News Programs navigate down. Podcasts navigate down. Features navigate down. Categories navigate down. Newsletters navigate down. Credit: Reid Frazier. Looking out on the Mississippi River from Norco. Related Content. Jewish and Arab women unite to defy Bedouin voter suppression in Israeli election.
USC students work with refugees to engineer solutions for better camp life. Period apps share your fertility data with Facebook. Indian women scientists' lunar mission a 'giant leap for womankind'. Latest Content. Pollution The images and ideas of the Mississippi conjured up by the writings of Mark Twain and others are very much in the past. The Mississippi today is very much a working rather than a recreational river — and is one of the world's most polluted water courses.
These include a number of large agricultural industry plants processing goods for export. In addition there are a number of industrial and refining installations downriver from NO. Boats carrying produce for the plants move up and down the river. Freight trains — often loaded with highly toxic materials — move through New Orleans. Heavy industry is still being offered subsidies to move to the area. There's an ongoing court case about a giant refinery oil spill into the river and surrounding communities at the time of Katrina.
There are many parallels with events elsewhere in the world. Industry representatives, health officials and others will be available.
Anne Rolfes will talk about the ongoing battle for a cleaner environment. Margie Richard will talk of living in the shadow of Shell for years and the long battle she has fought. The People of the Wetlands This vital area is under constant threat — with severe consequences for the whole Gulf coast, its people, its industries, its environment. Whle NO has received considerable attention, the so called Bayou Communities feel neglected and forgotten, their homes and towns are under constant threat from the sea.
Many agricultural areas are being being rendered useless due to salt intrusion. Yet shrimp fishermen, oyster farmers and other are not necessarily in favour of restoration projects — there is a paradox. In an area of high unemployment and at a time of economic downturn, people are anxious about jobs. Though the whole area is extremely vulnerable to hurricane damage and rising sea levels, major oil and gas development work is still going on in places such as Port Fourchon and Grand Isle on the far flung fingers of the Gulf.
Such activity has been given added stimulus by recent new major oil and gas finds in the Gulf. New Orleans. In face of climate change, are such calculations valid? The building of various defence systems has been delayed: New Orleans remains vulnerable, its people remain anxious.
Have lessons been learned? The Corps is a very powerful organisation. Should it be held culpable for the flooding of NO? Is NO working against natural forces rather than with them? Conn, Ltd. Elkhart Co. After several artillery shells exploded near his company that killed or wounded his men and destroyed one of their guns, McCall rushed forward with the remaining machine gun and eliminated two enemy machine gun nests. After the war, he received the Medal of Honor for his actions.
List of Maalaala Mo Kaya episodes - Wikipedia
Fountain Co. In , dam gates lowered on the East Fork of the Whitewater River, which resulted in the formation of Brookville Lake. Residents successfully petitioned for construction to be renewed in and the area became a popular tourist destination due to its campgrounds, hiking trails, and marina. Franklin Co. The largest inland shipyard in the U. Vanderburgh Co. However, according to historian Kelly Wenig , " After years of crushing debt incurred from loans associated with the Mammoth Internal Improvements Act, the state finally defaulted on their payments to investors, and continued to do so for the next half decade.
Hoosiers—because of their insolvency—were attacked from all angles by angry investors and newspapers from as far away as London. The bill stipulated that the state would be responsible for half of the debt, and the other half would be assumed by bondholders, who in exchange for Wabash and Erie Canal stock promised to complete the canal. By , one out of every ten American homes had a Hoosier Kitchen Cabinet. Delaware Co. The mission was intended to be the first manned flight of the Apollo space program. The accident resulted in safety changes in the program, allowing for the first moon landing in Lawrence Co.
In , the Indianapolis Gazette was first published by editor Nathaniel Bolton, who later sold his property to the state for establishment of Central State Hospital. In , editor George L. Kinnard changed the paper's name to the Indiana State Gazette and the paper took a pro-Democratic bent, in support of Andrew Jackson's policies. In , land reformer and U.
Julian combined advocacy of the Homestead Bill with an abolition argument. He stated that dividing the territories into small farms would help prevent slave plantations because they needed vast estates to function. Julian's speech may have hurt the bill because of his abolition argument. Both the House and Senate failed to approve the bill. Another decade passed before Congress passed the Homestead Act. Lucy came to New Albany with the returning veterans of the 23rd Regiment and applied for pension after Congress passed an act for Civil War nurses.
She was denied because the War Department claimed to have no record of her work. In , Disney illustrator Bill Peet was born in Grandview.
Despite a tempestuous relationship with Disney, Peet maintained a year-career with the studio and wrote screenplays, such as " Dalmatians" and "Sword in the Stone. Spencer Co. The operation liberated more than from the POW camp. Among those rescued was James W. Duckworth of Martinsville, a doctor who became the executive officer of the Manila Hospital Center. Six other Hoosiers were liberated, including Lt.
Jarry Brown of Brownsburg, Lt. As surgeon general, he was the first federal official to publicly link cigarette smoking with lung cancer. In , Jeffersonville ceded property to the U. Army with stores. The depot had been established during the Civil War to provide storage for Union supplies.
The group made history as one of the first African American boy bands to achieve immense popularity among white audiences. In , Clessie L. Cummins filed articles of incorporation for Cummins Engine Company with the secretary of state. The Columbus company generated demand for its innovative diesel engines known for their quality and reliability.
During the Great Depression, Cummins engines were introduced on racecars at the Indy, and had a good measure of success. In the post-WWII years, Cummins became an industry leader in producing diesel engines for the heavy duty truck market. Bartholomew Co. The partially-blind former slave from Mississippi is considered the first African-American political cartoonist. The Indiana Pacers were an inaugural franchise and played in the league for its entire nine years of operation. The Pacers won three league championships while in the ABA. The act reduced the Indiana Territory to almost the exact area of Indiana at statehood minus the ten mile wide tract later transferred from the Michigan Territory to Indiana in The Illinois Territory contained modern-day Illinois and Wisconsin, and parts of Minnesota and the upper peninsula of Michigan.
The Daughters of Charity moved to a convent built on the grounds in to make room for sixty-five additional patient beds. Ivy Tech Community College purchased the Indianapolis site in McNutt 's signature achievement. More than one hundred departments and agencies existed in a patchwork of uncertain authority and control. In the letter, Bright endorsed the merchant and his stock of firearms.
After his expulsion, Bright sought to reclaim his seat, but the Democrat-controlled Indiana General Assembly refused to return their fellow Democrat to Washington. Jefferson Co. His first action as mayor was to fire all members of the city's police force, many of whom supported the Klan's efforts. At a time when the elderly were often ignored and unseen, the Little Sisters of the Poor provided assistance.
The Little Sisters solicited alms daily to provide shelter, comfort, and basic nursing care for residents. Their dedication garnered widespread appreciation. In , the home moved to West 86th Street as the St. Augustine Home for the Aged. Governor Noble informed legislators in that a scientific survey would enable the state to better develop its mineral resources. Historian Donald Carmony concluded that Owen's initial survey findings "were significant achievements and particularly so when viewed in the context of geological knowledge as of that time. None of the 1, prisoners were injured in the blaze.
Guards temporarily transferred the inmates to a nearby schoolhouse to await transfer to Michigan City. In lieu of rebuilding the reformatory in Jeffersonville, the Indiana General Assembly decided to build a new facility in Pendleton, which opened on November 19, For his service, the Army awarded Freeman and his crewmates the Mackay trophy. Two years to the day later, in , Captain Freeman died when his BB bomber crashed in Nevada during an experimental exercise. All eight of the flight crew died. His body was returned to Winimac for burial. Pulaski Co. In , civil rights leader and anti-lynching activist Katherine "Flossie" Bailey died.
She is best known for her work to bring the perpetrators of the Marion lynching of Abe Smith and Tom Shipp to justice. Largely due to her tireless work, two of the several dozen members of the lynch mob were arrested and tried. However, the all-white jury returned a not-guilty verdict. Walker Medal in for her anti-lynching crusade. Grant Co. Lake, Blackford, and Benton were later formed from three of these counties. Newton County was consolidated with Jasper in , but made separate again in Voters elected him to the Indiana House of Representatives in and he became one of the youngest Speakers in Indiana history at 29 years old.
During the Panic of , he used his financial position to obtain real estate through foreclosures. During his later years, he developed an interest in history, particularly concerning George Rogers Clark and collecting biographies of Indiana General Assembly members. In , artist Frederick C. Yohn was born in Indianapolis. Yohn illustrated magazines and books, and specialized in historical and military subjects.
In , Indiana University competed in its first intercollegiate basketball game. Butler prevailed Madison Co. Shortly after his birth, Dean moved to Fairmount, Grant County, where he was raised in a Quaker household. Newton Co. While the game was scheduled for Sunday, February 10, a lot of the excitement focused on the second annual Slam Dunk Contest held on Saturday, the 9 th. The contest featured some of the greatest stars and dunkers of that generation. In the semi-finals, Jordan dunked from the free throw line to advance to the finals with Wilkins. Highway One of the provisions of the treaty transferred French claims east of the Mississippi River including Vincennes and the future site of Indiana to Great Britain.
Louis, Missouri while on a journey back to Indiana. Petit left Indiana in September as he joined the Potawatomi in their forced removal from Indiana. Marshall Co. In , Carrier announced plans to relocate operations at its Indiana plants in Huntington and Indianapolis to Mexico.
The decision affected 2, jobs. In , legislators authorized raising funds for a new building, to be located on the corner of Senate Avenue and Ohio Street. The building opened in His train arrived that evening to a welcome from Governor Oliver P. Morton and 20, supporters. He resumed his journey east the next morning, which also happened to be his fifty-second birthday. In , both chambers of the U. Congress assembled to count the electoral votes from New York Congressman John W.
Taylor interrupted the proceedings, and questioned whether Indiana's votes should be tallied since Indiana voters cast their ballots for presidential electors before Indiana became a state on December 11, In the ensuing debate, Indiana Congressman William Hendricks rose and argued for counting Indiana electoral votes. The House of Representatives ultimately ignored Taylor's objection, and allowed Indiana's three electoral votes in favor of James Monroe. Not that the votes mattered as Monroe soundly defeated his Federalist opponent Rufus King, He was born in New York in and moved with his family to Ripley County in An early leader in the opposition to slavery, Harding helped to bring freedom to enslaved people in the U.
He received several political appointments from President Abraham Lincoln including governor of the Utah Territory, and chief justice of the Colorado Territory Supreme Court. Ripley Co. Representatives of fourteen clubs from Indianapolis and other Indiana towns attended this preliminary meeting. The State Bank operated from when its charter expired.
In , Charles I. Taylor served as vice president of the new league until his death in Although the ABCs the name came from the initials of the original team owners and managers Adams, Butler, and Conoyer. The name was later associated with one time team sponsor the American Brewing Company played games as early as as an independent club, their game on May 2, against the Chicago Giants was the first game played in the Negro National League.
In , Governor M. After the settlement of a 43 day labor strike by United Automobile Workers Association at General Motors-owned Guide Lamp Corporation in Anderson, violence erupted after midnight on February 13 between an arms-wielding faction of pro-union workers and a tavern owner. Conditions deteriorated from there. State police were the first on the scene, and 1, National Guardsmen soon joined them.
The authorities successfully turned away a caravan of strike supporters from Michigan, and escorted them back to the state line. The governor lifted martial law after 10 days, on February In , Governor Otis R. By the late s, Indiana legislators enacted laws based on the belief that criminality, mental problems, and pauperism were hereditary.
- NIGHT FIRE by Ronnie Greene | Kirkus Reviews.
- Related Content.
- Profile Menu.
In , Governor J. Governor Thomas R. Marshall halted sterilizations in and the Indiana Supreme Court ruled the law unconstitutional in A law reinstated sterilization and added court appeals. Approximately 2, in state custody were sterilized under state law. He returned to Shelbyville, where he established a law practice. Shelby Co. He served as president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters from to His fraternization with organized crime figures drew the attention of the federal government and in he was sentenced to thirteen years in prison for jury tampering, conspiracy, and fraud.
He served as president of the Teamsters while in prison until President Richard Nixon commuted his sentence in Hoffa disappeared in under mysterious circumstances possibly related to a meeting with a Mafia-related Teamster. Clay Co. Lawmakers repealed the law in during an overhaul of Indiana's criminal code.
With the textile mill, founder Hamilton Smith hoped to make a profit and "'also had dreams of founding a model industrial community on the frontier. When the first wave of workers arrived in December , they experienced a housing shortage, an ongoing problem for workers who had been promised an idyllic community in the model of Lowell, Massachusetts with company-owned housing. The Cannelton mill became one of the largest cotton mills in the United States.
It operated under various owners and managers for almost a century.
Download Night Fire Big Oil Poison Air And Margie Richards Fight To Save Her Town 2008
Perry Co. A lawyer and state senator before the Civil War, Wallace advanced through the Union Army ranks from colonel to major general before his 35th birthday in After the war, he received political appointments as governor of the New Mexico Territory , and U. Minister to Turkey the Ottoman Empire Despite these accomplished careers, Wallace is best-known as an author. His book, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ , was one of the best-selling novels of the 19th century. In , Norman Bridwell was born in Kokomo. He began his career as a commercial artist. Howard Co. This pioneering sanitation experiment was designed to curb disease and pollution and was one of the first of its kind in the country.
Garbage collectors still dispose of our trash, so what happened? The brothers built and sold only two wagons their first year. Sales of their carriages boomed after the war, and grew from 6, in to 75, in With the advent of the automobile, many carriage companies tried and failed to transition from one generation of transportation to the next. Studebaker, however, was one of few able to adapt, and not only survive, but thrive. Studebaker was successful for its first three decades of automobile production, but struggled through the Great Depression. The company rebounded as World War II defense contracts bolstered production.
According to the Smithsonian Libraries, in the post-war era Studebaker "was among the first auto manufacturers to introduce new styles rather than warmed over pre-war models. The Starlight Coupe included a wraparound rear-window and the models were styled with the now famous 'bullet nose. Financial shortcomings caused Studebaker to close its South Bend plant in Production at their Canadian plant ceased completely in In , Special Judge Charles M. McCray for the office of Marion County prosecutor. The game has none better than the Hoosier star on the fast break.
Louis Armstrong recorded a jazz version of the song in the s and Benny Goodman recorded a swing version in the s. She settled in Terre Haute with her husband Thomas W. Harper helped establish the state woman suffrage society in The company led the nation in production of fruit jars by After losing the election to Franklin D.
She was denied and filed suit against the Tippecanoe County election board. By the late s , Skelton had become famous for his vaudeville and radio skits. Knox Co. The State of Indiana previously established a memorial honoring Abraham Lincoln and his mother in Spencer County, but the congressional resolution signed by Kennedy recognized the home's national significance.
Lincoln lived in the area from to and, according to the National Park Service, the Boyhood Memorial "preserves the place where he learned to laugh with his father, cried over the death of his mother, read the books that opened his mind, and triumphed over the adversities of life on the frontier. Senator John Pettit of Indiana delivered a speech in Congress during a debate on allowing slavery in Kansas and Nebraska.
She successfully grew the business and her reputation as a farm expert. Wayne Co. Adjacent towns dispatched rescue squads to Sullivan and National Guard units arrived from Terre Haute. The accident led to the introduction of legislation that improved the working conditions at Indiana mines. Sullivan Co. Citizens assisted police in rounding up the animals. Fulton Co. In , David W. Ballard was born in Bridgeport. He studied medicine in the Indiana town before earning his medical degree in Cincinnati.
Grant to reappoint him after the expiration of his term. Harrison Co. Their luxury cars "sprang into national prominence following their success on the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Auburn Automobile Company President E. Cord acquired the Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Company in In , the two companies became subsidiaries of Cord Corporation. Production of the vehicles ended in They had gone through a battle and had traveled hundreds of miles.
We noticed a great majority of them were young men, many of them in fact mere boys. Many prisoners died that first winter. Over 1, soldiers died at the camp before the last prisoners were paroled in The first issue noted that the "citizens of Bloomington, though generally noted for their energy and enterprise, had not, as yet, succeeded in establishing an organ, in the columns of which, a student or literary man, who had any respect for himself or regard for his reputation as a writer, would be willing for his productions to appear.
He grew up in Jasper and Bloomington before his family moved to Kansas in his early teens. Crandall drew characters for titles including Captain America and Flash Gordon. In its seventy-one years of operation, the factory which became Navistar International in produced an estimated ten million engines for trucks, tractors, combines, buses, generators, and World War II military vehicles. The Bulldogs lost to Notre Dame in what Hinkle described as a "hell of a ball game. You've all been great. The university changed its arena's name from Butler Fieldhouse to Hinkle Fieldhouse in his honor in Knight's gesture of frustration for what he considered poor referee calls drew cheers from IU fans.
Referees ejected him from the game and the crowd chanted his name during his absence. An law decreased some of the penalties, but a law against white and black marriages in Indiana remained in effect until it was repealed in , two years before the U. Supreme Court ruled in Loving v. Virginia that such laws were unconstitutional. Robertson as lieutenant governor, who would serve alongside Democratic Governor Isaac P.
The Democratic-controlled Senate, however, disputed the outcome and the Marion County Circuit Court concurred and ruled against Robertson. This gave Robertson the impetus to try to take his seat as president of the Senate. Fighting and chaos ensued. Some legislators were even seriously injured. Later in her life, she adopted the stage name Marjorie Main. Main appeared in over films as a supporting actor, including "Meet Me in St. Louis" and "Heaven Can Wait.
In , prohibitionist and pastor Daisy Douglas Barr signed an agreement with D. In , Governor James P. Indiana became one of fourteen states to ban the teaching of German to children. The legislation was a reflection of the strong anti-German sentiment stemming from World War I. Many Americans considered retention of German language and culture in the midst of war as un-American.
During this time, German-language newspapers folded, German names of streets or places changed e. That summer a group of commissioners appointed by the General Assembly visited him in his home. After the war, he established a family medical practice at Bremen, Marshall County. Bowen served as a Republican representative in the state legislature, and became Speaker of the House for four sessions.
Voters elected him governor of Indiana in and that same year ratified a constitutional amendment that allowed governors to serve successive terms. Wright President Ronald W. In that role, he worked to abate criticism that the Reagan administration was not doing enough to deal with the AIDS crisis.
He died in One hundred and seventeen students attended classes that "prepared daughters of well-to-do residents for future roles as wives and mothers. DePauw organized a group of businessmen to pay its debts. DePauw also financed a new building for the school. The women's college operated into the earlyth century, when "the growing influence of secular education led the trustees to shut its doors.
The Lebanon native scored those points without the aid of the three-point shot.
As of , his 61 point game remains a single-game Big Ten record. Sick patients struggled to escape the fire and suffered injuries after jumping out of windows. Newspapers lauded Hotel Mudlavia, named for the soothing mud baths offered, as "one of the finest sanitariums in the United States. The family had moved from Kentucky to Indiana in In , women's rights and temperance advocate Amanda Way received a pension for her service as a Civil War nurse. In temperance speeches, Way discussed her experiences working on Civil War battlefields.
Randolph Co. The Michigan City Harbor Company constructed two piers and dredged a channel connecting them. LaPorte Co. In , Purdue defeated Indiana in the first basketball showdown between the schools. The Indiana men did not play their opponents close enough. The Gaithers built an empire through their songwriting and publishing, and wrote more than songs, many of which became staples in the Christian community, such as "Because He Lives" and "I Am a Promise. The disaster took the lives of eleven people in southern Indiana, and even more in Kentucky.
A West Liberty, Kentucky fire chief described the disaster as "the tornado version of Hurricane Katrina. In , Governor Isaac P. In , the monument's cornerstone was laid during a ceremony attended by Governor Alvin P. Hovey and President Benjamin Harrison. The department provided information about the educational benefits available to returning veterans at Indiana colleges and universities.
In the book, he described his experience as one of thousands of POWs imprisoned by the Japanese on the island of Corregidor. He and another American managed to swim to Bataan, only to be recaptured two days later. Steele now the site of Herron High School. The institute grew quickly, fulfilling the Association's goal to "cultivate and advance Art. According to Antioch College, Wilson's social realism was in vogue during the s, but "Where he differs from many of his contemporaries is his nearly apocalyptic vision of the world in which he lived.
She faced backlash for her efforts and resigned at the end of the year due to "health reasons. In , Hoosiers purchased alcohol on Sunday for the first time in modern Indiana history. The Associated Press noted that "For decades, efforts to overturn the law foundered among bickering by interest groups — most notably liquor store owners, who stood to lose business to big box retailers on a major shopping day. Indiana became the forty-first state to allow for the sale of alcohol on Sundays. Thompson got his start in baseball playing for teams in Danville, Indianapolis, and Evansville.
In , he joined the Philadelphia Phillies where he spent 10 seasons. Among his statistical accomplishments: he was the NL batting champion , two time NL home run leader , , and three time NL leader in runs batted in RBI , , When he retired in with a. He also had a career average of. In , at age 46, Thompson came out of retirement to play eight games with the Detroit Tigers. Even at that age, he batted. Hendricks Co. While the designation of floor party leaders was not officially developed until later, the Howard County native is often recognized as the first majority leader.
In , Governor Warren T. The day after the book was declared a best seller, Lockridge took his own life in Bloomington at the age of As secretary, McCulloch "maintained a policy of reducing the federal war debt and the careful reintroduction of federal taxation in the South" according to the U. Treasury Dept. McCulloch also fought a losing battle to conquer Reconstruction era inflation by returning U.
In , President Chester Arthur tapped McCulloch again to serve as secretary for the final four months of his administration. Convention delegates nominated Terre Haute socialist leader Eugene V. Debs subsequently ran for president in , , , , and which he did so from prison. In , Sullivan native Will H. Hays Sr. Film producers hired him to self-police the motion picture industry, which was under fire due to scandals in Hollywood, and production of movies deemed to be offensive to standards of public morality. The code began to lose its effectiveness in the s, and in it was replaced with the MPAA film rating system.
Before becoming chairman, Hays served as chairman of the Republican National Committee and as postmaster general under President Warren G. Harding He wrote, "The fort which I have built is about eighty miles in the Wabash country up the river by which the English have been able to descend and open up commerce with these nations. The place is very suitable in which to build a great settlement which I would have done if I had had troops enough.
It became the second paper established in the capital city. Two years after its debut it changed its name to the Indiana Journal. It was strongly Unionist during the Civil War, and carried on a fierce rivalry with the Democratic Sentinel. In the late s, the Journal established a reputation as a patron for Indiana authors including James Whitcomb Riley, who published hundreds of poems in its pages. New, became a major influence in Republican politics. After 81 years in print, the Journal was acquired by the publisher of the Indianapolis Morning Star.
The Journal title survived a few more months in the masthead of the Indianapolis Morning Star and Journal , before it disappeared in October Gresham , a native of Harrison County, became the thirty-third U. Secretary of State under President Grover Cleveland. A former Civil War general and long-time U. A life-long Republican, Gresham accepted the secretary of State appointment from the Democratic president Cleveland in , and cited his dissatisfaction with the Republican Party. As secretary, Gresham investigated the U. He concluded that the overthrow of Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani was a coup by pro-American sugar plantations.
Also during his tenure, he cited the Monroe Doctrine in diplomatic attempts to counter British influence in Central and South America, and advocated for the interests of U. He served as secretary of State until his death on May 28, His feat remains the all-time single-game scoring record in Indiana High School Athletic Association basketball history.
The Culver Citizen reported "This is the highest score that the team has ever made, and the second highest made in the state--the highest being Sayger continued his athletic career at Heidelberg College where he also later coached. In in Tiffin, Ohio, he organized an exhibition game played under rules that introduced the three point shot.
In , Governor Henry F. Board of Education , which declared the segregation of black and white students in public schools to be unconstitutional. In , Willem Aughe Ghere was born in Frankfort. He later anglicized his name to Will Geer, and became a popular character actor. In the s, he refused to testify before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, and was subsequently blacklisted for most of the next decade and a half.
In the decades that followed, approximately 2, persons in state custody were sterilized under state law. The Terre Haute native became the third player in Big Ten history to lead the conference in scoring for three consecutive seasons. Dischinger ended his Boilermaker career as a two-time consensus first-team All-American, and also earned a gold medal from the Olympics. After nine season in the pros, Dischinger became an orthodontist in Oregon.
Despite tension over issues like forced busing and the endorsement of a presidential candidate, the convention produced a National Black Agenda, designed to extend the movement beyond the convention. The game was held at Indiana University's original Assembly Hall before an estimated crowd of 1, He alleged that sterilization would cause underprivileged groups to suffer "not because they ought to but because of lack of scientific basis for the proposition that all unfit parents have unfit children. In , Governor Paul V.
Eventually the bill passed, inspiring similar legislation in other states. Thompson assumed the position of secretary of the Navy despite the fact that he never served in the Navy, a point of which newspapers took note.