specific conditions.
To avoid any initial instability in soil temperatures and soil water contents, all simulations were initiated 1 st January Mean daily air temperatures and precipitation were used as meteorological input in the model. The validity of the air temperature input was tested via linear regressions with site specific observations from 1 st September —31 st July Supplementary Fig. We used precipitation data from two meteorological stations located in Nuuk and Kapisillit Fig.
The validities of the precipitation rates were tested via linear regressions with site specific observations from 1 st September —31 st July Supplementary Fig. The surface temperature was calculated using an equation suggested by Brunt 27 based on the air temperature. When the ground was covered by snow, the surface temperature was adjusted by a weighting factor based on thermal conductivities of the upper soil layer and the snow density in addition to the thickness of both layers.
Snow was modelled by assuming that precipitation consisted only of snow when air temperatures were below 0. The duration of the snow cover season was adjusted based on images captured daily by automatic cameras installed at three of the sites. As no snow depth measurements were made at the study sites, we tested the snow model using data from the Nuuk Basis research station 37 located in the nearby Kobbefjord Fig.
To account for local variations at the sites such as snow drift by wind, winter precipitation rates were adjusted based on discrepancies between simulated and observed surface temperatures Supplementary Fig. The model regime consisted of a 5. The upper 1. The soil below 1. Water uptake by plants and soil evaporation was treated as a common flow from the uppermost soil layers. Water retention capacities and hydraulic conductivities were estimated from the measured porosity and organic content Supplementary Fig.
The heat capacity hc and thermal conductivity kh were calculated as functions of soil solids and soil moisture. For unfrozen conditions this function was based on measured values hc and kh. Supplementary Fig. For frozen conditions, default values for organic soils were used. For the layers below the archaeological deposits values of hc and kh were based on default values for mineral soils. A carbon degradation module was used in the CoupModel to estimate the degradation of OC with time.
We considered the archaeological fraction of OC to be in the slower degrading pool. The effect of microbial heat production was tested by performing simulations with and without heat production.
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