Manual Sir John Malcolm and the Creation of British India

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Malcolm, John (DNB00)

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In he was appointed Governor of Bombay. His governorship was generally successful, despite controversy over an unfortunate quarrel with the judges of the Bombay Supreme Court, who sought to extend their jurisdiction beyond Bombay to the Deccan hinterland, newly acquired by the Company from the Maratha Peshwa of Poona. In seeking to end both sati the self-immolation of widows on their husband's funeral pyres and female infanticide by moral persuasion, Malcolm visited Gujarat in February and met Sahajanand Swami, the founder of the Swaminarayan sect of Hinduism, who was advocating similar reforms.

He has ever since been remembered in Swaminarayan literature. He also served as president of the Literary Society of Bombay. In Malcolm finally returned to Britain, and immediately became a Member of Parliament for the rotten borough of Launceston , supporting his friend the Duke of Wellington in opposition to the Reform Bill.

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He bought Warfield Hall in Berkshire from the Parry family and busied himself renovating it. His last public act was a speech in April to the Proprietors shareholders of the East India Company, persuading them to accept the Government's terms for renewal of its Charter. Immediately afterwards he suffered a stroke, and died on 30 May He was buried in St James's Church, Piccadilly.

There is also a foot-high obelisk celebrating Malcolm's achievements on the top of Whita Hill, above Langholm in Scotland.

A History of British India - Indian and British Economic Interests - The Great Courses

She bore five children, including George Alexander Malcolm. Four main themes can be identified. Firstly, India was to be ruled for the benefit of the Company — but also of Indians, i.

Secondly, indirect rule was to be preferred, leaving existing Indian rulers in place wherever possible, with minimal disturbance of traditional methods of governance, religion and social structure. Thirdly, Malcolm helped to develop the role of the District Officer , a small group of powerful administrators with minimal overt force to support them.

Yet, unless we greatly err, this subject is, to most readers, not only insipid, but positively distasteful. Every schoolboy does not know so much as Macaulay gave him credit for. The essayist makes too much display of his vast reading, and assumes that everybody has read as much as he had done.

Presentation of the Shikshapatri to Sir John Malcolm

Montezuma, the last King of Mexico in Central America, was defeated and imprisoned by Hernando Cortes, the Spanish conqueror, and died in Atahualpa, the last Inca, or King, of Peru in South America, was treacherously captured and executed by Francisco Pizarro, another Spanish adventurer, in The crime was avenged by the battle of Buxar in the following year, and Mir Kasim died in exile and poverty.

The Mexicans cannot justly be described as 'savages'; they had a peculiar civilization of their own, disfigured, it is true, by certain horrible customs; and they used a system of picture-writing or hieroglyphics. A harquebusier arquebusier was a soldier armed with an old-fashioned gun harquebuse placed on a forked rest. Macaulay expects his readers to understand allusions to the history of Spain.

Ferdinand the Catholic , originally king of only the province of Aragon, had become master of all Spain before his death in During his reign America was discovered by Christopher Columbus. Ferdinand expelled from his dominions both Musalmans and Jews. Gonsalvo of Cordova, the Great Captain d.