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This value can fall if large numbers of older homeowners try to sell houses to smaller numbers of younger buyers. How successfully this transition is managed around the world could determine the rise and fall of nations and reshape the global economy in the era of the post-credit crunch. Two key vehicles of growth are increases in the labor force and productivity. If nation-states cannot maintain the size of their labor forces by persuading older workers to retire later or allowing them to replace the workplace then the challenge will be to maintain growth levels.

This will be a particular challenge in Europe, where productivity growth has averaged just 1. By , the growth in household financial wealth in the USA, Europe, and Japan will slow from a combined 4. This also has an impact on older people, family and household. Indeed, older people's living arrangements reflect their need for family, community, or institutional support.

Living arrangements also indicate socio-cultural preferences — for example, some choose to live in nuclear households while others prefer extended families Estes, Biggs, and Phillipson The number, and often the percentage, of older people living alone are rising in most countries.

Chapter 4. Society and Modern Life

In some European countries, more than 40 per cent of women age 65 and older live alone McDaniel and Zimmer Even in societies with strong traditions of older parents living with children, such as in Japan, traditional living arrangements are becoming less common. In the past, living alone in older age often was equated with social isolation or family abandonment Phillipson However, research in many cultural settings illustrates that older people, even those living alone, prefer to be in their own homes and local communities Gilleard and Higgs This preference is reinforced by greater longevity, expanded social benefits, increased home ownership, elder-friendly housing, and an emphasis in many nations on community care Estes et al.

As people live longer and have fewer children, family structures are also transformed Bengtson and Lowenstein This has important implications in terms of providing care to older people. Most older people today have children, and many have grandchildren and siblings. However, in countries with very low birth rates, future generations will have few if any siblings Phillipson As a result of this trend and the global trend toward having fewer children, people will have less familial care and support as they age Bengtson and Lowenstein This is a real threat to our traditional care system in the society particularly in developing countries.

As a consequence of the global demographics of ageing, the changing societies of the post millennia are being confronted with quite profound issues relating to illness and health care, access to housing, food price hike, and economic resources including pension provision Powell and Chen The past several years have witnessed an unprecedented stretching of the human life span.

This ageing of the global population has no parallel in human history Bengtson and Lowenstein ; Krug and emerged as a new demographic scenario with huge uncertainties. Thus more research is needed. If these demographic trends continue to escalate, by the number of older people will globally exceed the number of young for the first time since formal records began raising questions of the power of the nation-state in the context of global ageing.

Appadurai, A. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Bengtson, V. Global Ageing and Challenges to Families. New York: De Gruyter. Cook, I. New Perspectives on China and Ageing. New York: Nova Science. Estes, C. Social Theory, Social Policy and Ageing. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Hendricks, J. New York: Springer. Higo, M. Global Social Policy. In print, DOI: Khan, H. Hallym International Journal of Ageing 8 1 : 1— Illness, Crisis and Loss 21 1 : 49— Ageing International , DOI: Kim, S.

Asian Economic Papers 6 2 : 22— Krug, E. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Leeson, G. In McDaniel, S. London: Ashgate. McDaniel, S. OECD Powell, J. Ageing and Globalization: A global analysis. Journal of Globalization Studies 4 1 : — Raeside, R. Canadian Studies in Population 35 2 : — UN Population Division. World Population Ageing — New York: United Nations. United Nations Population Fund. Walker, A. The Politics of Ageing in Europe.

Milton Keynes: Oxford University Press. Keywords: global ageing, trends, trajectories, post-industrial society. Introduction The challenges posed by welfare in post-industrial society need to be set within the global context of the demographic changes, the stories by which people live, and the flow of people, technology, money, and ideologies around the world McDaniel and Zimmer ; Phillipson ; Powell and Khan The Dynamics of Global Ageing Populations In every society in the world, there is concern about population ageing and its consequences for nation-states, for sovereign governments and for individuals.

The Social and Economic Implications of Global Ageing While global ageing represents a triumph of medical, social, and economic advances, it also presents tremendous challenges for many regions of the world. References Appadurai, A. Thus, the sensible approach would be to promote fertility reduction sooner rather than later, in case a more rational path to 'development' and the reduction of poverty is effectively adopted.

Paradoxically, this reduction of fertility rates is unlikely to occur without access to urbanization and some type of development. Fifth, a moderate but constant increase in population is seen by developmentalists to be an effective stimulus for throughput growth based on constantly increasing levels of production and consumption. From an environmental standpoint, this is a disastrous assessment since additional people will also have the right to consume. The dilemma is that we already have, worldwide, a much greater number of people consumers and potential consumers that can be supported at middle-class consumption levels by the Earth's resources.

For Smil, it is impossible to generalize the consumption patterns that typify today's affluence to the whole of the human species without irreversibly compromising the supply of ecosystemic services on which we all depend. The problem is not technical progress, whose rhythm is extraordinary and which clearly reduces the quantity of materials and energy for the manufacture of goods. The problem is that, globally, this reduction is only relative. Thus, the overriding issue is that, in this end-of-century development scenario, our ecosphere's resources are being most seriously threatened by the manner in which industrial civilization's model of throughput growth is being adopted on a growing scale.

Population dynamics are unquestionably important in this scenario. However, they fundamentally affect the dimension and gravity of environmental problems through patterns of development and social organization. Even if we had only three billion people in the world, we would still need to deal more effectively with the issue of unsustainable development. One important aspect that has been insufficiently considered in this matter of the relation between demographic dynamics and the environmental crisis is the fact that - at the aggregate level - all future population growth will occur in urban areas.

This trend has various contrasting implications. In cities, people are more motivated to reduce their family size and have greater access to those factors that are known to promote lower fertility, such as education, participation in the labor force, access to services, information, gender equity, etc.

Secondly, the urban population is, on average, wealthier and, consequently, consumes more. Thirdly, the success of future mitigation and adaptation efforts in the face of climate change will depend very much on what happens in cities. In this sense, the trend toward the greater adoption of anti-urban policies in many developing countries is cause for concern. Without a proactive stance towards inevitable urban growth, slums and social disorganization will multiply in today's urbanizing world, as will the negative social and environmental effects of economic expansion.

In light of the above, without major changes in the definition and practice of "development" and of the consumption patterns it promotes, it may not make much difference if the world population levels off at 8 or 15 billion people. One of the sides of the trilemma will not support the pressure and will suffer a breakdown in either case.

Long before these billions are transformed into consumers, the chaos of unsustainability will have been inaugurated, resurrecting both Malthusian and Marxist threats. Of course, if a more sustainable approach to development were to be effectively adopted, it would inevitably contain the seeds of fertility decline. Malthus perceived only the demographic threat while Ehrlich saw Malthusian limits from an ecological perspective. Lam considers that capitalism, rationality and technology can solve the problem. Marx believed that a communist revolution would solve everything.

Obviously it failed to do so, but he was correct in assuming that if the capitalist system did not include the poor and marginalized, social conflicts would tend to increase. We do witness today the multiplication of conflicts, fragmented and dispersed protests, dissatisfaction and resistance. Growing discontent is observable in those sectors that do not participate in the ideology of the benefits of the hegemonic model.

The protests labelled as "Springs Globalization intensified the desire for increased welfare and consumption but satisfied it in a reduced portion of the world's population while greatly accentuating inequality on different levels. Waves of forced migrants and refugees cause bedlam at international borders and challenge traditional humanitarian efforts at the global level. It can be expected that the voices of indignation will increase, in part because the world has never before been as totally connected as it is now.

Enhanced communications facilitates intensified popular responses as well as the formation of radical factions through social media, often dispensing the need for explicit political leadership.

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Information concerning the differences in lifestyles and basic values as well as the depth of inequality are reaching even those social classes that have not acceded to the benefits of this development, creating a fertile breeding ground for revolt. The economic, social and environmental crises reflect a general incapacity to manage the grave planetary problems provoked by the dominant development model. Humanity's greatest dilemma today consists in reducing poverty and inequality in the world without further transgressing planetary boundaries.

The impressive reduction of poverty in recent years, which has also had a decisive impact on the improvement of several other indicators, is attributable to sustained economic growth, particularly since the end of the s. Even detractors of the dominant neoliberal paradigm have to recognize that, despite increasing social inequalities, economic growth has supported income growth for an enormous mass of people while also shoring up the fiscal basis of the public sector in many countries, allowing them to implement more effective social redistribution programs.

In this regard, the optimists who focus on the recent "success" of the throughput paradigm are victorious - at least temporarily. Nevertheless, even the most cursory examination of environmental degradation, of the threats to planetary boundaries, and of mounting social inequality changes this perspective radically, by showing how this development has occurred to the detriment of ecosystems and social justice. Over the last 70 years, our system of production and consumption has exploited renewable and non-renewable resources with unparalleled intensity and expansion. Ecosystems are being disfigured, altered and destroyed at a previously unimaginable pace, while the demand for food, drinking water, wood, minerals, cement, energy and so forth expands in an unsustainable manner.

Economic growth is essential for the survival of capitalism and even for socialism understood as capitalism of the State. Since human needs and demands are infinite and unlimited, both capitalists and workers desire, respectively, increasing profits and salaries. But natural resources are finite and limited and this creates an impasse that no technological development can ever bridge.

As shown insistently by a number of scientists, human activities have already surpassed their planetary economic limits and have inaugurated an "economic de-growth" phase. To re-establish some equilibrium, it will be necessary to pursue de-growth until the marginal utility curves and marginal disutility curves intersect.

Once equilibrium is restored, the adoption of a stationary state would avoid further transgressions of economic sustainability limits. As Mill and other classical economists had already foreseen almost years ago, the stationary state is imperative. Achieving this state before we reach diseconomic growth constitutes our only insurance against ecological catastrophes DALY, In short, we need a change in the course of humanity.

In addition to vigorous de-growth, it is urgent that we reduce inequality within and between countries. Humanity needs to continue reducing poverty, but it needs to focus more on reducing inequality and less on the quantitative growth of the economy. Growth needs to be contained within planetary boundaries, without compromising the Earth's biocapacity or the biodiversity of species. The "hegemonic system of production and consumption" whether capitalist or socialist , does not have the ability to be simultaneously socially just and environmentally sustainable. Consequently, it is impossible for the model of development that we know to simultaneously maintain and promote the Three Pillars of sustainability; in practice, they have become humanity's main trilemma in the 21 st century.

Matt Ridley for a more radical version of this line of thought. What we know: the reality, risks, and response to climate change. Acesso em: 01 set. Secular stagnation: facts, causes and cures. Approaching a state shift in Earth's biosphere. Nature , n. BECK, U. Ecological enlightenment.

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Essays on the politics of the risk society. New York: Humanity Books, Has the world really survived the population bomb? New Orleans: Population Association of America, Sustentabilidade: mantra ou escolha moral? Investors ask fossil fuel companies to assess how business plans fare in low-carbon future. London, DALY, H. Three Limits to Growth. Resilience , 05 Sep. Policies seeking a reduction of high fertility: a case for the demand side.

Population and Development Review , v. Population and development. Rise in emerging market corporate debt driven by global factors. IMF Survey , September 29, Consumo e consumismo: nem sei se posso, mas quero comprar. Ecodebate , 20 ago.

Modernidade e identidade. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed. HISS, T. Can the world really set aside half of the planet for wildlife? Smithsonian Magazine , September Nuclear energy and the fossil fuels. San Antonio: American Petroleum Institute, Theoretical and methodological issues in the analysis of population dynamics and supply systems. Acesso em: 24 maio The sixth extinction: an unnatural history hardcover. New York: Henry Holt and Company, A global middle class is more promise than reality: from to , nearly million step out of poverty, but most only barely.

Washington, D. LAM, D. How the world survived the population bomb: lessons from 50 years of extraordinary demographic history. Demography , v. The west and the rest in the world economy: Maddisonian and Malthusian interpretations. World Economics , v. Urbanization and fertility decline: cashing in on structural change.

The beyond-two-degree inferno. Science , v. Scarcity or abundance? A debate on the environment. New York, London: W. Rapid population growth: consequences and policy implications. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, Population growth and economic development: policy questions. June Global Climate Report. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, July The Jevons Paradox and the myth of resource efficiency improvements.

London: Earthscan, The rational optimist: how prosperity evolves. London: Fourth Estate, SMIL, V. Making the modern world: materials and dematerialization. Global ecology: environmental change and social flexibility. London and New York: Routledge, Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet. Global wealth report Zurich, Switzerland, October Emerging issues in our global environment. UNEP Yearbook The theory of the leisure class: an economic study of institutions. The global economy in transition, global economic prospects.

Washington, June State of the world transforming cultures.

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Washington, Living planet report: species and spaces, people and places. D from Brown University and M. He currently works as a consultant on issues of social development, population and environment. Services on Demand Journal. Artigos Economy, society and environment in the 21st century: three pillars or trilemma of sustainability? Introduction Human progress has been rather slow throughout history, but it quickened at an exponential rate over the last seven decades due to the acceleration of anthropic activities in the post-war period.

The major clashes on population, development and environment over time The academic world of the social sciences is multifaceted and polychromatic. The 19th century: Malthus, Marx and Mill The initial writings of Thomas Robert Malthus aimed to counter the progressive ideas of Enlightment authors such as the Marquis of Condorcet and William Godwin A century later: the fear of a population explosion and revisionism Starting in the s, the perception that a global demographic explosion was likely to occur given high levels of growth in poor countries generated a sudden interest in population issues among scientists and politicians.

Impressive socioeconomic advances and their fragile underpinnings The optimists have every reason to highlight humankind's enormous advances over the last years. The major misgivings that surge in relation to human progress are of two types: Can humankind continue on this same path to 'progress' indefinitely? Can this progress be extended to the entire world population?

The foundations and the limitations of economic progress Peak and decadence of the global ecoomy History reveals that before the Industrial and Energy Revolutions, which occurred in the latter stages of the 18th century, economic and demographic growth had been slow. Technological development and its paradoxes Faith in the miracle of the markets that Simon, Lam and other optimists profess is based, in large part, on their belief in technological development and human ingenuity.

Thus, Enormous advances were made over the course of the 20th and 21st centuries in the utilization of resources and in the energetic efficiency of economic growth. Peak oil and the carbon bubble Since the Industrial Revolution, rapid economic growth has depended directly on the plentiful supply of cheap extrasomatic energy. The environmental weakness of "progress" As a result of the great acceleration of world social and economic progress since , the quantity of goods and services available to the globe's inhabitants has grown enormously over a short time.

The planetary boundaries and the threat of ecological chaos The imbalance between human activities and the environment has increased persistently as shown by the Global Footprint Network Climate change Climate change is the most obvious threat and it has received the most attention from the general public as well as from scientists and politicians. Biodiversity loss and the biological holocaust Despite not having received nearly as much attention as climate change, the reduction of flora and fauna - or, the loss of biodiversity - is another major ecological threat that could potentially have comparably significant impacts.

The unsustainability of unequal development: globalization, ecology and population Social unsustainability is a critical component of global sustainability. Progress through increased consumption The economic growth we know requires constant increases in production and consumption, either through the incorporation of new consumers or by boosting consumption among present consumers.

Increasing inequality and the population dilemma Despite the vast literature on both the benefits of economic growth, population dynamics and the expansion of environmental threats, three critical aspects of this issue have not been sufficiently highlighted: the great majority of the world's population still does not participate in the global society of consumption; this majority has contributed very little to global ecological problems; this same majority is likely to suffer the worst consequences of global climate change caused by the greenhouse gases generated by "development".

Conclusion: prospects and limitations in the generalization of "progress" Malthus perceived only the demographic threat while Ehrlich saw Malthusian limits from an ecological perspective. Unlike Marx who defined capitalism in terms of the ownership of private property, Weber defined it in terms of its rational processes. For Weber, capitalism is as a form of continuous, calculated economic action in which every element is examined with respect to the logic of investment and return. Weber argued however that although the process of rationalization leads to efficiency and effective, calculated decision making, it is in the end an irrational system.

The emphasis on rationality and efficiency ultimately has negative effects when taken to its conclusion. In modern societies, this is seen when rigid routines and strict adherence to performance-related goals lead to a mechanized work environment and a focus on efficiency for its own sake. To the degree that rational efficiency begins to undermine the substantial human values it was designed to serve i.

The work is paced by the unceasing rotation of the conveyor belt and the technical efficiency of the division of labour. When he has to stop to swat a fly on his nose all the tasks down the line from him are thrown into disarray. He performs his routine task to the point where he cannot stop his jerking motions even after the whistle blows for lunch. For Weber, the culmination of industrialization and rationalization results in what he referred to as the iron cage , in which the individual is trapped by the systems of efficiency that were designed to enhance the well-being of humanity.

There appears to be no alternative. Why do we feel compelled to work so hard? An ethic or ethos refers to a way of life or a way of conducting oneself in life. For Weber, the Protestant work ethic was at the core of the modern ethos. It prescribes a mode of self-conduct in which discipline, work, accumulation of wealth, self-restraint, postponement of enjoyment, and sobriety are the focus of an individual life. Throughout the period of feudalism and the domination of the Catholic Church, an ethic of poverty and non-materialist values was central to the subjectivity and worldview of the Christian population.

From the earliest desert monks and followers of St. Anthony to the great Vatican orders of the Franciscans and Dominicans, the image of Jesus was of a son of God who renounced wealth, possessions, and the material world. We are of course well aware of the hypocrisy with which these beliefs were often practiced, but even in these cases, wealth was regarded in a different manner prior to the modern era. One worked only as much as was required. How was this medieval belief system reversed? How did capitalism become possible?

In the absence of any way to know with certainty whether one was destined for salvation, the accumulation of wealth and material success became a sign of spiritual grace rather than a sign of sinful, earthly concerns. For the individual, material success assuaged the existential anxiety concerning the salvation of his or her soul. For the community, material success conferred status. This discipline of course produces the rational, predictable, and industrious personality type ideally suited for the capitalist economy.

For Weber, the consequence of this, however, is that the modern individual feels compelled to work hard and to live a highly methodical, efficient, and disciplined life to demonstrate their self-worth to themselves as much as anyone. The original goal of all this activity — namely religious salvation — no longer exists. It is a highly rational conduct of life in terms of how one lives, but is simultaneously irrational in terms of why one lives.

Weber calls this conundrum of modernity the iron cage. Life in modern society is ordered on the basis of efficiency, rationality, and predictability, and other inefficient or traditional modes of organization are eliminated. Missing in the classical theoretical accounts of modernity is an explanation of how the developments of modern society, industrialization, and capitalism have affected women differently from men. They tell his-story but neglect her-story. For most of human history, men and women held more or less equal status in society. In hunter-gatherer societies gender inequality was minimal as these societies did not sustain institutionalized power differences.

They were based on cooperation, sharing, and mutual support. Where headmen lead tribal life, their leadership is informal, based on influence rather than institutional power Endicott, In prehistoric Europe from to BCE, archaeological evidence indicates that religious life was in fact focused on female deities and fertility, while family kinship was traced through matrilineal female descent Lerner, It was not until about 6, years ago that gender inequality emerged.

With the transition to early agrarian and pastoral types of societies, food surpluses created the conditions for class divisions and power structures to develop. Property and resources passed from collective ownership to family ownership with a corresponding shift in the development of the monogamous, patriarchal rule by the father family structure. Women and children also became the property of the patriarch of the family.

The invasions of old Europe by the Semites to the south, and the Kurgans to the northeast, led to the imposition of male-dominated hierarchical social structures and the worship of male warrior gods. As agricultural societies developed, so did the practice of slavery. Lerner argues that the first slaves were women and children. The development of modern, industrial society has been a two-edged sword in terms of the status of women in society. The family became the means through which property was inherited through the male line.

This also led to the separation of a private domestic sphere and a public social sphere. It no longer concerned society. Under the system of capitalist wage labour, women were doubly exploited. When they worked outside the home as wage labourers they were exploited in the workplace, often as cheaper labour than men.

When they worked within the home, they were exploited as the unpaid source of labour needed to reproduce the capitalist workforce. This was the case even up to the famous divorce case of Irene Murdoch in , who had worked the family farm in the Turner Valley, Alberta, side by side with her husband for 25 years. On the other hand, feminists note that gender inequality was more pronounced and permanent in the feudal and agrarian societies that proceeded capitalism.

Women were more or less owned as property, and were kept ignorant and isolated within the domestic sphere. These conditions still exist in the world today. The World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report shows that in a significant number of countries women are severely restricted with respect to economic participation, educational attainment, political empowerment, and basic health outcomes. Whereas property rights, the role of wage labour, and the law of modern society continued to be a source for gender inequality, the principles of universal rights became a powerful resource for women to use in order to press their claims for equality.

At the time when Marx was developing his analysis, capitalism was still a relatively new economic system, an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of goods and the means to produce them. It was also a system that was inherently unstable and prone to crisis, yet increasingly global in its reach.

Today capitalism has left no place on earth and no aspect of daily life untouched. As a social system, one of the main characteristics of capitalism is incessant change, which is why the culture of capitalism is often referred to as modernity. All fast-frozen relations … are swept away, all new ones become antiquated before they can ossify. From the ghost towns that dot the Canadian landscape to the expectation of having a lifetime career, every element of social life under capitalism has a limited duration.

Types of Societies Societies are classified according to their development and use of technology. For most of human history, people lived in preindustrial societies characterized by limited technology and low production of goods. After the Industrial Revolution, many societies based their economies around mechanized labour, leading to greater profits and a trend toward greater social mobility. At the turn of the new millennium, a new type of society emerged. This postindustrial, or information, society is built on digital technology and nonmaterial goods.

For Karl Marx, society exists in terms of class conflict. With the rise of capitalism, workers become alienated from themselves and others in society. Sociologist Max Weber noted that the rationalization of society can be taken to unhealthy extremes. Feminists note that the androcentric point of view of the classical theorists does not provide an adequate account of the difference in the way the genders experience modern society. Types of Societies 1. Which of the following fictional societies is an example of a pastoral society?

Which of the following occupations is a person of power most likely to have in an information society? Theoretical Perspectives on Society 4. Organic solidarity is most likely to exist in which of the following types of societies? Types of Societies The Maasai are a modern pastoral society with an economy largely structured around herds of cattle. Facing the lion: By Massai warriors. Bookchin, Murray. The ecology of freedom: The emergence and dissolution of hierarchy.

Palo Alto, CA. Carrington, Damian. Amazon tribe makes first contact with outside world.

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The Guardian. Clastres, Pierre. Society against the state: Essays in political anthropology. NY: Zone Books. Comte, August. The nature and importance of the positive philosophy. NY: Harper and Row. The Anthropocene. Retrieved Oct. Diamond, Jared. The worst mistake in the history of the human race. Haraway, Donna. A cyborg manifesto: Science, technology and socialist-feminism in the late 20th century.

4.1. Types of Societies

Simians, cyborgs and women: The reinvention of nature Ch. London: Free Association. Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. Israel: Treatment of Bedouin, including incidents of harassment, discrimination or attacks; State protection January —July Kjeilen, Tore. Kurzweil, Ray. Ray Kurzweil on the future of nanotechnology.

Big think. Retrieved, Oct. Lee, Richard. Politics, sexual and nonsexual, in an egalitarian society. Social science information, Marx, Karl. Preface to a critique of political economy. McLellan Ed. Rose, N. The politics of life itself: Biomedicine, power, and subjectivity in the twenty-first century. Science, Vol.

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Stavrianos, Leften. Lifelines from our past: A new world history. NY: LB Taurus. Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved mysteries of the past. London: Souvenir. Equal under the law: Canadian women fight for equality as the country creates a charter of rights. The Division of labor in society. George Simpson, Trans. New York: Free Press. The Rules of the Sociological Method. Halls, Trans. Endicott, Karen. Gender relations in hunter-gatherer societies.

Lee and R. Daly Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Engels, Friedrich. The origin of the family, private property and the state. New York: International Publishers. The Condition of the working-class in England in Hess, Alexander. Huffpost Business: Huffington Post. Capital: A critique of political economy. Economic and philosophical manuscripts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Communist manifesto Selections.

In David McLellan Ed. Weber, Max. The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Science as a Vocation. Gerth and C. Mills Eds. NY: Oxford University Press. Wollstonecraft, Mary.


A vindication of the rights of women. Macdonald and Kathleen Scherf Eds. Toronto: Broadview Literary Texts. World Economic Forum. The global gender gap report: Figure 4. Image of the T. Eaton Co. People fill the surrounding sidewalk and street cars and horses move through the streets. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Learning Objectives 4. Types of Societies Compare ways of understanding the evolution of human societies. Describe the difference between preindustrial, industrial, postindustrial and postnatural societies. Understand the critical sociology view of modern society.

Identify how feminists analyze the development of society. Living in Capitalist Society Understand the relationship between capitalism and the incessant change of modern life. The language is often highly ordered, rich, compact — but it is not arranged in neat, symmetrical rows The culture as Ghandl describes it depends — like every hunting culture — not on control of the land as such but on control of the human demands that are placed upon it Bringhurst, The Salish Sea as Georgia Strait is now widely known was an ecologically and culturally rich zone occupied by related but unallied peoples.

A group of Moais on Easter Island. He cites Bahn and Flenley: [The islanders] carried out for us the experiment of permitting unrestricted population growth, profligate use of resources, destruction of the environment and boundless confidence in their religion to take care of the future. The result was an ecological disaster leading to a population crash. Do we have to repeat the experiment on a grand scale?