On the other end of the spectrum are the backwoods epicures, for whom gourmet meals are as much a matter of pride as are peaks bagged. Although I find myself closer to the latter group. As important as nutrition is to overall health, the role of diet on a brief backpacking trek is minimal when compared to what one is eating the rest of the time. The basic principles that should guide nutrient selection on a backcountry venture are straightforward and easy to summarize. Neither needs to be of much concern to the backpacker. Although typical camping meals are frequently marginal in minerals such as iron and calcium and in vitamins such as C and B Although it may make one feel better to take a multivitamin supplement while on the trail, there is no reason to do so.
The main reason we eat is to provide energy. Energy intake and consumption are measured in calories. Although this is quite variable, a typical individual might expend 2, calories per day. This should not be interpreted as meaning that an immediate increase in calorie intake should accompany any hiking trip, however. Intake is principally used to replenish these stores. Although participants on lengthy expeditions need to increase their intake to maintain energy balance.
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All dietary energy is in the form of fat, protein or carbohydrate. Fat is the most concentrated energy source.
What's the Best Backpacking Food? - Backpacker
Although modern guidelines for healthy eating correctly stress reducing the percent of calorie intake coming from fat, backpackers probably want to increase their fat intake, especially on prolonged or particularly demanding treks. This is most easily done with nuts and cheeses, as well as liberal use of oils in cooking. The bulk of calorie intake for most individuals is in the form of carbohydrate. While the simple sugars in drink mixes certainly give an appreciated boost.
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Protein intake is less important on a trek. Proteins are a less concentrated form of energy than arc fats. Since water intake among backpackers is sometimes marginal. Fiber is a dietary component that is not absorbed from the intestine. Consequences of sub-caloric intake in extreme environments Instructions to calculate individual needs based on responsibilities around camp and throughout the day Materials Template for calculating energy needs based on RER and activity level Teaching activities Instructors will explain the reasons for increased energy needs at altitude and in extreme environments Students will calculate their individual energy needs using the provided template.
Causes of water loss, determining hydration levels, electrolyte balance and hyponatremia, hydration and cold injury, consequences of prolonged dehydration, and how to prevent dehydration. Materials Urine chart to assess hydration status Teaching activities Students will assess hydration status at least twice per day by evaluating urine samples and comparing urine color to the chart provided in the brochure.
Students will discuss the importance of maintaining adequate hydration and identify ways of doing so, including appropriate foods, beverages, and approximate amounts that are required. Details of nutrient timing before, during, and after exercise Provides suggestions for increasing calorie content of meals and snacks Materials Table describing appropriate nutrient timing and examples of snacks and meals List of suggestions to add more calories to meals.
In response to a brief survey taken by NOLS instructors, four modules and one educational brochure were developed to a nutrition course that can be taught to students in the backcountry setting.
It is hopeful that NOLS participants will be able to apply this valuable nutrition information to their personal lives after completing the NOLS courses. Increased energy intake minimizes weight loss in men at high altitude. J Appl Physiol. Eighty-four hours of sustained operations after thermoregulation during cold exposure.
What's the Best Backpacking Food?
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, , 35, American College of Sports Medicine position stand: Prevention of cold injuries during exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, , 38, Effect of milk-based carbohydrate- protein supplement timing on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, , Howley Ryan, M.
Backcountry Nutrition, Eating Beyond the Basics. Mechanicsburg, PA. Stackpole Books. Kechijan D. Optimizing nutrition for performance at altitude: a literature review. J Spec Oper Med, Winter; 11 1 International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr.
Kreider RB, Campbell B. Protein for exercise and recovery.
Phys Sportsmed, Jun;37 2 Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes. Medicine in Science and Sports Exercise. Nutrition for Winter Sports. Acute energy deprivation affects skeletal muscle protein synthesis and associated intracellular signaling proteins in physically active adults. J Nutr. J Am Diet Assoc, Mar; 3 Effect of high altitude on protein metabolism in Bolivian Children. High Alt Med Biol, Winter;3 4 Westerterp KR, Kayser B.
Body mass regulation at altitude. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Timing of protein ingestion relative to resistance exercise training does not influence body composition, energy expenditure, glycaemic control, or cardiometabolic risk factors in a hypocaloric, high protein diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, , Am I able to explain how athletes manipulate their diet to enhance performance?