Some methods assume objects with known geometry or fiducial markers are present in the scene. In some of those cases the scene 3D structure should be calculated beforehand. If part of the scene is unknown simultaneous localization and mapping SLAM can map relative positions. If no information about scene geometry is available, structure from motion methods like bundle adjustment are used. Mathematical methods used in the second stage include: projective epipolar geometry, geometric algebra , rotation representation with exponential map , kalman and particle filters, nonlinear optimization , robust statistics.
To enable rapid development of augmented reality applications, some software development kits SDKs have emerged. The implementation of augmented reality in consumer products requires considering the design of the applications and the related constraints of the technology platform. Since AR systems rely heavily on the immersion of the user and the interaction between the user and the system, design can facilitate the adoption of virtuality. For most augmented reality systems, a similar design guideline can be followed. The following lists some considerations for designing augmented reality applications:.
Context Design focuses on the end-user's physical surrounding, spatial space, and accessibility that may play a role when using the AR system. Designers should be aware of the possible physical scenarios the end-user may be in such as:. By evaluating each physical scenario, potential safety hazards can be avoided and changes can be made to greater improve the end-user's immersion. UX designers will have to define user journeys for the relevant physical scenarios and define how the interface reacts to each.
Especially in AR systems, it is vital to also consider the spatial and surrounding elements that change the effectiveness of the AR technology. Environmental elements such as lighting and sound can prevent the AR device sensor from detecting necessary data and ruin the immersion of the end-user. Another aspect of context design involves the design of the system's functionality and its ability to accommodate user preferences. It is important to note that in some situations, the application's functionality may hinder the user's ability.
For example, applications that is used for driving should reduce the amount of user interaction and use audio cues instead. Interaction design in augmented reality technology centers on the user's engagement with the end product to improve the overall user experience and enjoyment. The purpose of interaction design is to avoid alienating or confusing the user by organizing the information presented. Since user interaction relies on the user's input, designers must make system controls easier to understand and accessible.
A common technique to improve usability for augmented reality applications is by discovering the frequently accessed areas in the device's touch display and design the application to match those areas of control. In interaction design, it is important for developers to utilize augmented reality technology that complement the system's function or purpose.
In other applications that require users to understand the focus and intent, designers can employ a reticle or raycast from the device. Augmented reality technology allows to utilize the introduction of 3D space.
This means that a user can potentially access multiple copies of 2D interfaces within a single AR application. In general, visual design is the appearance of the developing application that engages the user. To improve the graphic interface elements and user interaction, developers may use visual cues to inform the user what elements of UI are designed to interact with and how to interact with them. Since navigating in an AR application may appear difficult and seem frustrating, visual cue design can make interactions seem more natural. In some augmented reality applications that use a 2D device as an interactive surface, the 2D control environment does not translate well in 3D space making users hesitant to explore their surroundings.
To solve this issue, designers should apply visual cues to assist and encourage users to explore their surroundings. It is important to note the two main objects in AR when developing VR applications: 3D volumetric objects that are manipulated and realistically interact with light and shadow; and animated media imagery such as images and videos which are mostly traditional 2D media rendered in a new context for augmented reality.
As such, designers can add weight to objects, use depths maps, and choose different material properties that highlight the object's presence in the real world.
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Another visual design that can be applied is using different lighting techniques or casting shadows to improve overall depth judgment. Augmented reality has been explored for many applications, from gaming and entertainment to medicine, education and business. Example application areas described below include archaeology, architecture, commerce and education.
Some of the earliest cited examples include augmented reality used to support surgery by providing virtual overlays to guide medical practitioners, to AR content for astronomy and welding. AR has been used to aid archaeological research. By augmenting archaeological features onto the modern landscape, AR allows archaeologists to formulate possible site configurations from extant structures. Each user can collaborate by mutually "navigating, searching, and viewing data".
Hrvoje Benko, a researcher in the computer science department at Columbia University , points out that these particular systems and others like them can provide "3D panoramic images and 3D models of the site itself at different excavation stages" all the while organizing much of the data in a collaborative way that is easy to use. Collaborative AR systems supply multimodal interactions that combine the real world with virtual images of both environments. AR can aid in visualizing building projects. Computer-generated images of a structure can be superimposed onto a real-life local view of a property before the physical building is constructed there; this was demonstrated publicly by Trimble Navigation in AR can also be employed within an architect's workspace, rendering animated 3D visualizations of their 2D drawings.
Architecture sight-seeing can be enhanced with AR applications, allowing users viewing a building's exterior to virtually see through its walls, viewing its interior objects and layout. With continual improvements to GPS accuracy, businesses are able to use augmented reality to visualize georeferenced models of construction sites, underground structures, cables and pipes using mobile devices. Following the Christchurch earthquake , the University of Canterbury released CityViewAR,  which enabled city planners and engineers to visualize buildings that had been destroyed.
In educational settings, AR has been used to complement a standard curriculum. Text, graphics, video, and audio may be superimposed into a student's real-time environment. Textbooks, flashcards and other educational reading material may contain embedded "markers" or triggers that, when scanned by an AR device, produced supplementary information to the student rendered in a multimedia format. As AR evolves, students can participate interactively and interact with knowledge more authentically. Instead of remaining passive recipients, students can become active learners, able to interact with their learning environment.
Computer-generated simulations of historical events allow students to explore and learning details of each significant area of the event site. In higher education, Construct3D, a Studierstube system, allows students to learn mechanical engineering concepts, math or geometry. AR is used to integrate print and video marketing.
Printed marketing material can be designed with certain "trigger" images that, when scanned by an AR-enabled device using image recognition, activate a video version of the promotional material. A major difference between augmented reality and straightforward image recognition is that one can overlay multiple media at the same time in the view screen, such as social media share buttons, the in-page video even audio and 3D objects.
Traditional print-only publications are using augmented reality to connect different types of media. AR can enhance product previews such as allowing a customer to view what's inside a product's packaging without opening it. Scanned images of products can activate views of additional content such as customization options and additional images of the product in its use. By , virtual dressing rooms had been developed for e-commerce. In , a mint used AR techniques to market a commemorative coin for Aruba.
The coin itself was used as an AR trigger, and when held in front of an AR-enabled device it revealed additional objects and layers of information that were not visible without the device. In , the Bulgarian startup iGreet developed its own AR technology and used it to make the first premade "live" greeting card. A traditional paper card was augmented with digital content which was revealed using the iGreet app.
Apple has created an AR QuickLook Gallery that allows masses to experience augmented reality on their own Apple device. In , Shopify , the Canadian e-commerce company, announced ARkit2 integration. Their merchants are able to use the tools to upload 3D models of their products. Users will be able to tap on the goods inside Safari to view in their real-world environments. In , Twinkl released a free AR classroom application. Pupils can see how York looked over 1, years ago. Augmented reality is becoming more frequently used for online advertising.
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Retailers offer the ability to upload a picture on their website and "try on" various clothes which are overlaid on the picture. Even further, companies such as Bodymetrics install dressing booths in department stores that offer full-body scanning. These booths render a 3-D model of the user, allowing the consumers to view different outfits on themselves without the need of physically changing clothes.
It contains a catalogue of over 2, products—nearly the company's full collection of sofas, armchairs, coffee tables, and storage units which one can place anywhere in a room with their phone. IKEA realized that their customers are not shopping in stores as often or making direct purchases anymore. AR applied in the visual arts allows objects or places to trigger artistic multidimensional experiences and interpretations of reality. Augmented reality can aid in the progression of visual art in museums by allowing museum visitors to view artwork in galleries in a multidimensional way through their phone screens.
The Museum of Modern Art in New York has created an exhibit in their art museum showcasing AR features that viewers can see using an app on their smartphone. AR technology was also used in two of the public art pieces in the Desert X exhibition. AR technology aided the development of eye tracking technology to translate a disabled person's eye movements into drawings on a screen. Primary school children learn easily from interactive experiences.
As an example, astronomical constellations and the movements of objects in the solar system were oriented in 3D and overlaid in the direction the device was held, and expanded with supplemental video information. Paper-based science book illustrations could seem to come alive as video without requiring the child to navigate to web-based materials. In , a project was launched on Kickstarter to teach about electronics with an educational toy that allowed children to scan their circuit with an iPad and see the electric current flowing around.
Apps that leverage augmented reality to aid learning included SkyView for studying astronomy,  AR Circuits for building simple electric circuits,  and SketchAr for drawing. AR would also be a way for parents and teachers to achieve their goals for modern education, which might include providing more individualized and flexible learning, making closer connections between what is taught at school and the real world, and helping students to become more engaged in their own learning.
Augmented reality systems are used in public safety situations, from super storms to suspects at large. As early as , two articles from Emergency Management magazine discussed the power of this technology for emergency management. Another early example was a search aircraft looking for a lost hiker in rugged mountain terrain.
Augmented reality systems provided aerial camera operators with a geographic awareness of forest road names and locations blended with the camera video. The camera operator was better able to search for the hiker knowing the geographic context of the camera image.
Once located, the operator could more efficiently direct rescuers to the hiker's location because the geographic position and reference landmarks were clearly labeled. AR can be used to facilitate social interaction. An augmented reality social network framework called Talk2Me enables people to disseminate information and view others' advertised information in an augmented reality way. The timely and dynamic information sharing and viewing functionalities of Talk2Me help initiate conversations and make friends for users with people in physical proximity.
Augmented reality also gives users the ability to practice different forms of social interactions with other people in a safe, risk-free environment. Hannes Kauffman, Associate Professor for Virtual Reality at TU Vienna , says: "In collaborative Augmented Reality multiple users may access a shared space populated by virtual objects, while remaining grounded in the real world. This technique is particularly powerful for educational purposes when users are collocated and can use natural means of communication speech, gestures etc.
The gaming industry embraced AR technology. A number of games were developed for prepared indoor environments, such as AR air hockey, Titans of Space , collaborative combat against virtual enemies, and AR-enhanced pool table games. Augmented reality allowed video game players to experience digital game play in a real-world environment. Users who downloaded the BitTorrent client software were also encouraged to download and share Part One of three parts of the film.
The episodic release of the film, supplemented by an ARG transmedia marketing campaign, created a viral effect and over a million users downloaded the movie. AR allows industrial designers to experience a product's design and operation before completion. Volkswagen has used AR for comparing calculated and actual crash test imagery. It has also been used to compare digital mock-ups with physical mock-ups to find discrepancies between them. Since , a device called a near-infrared vein finder that films subcutaneous veins, processes and projects the image of the veins onto the skin has been used to locate veins.
Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on prior tomography or on real-time images from ultrasound and confocal microscopy probes,  visualizing the position of a tumor in the video of an endoscope ,  or radiation exposure risks from X-ray imaging devices. On 30 April Microsoft announced the Microsoft HoloLens , their first attempt at augmented reality. The HoloLens has advanced through the years and is capable of projecting holograms for near infrared fluorescence based image guided surgery.
Augmented reality and similar computer based-utilities are being used to train medical professionals. Magee et al. Augmented reality applications, running on handheld devices utilized as virtual reality headsets, can also digitize human presence in space and provide a computer generated model of them, in a virtual space where they can interact and perform various actions. Such capabilities are demonstrated by Project Anywhere, developed by a postgraduate student at ETH Zurich, which was dubbed as an "out-of-body experience".
Building on decades of perceptual-motor research in experimental psychology, researchers at the Aviation Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign used augmented reality in the form of a flight path in the sky to teach flight students how to land an airplane using a flight simulator. An adaptive augmented schedule in which students were shown the augmentation only when they departed from the flight path proved to be a more effective training intervention than a constant schedule. An interesting early application of AR occurred when Rockwell International created video map overlays of satellite and orbital debris tracks to aid in space observations at Air Force Maui Optical System.
In their paper "Debris Correlation Using the Rockwell WorldView System" the authors describe the use of map overlays applied to video from space surveillance telescopes. The map overlays indicated the trajectories of various objects in geographic coordinates. This allowed telescope operators to identify satellites, and also to identify and catalog potentially dangerous space debris. Starting in the US Army integrated the SmartCam3D augmented reality system into the Shadow Unmanned Aerial System to aid sensor operators using telescopic cameras to locate people or points of interest.
The system combined fixed geographic information including street names, points of interest, airports, and railroads with live video from the camera system. The system offered a "picture in picture" mode that allows it to show a synthetic view of the area surrounding the camera's field of view.
This helps solve a problem in which the field of view is so narrow that it excludes important context, as if "looking through a soda straw". As of , Korean researchers are looking to implement mine-detecting robots into the military. The proposed design for such a robot includes a mobile platform that is like a track which would be able to cover uneven distances including stairs.
The robot's mine detection sensor would include a combination of metal detectors and Ground-penetrating radar to locate mines or IEDs. This unique design would be immeasurably helpful in saving lives of Korean soldiers. In combat, AR can serve as a networked communication system that renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier's goggles in real time.
From the soldier's viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with special indicators to warn of potential dangers. AR can be very effective to virtually design out the 3D topologies of munition storages in the terrain with the choice of the munitions combination in stacks and distances between them with a visualization of risk areas. The NASA X was flown using a Hybrid Synthetic Vision system that overlaid map data on video to provide enhanced navigation for the spacecraft during flight tests from to It used the LandForm software which was useful for times of limited visibility, including an instance when the video camera window frosted over leaving astronauts to rely on the map overlays.
In the photo at right one can see the map markers indicating runways, air traffic control tower, taxiways, and hangars overlaid on the video. AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices. Information can be displayed on an automobile's windshield indicating destination directions and meter, weather, terrain, road conditions and traffic information as well as alerts to potential hazards in their path.
Augmented reality may have a positive impact on work collaboration as people may be inclined to interact more actively with their learning environment. It may also encourage tacit knowledge renewal which makes firms more competitive. AR was used to facilitate collaboration among distributed team members via conferences with local and virtual participants. AR tasks included brainstorming and discussion meetings utilizing common visualization via touch screen tables, interactive digital whiteboards, shared design spaces and distributed control rooms.
In industrial environments, augmented reality is proving to have a substantial impact with more and more use cases emerging across all aspect of the product lifecycle, starting from product design and new product introduction NPI to manufacturing to service and maintenance, to material handling and distribution. For example, labels were displayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic performing maintenance on a system.
In addition to Boeing, BMW and Volkswagen were known for incorporating this technology into assembly lines for monitoring process improvements. AR permits people to look through the machine as if with an x-ray, pointing them to the problem right away. As AR technology has evolved and second and third generation AR devices come to market, the impact of AR in enterprise continues to flourish. In the Harvard Business Review , Magid Abraham and Marco Annunziata discuss how AR devices are now being used to "boost workers' productivity on an array of tasks the first time they're used, even without prior training'.
Weather visualizations were the first application of augmented reality in television. It has now become common in weather casting to display full motion video of images captured in real-time from multiple cameras and other imaging devices. Coupled with 3D graphics symbols and mapped to a common virtual geospatial model, these animated visualizations constitute the first true application of AR to TV.
AR has become common in sports telecasting.
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Sports and entertainment venues are provided with see-through and overlay augmentation through tracked camera feeds for enhanced viewing by the audience. Examples include the yellow " first down " line seen in television broadcasts of American football games showing the line the offensive team must cross to receive a first down. AR is also used in association with football and other sporting events to show commercial advertisements overlaid onto the view of the playing area. Sections of rugby fields and cricket pitches also display sponsored images.
Swimming telecasts often add a line across the lanes to indicate the position of the current record holder as a race proceeds to allow viewers to compare the current race to the best performance. Other examples include hockey puck tracking and annotations of racing car performance and snooker ball trajectories. Augmented reality for Next Generation TV allows viewers to interact with the programs they are watching.
They can place objects into an existing program and interact with them, such as moving them around. Objects include avatars of real persons in real time who are also watching the same program.
AR has been used to enhance concert and theater performances. Travelers may use AR to access real-time informational displays regarding a location, its features, and comments or content provided by previous visitors. Advanced AR applications include simulations of historical events, places, and objects rendered into the landscape. AR applications linked to geographic locations present location information by audio, announcing features of interest at a particular site as they become visible to the user.
Companies can use AR to attract tourists to particular areas that they may not be familiar with by name. Tourists will be able to experience beautiful landscapes in first person with the use of AR devices. Companies like Phocuswright plan to use such technology to expose lesser known but beautiful areas of the planet, and in turn, increase tourism. Other companies such as Matoke Tours have already developed an application where the user can see degrees from several different places in Uganda.
AR systems such as Word Lens can interpret the foreign text on signs and menus and, in a user's augmented view, re-display the text in the user's language. The system consists of a central reference axis L with an origin point O. It is necessary to define the orientation and rotation of user viewpoints and objects along with their position in the virtual space. Knowing this information is especially important when tracking where the user is looking at or for knowing the orientation of virtual objects with respect to the visual space.
In virtual and augmented reality, it is common to define orientation and rotation with three independent values.
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These are referred as roll x , pitch y and yaw z and are know an Tait-Byan angles. A combination of position x-y-z and orientation roll-pitch-yaw is referred to as six degrees of freedom 6 DOF. Navigation and way finding are two of the most complex concepts in virtual space especially for VR and AR. It can be handled by either physical movement of the user in real space or by use of consoles for traversing larger distances. For example, the physical movement might refer to movement of your hands and legs for shooting in a game like Call of duty while virtual movement would refer to the player going to an enemy base.
There are a large number of devices that enable virtual movement from keyboards, game controllers to multi-directional treadmills. A single universal interface to navigate both virtual and physical space could possibly be the holy grail for navigation controller design. References: 1. Fundamentals of display technologies for Augmented and Virtual Reality 4. Types of AR device 5. Building blocks for Augmented Vision 6. The Future of our Augmented Worlds 7.
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