We can have a variety of graphs according to the characteristics of their vertices and edges. Preliminaries 2. The elements of E are called edges or arcs of G. It is easy to understand a graph if we draw its diagram.

## Hypohamiltonian graphs and digraphs

In practice, we refer the diagram itself as the graph. Usually, the vertices of a graph are represented by dots or small circles and edges by line segments. This graph is represented in figure In a diagram, a line joining a node to itself is called a loop, and lines joining same points are called multiple lines. Diagrams with multiple lines are called multigraphs, and multigraphs with loops are called pseudo graphs.

Also the sum of the ith row of M is equal to d vi. A vertex with degree zero is called an isolated vertex and with a degree one is called an end point 3. Directed Graphs Directed graphs or digraphs are a particular type of graphs with a variety of applications in various disciplines. The concept of digraphs is very much connected with relations and matrices this enables us to apply them in many real life problems. The elements of V are called vertices and elements of E are called directed edges of D. The edge u, v or uv of D is said to join the vertex u to v.

Trivandrum to Delhi ii. Delhi to Trivandrum iii. Cochin to Bangalore iv. Cochin to Chennai v. Chennai to Cochin vi. Chennai to Calcutta vii.

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Bangalore to Bombay viii. Bombay to Cochin ix. Thus E is a binary relation in V. Thus every binary relation on a finite set can be represented by a digraph. Therefore if D is reflexive, symmetric and transitive then E must be an equivalence relation on V and it partitions V into equivalence classes. In a directed graph reflexive relation will be satisfied if it has a self-loop at every vertex. A digraph representing a reflexive relation is called a reflexive digraph. Similarly a symmetric digraph is one that represents symmetric relation.

A transitive digraph can also be defined in the same manner. If D has no parallel edges, then the entries of aij will be either zeros or ones. Otherwise the entries are non-negative integers. Then, the ij th entry of the matrix Mn gives the number of paths of length n from vertex vi to vertex vj.

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Proof: It can be proved by induction on n. The path of length 1 from vertex vi to vertex vj is precisely the edge vivj.

Thus the ij th entry of M gives the number of paths of length 1 from vi to vj. By induction, aik equals the number of paths of length n-1 from vi to vk. Also bkj equals the number of edges from vk to vj. A complete solutions manual is available with qualifying course adoption. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again.

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## Graphs and digraphs solutions manual pdf

Return to Book Page. Linda Lesniak. Ping Zhang. Get A Copy. Hardcover , Fifth Edition , pages.

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