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Thus, it were the technical thinkers download protective relays to psychoanalyze fluids of exclusive postcode, and the previous relation of project icon problems. Hence, this relay has current setting range as well as time setting range. An instantaneous over-current relay is an overcurrent relay which has no intentional time delay for operation.

The contacts of the relay are closed instantly when the current inside the relay rises beyond the operational value. The time interval between the instant pick-up value and the closing contacts of the relay is very low. It has low operating time and starts operating instantly when the value of current is more than the relay setting.

This relay operates only when the impedance between the source and the relay is less than that provided in the section. An inverse-time over-current ITOC relay is an overcurrent relay which operates only when the magnitude of their operating current is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the energize quantities. The operating time of relay decreases with the increases in the current.


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The operation of the relay depends on the magnitude of the current. The inverse definite minimum time IDMT relay are protective relays which were developed to overcome the shortcomings of the definite time overcurrent DTOC relays. If the source impedance remains constant and the fault current changes appreciably as we move away from the relay then it is advantageous to use IDMT overcurrent protection [36] : 11 to achieve high speed protection over a large section of the protected circuit.

It is possible to program customised curves in some protective relays [42] : pp Ch and other manufacturers [43] : 18 have special curves specific to their relays. Some numerical relays can be used to provide inverse time overvoltage protection [44] : 6 or negative sequence overcurrent protection. TD is the Time Dial setting. The above equations result in a "family" of curves as a result of using different time multiplier setting TMS settings. It is evident from the relay characteristic equations that a larger TMS will result in a slower clearance time for a given PMS I r value. Distance relays , also known as impedance relay , differ in principle from other forms of protection in that their performance is not governed by the magnitude of the current or voltage in the protected circuit but rather on the ratio of these two quantities.

Distance relays are actually double actuating quantity relays with one coil energized by voltage and other coil by current. The current element produces a positive or pick up torque while the voltage element produces a negative or reset torque. During a fault on the transmission line the fault current increases and the voltage at the fault point decreases. The voltage at the PT location depends on the distance between the PT and the fault. If the measured voltage is lesser, that means the fault is nearer and vice versa.

Hence the protection called Distance relay. The load flowing through the line appears as an impedance to the relay and sufficiently large loads as impedance is inversely proportional to the load can lead to a trip of the relay even in the absence of a fault. A differential scheme acts on the difference between current entering a protected zone which may be a bus bar, generator, transformer or other apparatus and the current leaving that zone. A fault outside the zone gives the same fault current at the entry and exit of the zone, but faults within the zone show up as a difference in current.

The boundary of the protected zone is uniquely defined by the location of the current transformers. Time grading with other protection systems is therefore not required, allowing for tripping without additional delay. Differential protection is therefore suited as fast main protection for all important plant items. Differential protection can be used to provide protection for zones with multiple terminals [50] [51] and can be used to protect lines, [52] generators, motors, transformers, and other electrical plant.

Current transformers in a differential scheme must be chosen to have near-identical response to high overcurrents. If a "through fault" results in one set of current transformers saturating before another, the zone differential protection will see a false "operate" current and may false trip.

Protective Relays; Their Theory and Practice: Volume One

GFCI ground fault circuit interrupter circuit breakers combine overcurrent protection and differential protection non-adjustable in standard, commonly available modules. A directional relay uses an additional polarizing source of voltage or current to determine the direction of a fault. Directional elements respond to the phase shift between a polarizing quantity and an operate quantity. A synchronism checking relay provides a contact closure when the frequency and phase of two sources are similar to within some tolerance margin. A "synch check" relay is often applied where two power systems are interconnected, such as at a switchyard connecting two power grids, or at a generator circuit breaker to ensure the generator is synchronized to the system before connecting it.

Protective Relays Their Theory and Practice

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Digital protective relay. Transmission Network Protection. CRC Press.


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  • Retrieved 30 December Retrieved Texas Instruments. Russell January 15, The Art and Science of Protective Relaying. January Protective Relays. Springer US. Electricity Council ed. Power System Protection: Systems and methods. London: Peter Peregrinus. Principles of Power System 4th ed. S Chand. July Fundamentals of Power System Protection 2nd ed. PHI Learning.

    Protection of Power System. Technical Publications. Power System Protection and Switchgear. S Madhava Power System Protection: Static Relays 2nd ed. New Dehli: India Professional. Switchgear and Power System Protection. PAS 4 : — PAS 3 : — Digital Protection for Power Systems. IET Digital Library. Understanding microprocessor-based technology applied to relaying Report. New Dehli: New Age International. October Levallois-Perret, France: Alstom. A; Imran, A. Algorithms and hardware design of modern numeric overcurrent and distance relays. Second International Conference on Electrical Engineering, ICEE Development of DSP based high speed numerical distance relay and its evaluation using hardware in loop power system simulator.

    Protection relay settings management in the modern world PDF. Practical Power System Protection. Japan: Toshiba. G; Bhinde, S.

    Their Theory and Practice Volume One

    Fundamentals of Power System protection. New Dehli: Ashok K Goshe. General introduction and list of Parts". Markham, Ontario: GE Multilin. Numerical differential protection: principles and applications. Erlangen: Publicis Corporate Publishing.